Anda di halaman 1dari 22

Introduction to Computer System

Windows and its components Desktop Taskbar Start Menu Minimize/Maximize/Close Buttons My Computer Click either the left button or the ri ht button Multitaskin !i hli ht Copy/Cut and "aste text Sa#e and/or Sa#e $s "rint Command %ew &older Copy/Mo#e files Dra and Drop &ile types with #aryin extensions Create shortcuts !ard dri#e and floppy dri#e 'ename/Delete

Windows and its Components


The main components of Windows when you start your computer are the Desktop( My Computer( 'ecycle Bin( Start Button( Taskbar, and shortcuts to applications) $fter openin an application( you will also ha#e a window with an acti#e application which will appear in your desktop and taskbar)

Desktop
The Desktop is the #ery first screen you see after Windows starts) There you find the folders* My Documents( My Computer( the 'ecycle Bin and any Shortcuts for applications and files that you ha#e created)

My Computer
When you double+click on the My Computer icon on the desktop( it will open a window similar to the one shown below( where you can na#i ate between the computer,s dri#es and Control "anel tools)

Recycle Bin
When you delete a file from your computer,s hard dri#e( it is remo#ed to the folder called Recycle Bin. &iles deleted from your hard dri#e are still a#ailable for restorin if needed( unless you empty your 'ecycle Bin)

To restore the files( open the 'ecycle Bin folder by double+clickin the icon on your desktop( select the file and then select Restore.

To clear the 'ecycle Bin( select Empty Recycle Bin and the files will be permanently remo#ed from your computer)

%ote that the recycle bin does not apply to the contents of a floppy disk) -f you delete a file from a floppy disk( it is permanently deleted( and you cannot restore it)

Minimize/Maximize/Close Buttons
-n the top+ri ht corner of your document are the Minimize/Maximize/Close buttons) The first one when clicked minimize your screen( sendin it to the taskbar) The second one maximize your screen( fillin all desktop with the document you are workin with)The last button is used to close your document) -t is best practice to work with your document window maximized)

Start Menu
By clickin the Start button( in the #ery bottom+left corner of the screen( a #ertical window will come up with the Start Menu) The list of submenus in the pop+up window let you na#i ate and select the application you want to run)

ask!ar
The ask!ar is the row at the bottom of the Windows screen where all currently open applications or files are listed) The taskbar is used to select a file or application that is already opened or to put an application in the fore round) To put an application in the fore round( .ust click on the icon of the application in the taskbar) $nother way to put an application in the fore round when more than one is in use is to hold the $/T button and then click T$B on your keyboard to see all the open applications0 you will need to hold the $/T button and continue pressin T$B to o throu h each application until you come to the one you want to use)

S"ortcut
$ s"ortcut creates a button or icon which typically stays on the desktop and when clicked( 1uickly allows you to start a pro ram or open a file without ha#in to o to its permanent location on your computer) To create a shortcut( open the Windows 2xplorer or o to the Start menu( select the file or pro ram you want to create a shortcut for(

place the cursor on the icon for the file( then ri ht+click and select Create S"ortcut from the menu that pops up) The shortcut file will be created) $fter that( you dra the shortcut file to the desktop and whene#er you click on it( it will open the application or document related to the shortcut)

Ri#"t and $e%t Click


To use the mouse( usually you click the le%t button) !owe#er you can also ri#"t&click to display a hidden menu related to the ob.ect you are in when clickin ) This menu can #ary dependin on which application you are usin ) With ri ht+clickin ( you can operate different functions such as*

Copy/cut or paste a text( file( or folder) 'ename or delete a file or folder)

Multitaskin#
The term multitaskin# means to be runnin or workin in two or more applications at the same time) 3ou can be more producti#e by multitaskin ) &or instance( you can download files from the -nternet while mana in your files or word processin ) -n order to switch between the applications you can use the Taskbar( clickin on the icon of the application you want to ha#e in the fore round)

'i#"li#"t
"ut your cursor at the be innin of a word or sentence you want to hi hli ht( then click and dra your mouse to the end of the selection)

Copy/Cut and (aste ext


Copy is used when you want to ha#e an area of text from a document twice at the same document or in another document) 3ou first select the area of the text by hi hli htin it and then press CT'/4C( or o to Edit menu and select Copy)

Cut is used to delete an area of text from a document) 3ou first select the area of the text by hi hli htin it and then press CT'/45( or o to Edit menu and select Cut)

(aste is used to insert an area of text or ima e in a document by hittin CT'/46 or in the 2dit menu selectin (aste)

$nother way of usin the copy( cut or paste commands is usin the ri ht+click button of your mouse) 7) $fter hi hli htin the text you ri ht+click and a menu will appear where you can select Copy or Cut) 8) To paste you .ust insert your cursor where you want( ri ht+click and select (aste)

Copying or cutting and pasting a text in Microsoft Word: 7) !i hli ht the text you want to copy or cut( press CT'/4C 9for copy: or CT'/45 9for paste:)

8) -nsert your cursor where you want to paste the text)

;) "aste your text by pressin CT'/46) The text will appear)

Standard and )ormattin# ool!ars


Toolbars are rows of buttons and boxