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Pumapunku
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Coordinates:163342S684048W

Pumapunkualsocalled"PumaPumku"or"PumaPuncu",ispartof alargetemplecomplexormonumentgroupthatispartofthe TiwanakuSitenearTiwanaku,Bolivia.Tiwanakuissignificantin Incantraditionsbecauseitisbelievedtobethesitewheretheworld wascreated.[1]InAymara,PumaPunku'snamemeans"TheDoorof thePuma".ThePumapunkucomplexconsistsofanunwalled westerncourt,acentralunwalledesplanade,aterracedplatform moundthatisfacedwithmegalithicstone,andawalledeastern court.[2][3][4]ThePumapunkuisaterracedearthenmoundthatis facedwithmegalithicblocks.Itis167.36meterswidealongitsnorth southaxisand116.7meterslongalongitseastwestaxis.Onthe northeastandsoutheastcornersofthePumapunkuithas20meter wideprojectionsthatextend27.6metersnorthandsouthfromthe rectangularmound.TheeasternedgeofthePumapunkuisoccupied bywhatiscalledthe"PlataformaLtica."ThePlataformaLtica consistsofastoneterracethatis6.75by38.72metersindimension. Thisterraceispavedwithmultipleenormousstoneblocks.The PlataformaLticacontainsthelargeststoneslabfoundinboththe PumapunkuandTiwanakuSite.Thisstoneslabis7.81meterslong, 5.17meterswideandaverages1.07metersthick.Baseduponthe specificgravityoftheredsandstonefromwhichitwascarved,this stoneslabhasbeenestimatedtoweigh131metrictons.[5]Theother stoneworkandfacingofthePumapunkuconsistsofamixtureof andesiteandredsandstone.ThecoreofthePumapunkuconsists ofclay.Thefillunderlyingselectedpartsoftheedgeofthe Pumapunkuconsistsofriversandandcobblesinsteadofclay. ExcavationsatthePumapunkuhavedocumentedthreemajor buildingepochs,inadditiontosmallrepairsand remodeling.[2][3][4][5][6]

Anexampleofhighprecision smallholes

Stoneblockwithasetofblind holesofcomplexshape

Atitspeak,Pumapunkuisthoughttohavebeen"unimaginably wondrous",[3]adornedwithpolishedmetalplaques,brightly coloredceramicandfabricornamentation,traffickedbycostumed StoneblocksatPumapunku citizens,elaboratelydressedpriestsandelitesdeckedinexotic jewelry.Currentunderstandingofthiscomplexislimitedduetoits age,thelackofawrittenrecord,thecurrentdeterioratedstateofthestructuresduetotreasurehunting, looting,stoneminingforbuildingstoneandrailroadballast,andnaturalweathering.[2][3][5] TheareawithinthekilometerseparatingthePumapunkuandKalasasayacomplexeshasbeensurveyed usinggroundpenetratingradar,magnetometry,inducedelectricalconductivity,andmagnetic susceptibility.Thegeophysicaldatacollectedfromthesesurveysandexcavationshaverevealedinthearea betweenthePumapunkuandKalasasayacomplexesthepresenceofnumerousmanmadestructures. Thesestructuresincludethewallfoundationsofbuildingsandcompounds,waterconduits,poollike features,revetments,terraces,residentialcompounds,andwidespreadgravelpavementsallofwhichnow lieburiedandhiddenbeneaththemoderngroundssurface.[7][8]

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Contents
1Age 2Engineering 3Architecture 4Culturalandspiritualsignificance 5Peakanddecline 6Seealso 7References 8Externallinks

Age
DeterminingtheageofthePumapunkucomplexhasbeenafocusofresearcherssincethediscoveryofthe Tiwanakusite.AsnotedbyAndeanspecialist,BinghamtonUniversityAnthropologyprofessorW.H. Isbell,[2]aradiocarbondatewasobtainedbyVranich[3]fromorganicmaterialfromlowermostandoldest layerofmoundfillformingthePumapunku.Thislayerwasdepositedduringthefirstofthreeconstruction epochsanddatestheinitialconstructionofthePumapunkutoAD536600(151025B.P.C14, calibrateddate).Sincetheradiocarbondatecamefromthelowermostandoldestlayerofmoundfill underlyingtheandesiteandsandstonestonework,thestoneworkmusthavebeenconstructedsometime afterAD536600.TheexcavationtrenchesofVranichshowthattheclay,sand,andgravelfillofthe PumapunkucomplexliedirectlyonthesterilemiddlePleistocenesediments.Theseexcavationtrenches alsodemonstratedthelackofanypreAndeanMiddleHorizonculturaldepositswithintheareaofthe TiwanakuSiteadjacenttothePumapunkucomplex.[3]

Engineering
Thelargestofthesestoneblocksis7.81meterslong,5.17meterswide,averages1.07metersthick,andis estimatedtoweighabout131metrictons(288,805lb).Thesecondlargeststoneblockfoundwithinthe Pumapunkais7.90meterslong,2.50meterswide,andaverages1.86metersthick.Itsweighthasbeen estimatedtobe85.21metrictons.BothofthesestoneblocksarepartofthePlataformaLticaand composedofredsandstone.[5]Basedupondetailedpetrographicandchemicalanalysesofsamplesfrom bothindividualstonesandknownquarrysites,archaeologistsconcludedthattheseandotherredsandstone blocksweretransportedupasteepinclinefromaquarrynearLakeTiticacaroughly10kmaway.Smaller andesiteblocksthatwereusedforstonefacingandcarvingscamefromquarrieswithintheCopacabana Peninsulaabout90kmawayfromandacrossLakeTiticacafromthePumapunkaandtherestofthe TiwanakuSite.[3][5] Archaeologistsarguethatthetransportofthesestoneswasaccomplishedbythelargelaborforceofancient Tiwanaku.Severaltheorieshavebeenproposedastohowthislaborforcetransportedthestonesalthough thesetheoriesremainspeculative.Twoofthemorecommonproposalsinvolvetheuseofllamaskinropes andtheuseoframpsandinclinedplanes.[9]

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Detailofstonewithpreciselycut straightlineandtooledholes withintheline

InassemblingthewallsofPumapunku,eachstonewasfinelycutto interlockwiththesurroundingstonesandtheblocksfittogetherlikea puzzle,formingloadbearingjointswithouttheuseofmortar.One commonengineeringtechniqueinvolvescuttingthetopofthelower stoneatacertainangle,andplacinganotherstoneontopofitwhich wascutatthesameangle.[4]Theprecisionwithwhichtheseangles havebeenutilizedtocreateflushjointsisindicativeofahighly sophisticatedknowledgeofstonecuttingandathorough understandingofdescriptivegeometry.[6]Manyofthejointsareso precisethatnotevenarazorbladewillfitbetweenthestones.[10] Muchofthemasonryischaracterizedbyaccuratelycutrectilinear blocksofsuchuniformitythattheycouldbeinterchangedforone anotherwhilemaintainingalevelsurfaceandevenjoints.Theblocks weresopreciselycutastosuggestthepossibilityofprefabrication andmassproduction,technologiesfarinadvanceoftheTiwanakus Incansuccessorshundredsofyearslater.[9]Tiwanakuengineerswere alsoadeptatdevelopingacivicinfrastructureatthiscomplex, constructingfunctionalirrigationsystems,hydraulicmechanisms,and waterproofsewagelines.

Architecture
PumaPunkuwasalargeearthen platformmoundwiththreelevels ofstoneretainingwalls.[11]Its layoutisthoughttohave resembledasquare.[11]To Demonstrationofthebuilding sustaintheweightofthese blocktechnique massivestructures,Tiwanaku architectsweremeticulousin creatingfoundations,oftenfittingstonesdirectlytobedrockor Demonstrationofthebuilding diggingprecisetrenchesandcarefullyfillingthemwithlayered blocktechnique [9] sedimentarystonestosupportlargestoneblocks. Modernday engineersarguethatthebaseofthePumapunkutemplewasconstructedusingatechniquecalledlayering anddepositing.Byalternatinglayersofsandfromtheinteriorandlayersofcompositefromtheexterior, thefillswouldoverlapeachotheratthejoints,essentiallygradingthecontactpointstocreateasturdy base.[4][9] NotablefeaturesatPumapunkuareI shapedarchitecturalcramps,whicharecomposedofaunique copperarsenicnickelbronzealloy.TheseI shapedcrampswerealsousedonasectionofcanalfoundat thebaseoftheAkapanapyramidatTiwanaku.Thesecrampswereusedtoholdtheblockscomprisingthe wallsandbottomofstonelinedcanalsthatdrainsunkencourts.I crampsofunknowncompositionwere usedtoholdtogetherthemassiveslabsthatformedPumapunku'sfourlargeplatforms.Inthesouthcanalof thePumapunku,theI shapedcrampswerecastinplace.Insharpcontrast,thecrampsusedattheAkapana canalwerefashionedbythecoldhammeringofcopperarsenicnickelbronzeingots.[9][12]Theunique copperarsenicnickelbronzealloyisalsofoundinmetalartifactswithintheregionbetweenTiwanakuand SanPedrodeAtacamaduringthelateMiddleHorizonaround600900.[13]

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Culturalandspiritualsignificance
ItistheorizedthePumapunkucomplexaswellasitssurroundingtemples,theAkapanapyramid, Kalasasaya,PutuniandKerikalafunctionedasspiritualandritualcentersfortheTiwanaku.Thisarea mighthavebeenviewedasthecenteroftheAndeanworld,attractingpilgrimsfromfarawaytomarvelin itsbeauty.ThesestructurestransformedthelocallandscapePumapunkuwaspurposelyintegratedwith Illimanimountain,asacredpeakthattheTiwanakupossiblybelievedtobehometothespiritsoftheir dead.ThisareawasbelievedtohaveexistedbetweenheavenandEarth.Thespiritualsignificanceandthe senseofwonderwouldhavebeenamplifiedintoa"mindalteringandlifechangingexperience"[14] throughtheuseofhallucinogenicplants.Examinationsofhairsamplesexhibitremnantsofpsychoactive substancesinmanymummiesfoundinTiwanakuculturemummiesfromNorthernChile,eventhoseof babiesasyoungas1yearofage,demonstratingtheimportanceofthesesubstancestotheTiwanaku.[15] Aswascharacteristicofcivilizationsaroundthistime,theTiwanakuactivelyincorporatedhumansacrifice intotheirculture.Theremainsofdismemberedbodieshavebeenfoundthroughoutthearea.Ceramic artifactsdepictimageryofwarriors,maskedwithpumaskulls,decapitatingtheirenemiesandholding trophyskulls,adornedwithbeltsofhumanheadswiththeirtonguestornout.[14]Itisbelievedthat, becauseofcertainmarkingsonstonesfoundatPumaPunku,theGatewayofthesunwasoriginallypartof PumaPunku.[16]

Peakanddecline
TheTiwanakucivilizationandtheuseofthesetemplesappearstosometohavepeakedfrom700to1000 AD.bywhichpointthetemplesandsurroundingareamayhavebeenhometosome400,000people.By thispoint,anextensiveinfrastructurehadbeendevelopedwithacomplexirrigationsystemrunningover 30squaremiles(80km2 )tosupportpotatoes,quinoa,cornandothervariouscrops.Atitspeakthe TiwanakuculturedominatedtheentireLakeTiticacabasinaswellasportionsofBoliviaandChile.[17][18] Thecultureinquestionseemstohavedissolvedratherabruptlysometimearound1000ADand researchersarestillseekinganswersastowhy.Alikelyscenarioinvolvesrapidenvironmentalchange, possiblyinvolvinganextendeddrought.Unabletosupportthemassivecropyieldsnecessaryfortheir largepopulation,theTiwanakuarearguedtohavescatteredintothelocalmountainrangesonlyto disappearshortlythereafter.[17][18]PumaPunkuisthoughttohavebeenabandonedbeforeitwas finished.[19]

Seealso
Listofmegalithicsites

References
1. ^Birx,H.James(2006). EncyclopediaofAnthropology. (http://knowledge.sagepub.com/view/anthropology/n873.xml?rskey=7cf0RS&row=1).ThousandOaks,CA:: SAGEPublications,Inc.,. 2. ^ a b c dIsbell,WilliamH.(2004),"PalacesandPoliticsintheAndeanMiddleHorizon" (http://www.doaks.org/resources/publications/doaksonlinepublications/precolumbianstudies/palacesofthe ancientnewworld/isbn0884023001.pdf/view),inEvans,SusanTobyPillsbury,Joanne, Palacesofthe

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3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

9.

10. 11. 12.

13.

14. 15.

16.

17. 18. 19.

AncientNewWorld,Washington,D.C.:DumbartonOaksResearchLibraryandCollection,pp.191246, ISBN0884023001,retrieved20100426 ^ a b c d e f gVranich,A.,1999, InterpretingtheMeaningofRitualSpaces:TheTempleComplexof Pumapunku,Tiwanaku,Bolivia.(http://repository.upenn.edu/dissertations/AAI9926211/)Doctoral Dissertation,TheUniversityofPennsylvania. ^ a b c dVranich,A.,2006, TheConstructionandReconstructionofRitualSpaceatTiwanaku,Bolivia:A.D. 5001000.JournalofFieldArchaeology31(2):121136. ^ a b c d ePonceSangins,C.andG.M.Terrazas,1970, AcercaDeLaProcedenciaDelMaterialLticoDe LosMonumentosDeTiwanaku.Publicationno.21.AcademiaNacionaldeCienciasdeBolivia ^ a bProtzen,J.P.,andS.E..Nair,2000, OnReconstructingTiwanakuArchitecture:TheJournalofthe SocietyofArchitecturalHistorians.vol.59,no.3,pp.358371. ^Ernenweini,E.G.,andM.L.Konns,2007, SubsurfaceImaginginTiwanakusMonumentalCore. TechnologyandArchaeologyWorkshop.DumbartonOaksResearchLibraryandCollectionWashington,D.C. ^Williams,P.R.,N.C.CoutureandD.Blom,2007 UrbanStructureatTiwanaku:Geophysical InvestigationsintheAndeanAltiplano.InJ.WisemanandF.ElBaz,eds.,pp.423441.RemoteSensingin Archaeology.Springer,NewYork. ^ a b c d eProtzen,JeanPierreStellaNair,1997, WhoTaughttheIncaStonemasonsTheirSkills?A ComparisonofTiahuanacoandIncaCutStoneMasonry:TheJournaloftheSocietyofArchitectural Historians.vol.56,no.2,pp.146167 ^Robinson,Eugene(1990). InBolivia,GreatExcavationsTiwanakuDigsUnearthingNewHistoryofthe NewWorld,TheWashingtonPost.Dec11,1990:d.01. ^ a bYoungSnchez,Margaret(2004). .Tiwanaku:AncestorsoftheInca.Denver,CO:DenverArtMuseum. ^Lechtman,H.N.,1998, ArchitecturalcrampsatTiwanaku:copperarsenicnickelbronze.InMetallurgica Andina:InHonourofHansGertBachmannandRobertMaddin,Deutsches,editedbyT.Rehren,A. Hauptmann,andJ.D.Muhly,pp.7792.BergbauMuseum,Bochum,Germany. ^Lechtman,H.N.,1997, ElbroncearsenicalyelHorizonteMedio.EnArqueologa,antropologaehistoria enlosAndes.inHomenajeaMaraRostworowski,editedbyR.VarnandJ.Flores,pp.153186.Institutode EstudiosPeruanos,Lima. ^ a bMorell,Virginia(2002). EmpiresAcrosstheAndesNationalGeographic.Vol.201,Iss.6:106 ^Choi,CharlesQ. DrugsFoundinHairofAncientAndeanMummies (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/10/081022drugmummies.html)NationalGeographicNews. Oct.22,2008.AccessedNov.4,2011. ^YoungSanchez,Margaret(2004). .Tiwanaku:AncestorsoftheInca (http://westminster.worldcat.org/title/tiwanakuancestorsoftheinca/oclc/55679655&referer=brief_results). Denver,CO:DenverArtMuseum. ^ a bKolata,A.L.(1993) TheTiwanaku:PortraitofanAndeanCivilization.WileyBlackwell,NewYork, NewYork.256pp.ISBN9781557861832 ^ a bJanusek,J.W.(2008) AncientTiwanakuCambridgeUniversityPress.Cambridge,UnitedKingdom.362 pp.ISBN9780521016629 ^YoungSnchez,Margaret(2004). Tiwanaku:AncestorsoftheInca.Denver,CO:DenverArtMuseum.

Externallinks
InteractiveArchaeologicalInvestigationatPumapunkuTemple (http://www.archaeology.org/interactive/tiwanaku/project/pumapunku1.html) Retrievedfrom"http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pumapunku&oldid=556107207" Categories: RuinsinBolivia ArchaeologicalsitesinBolivia Megalithicmonuments IndigenoustopicsoftheAndes

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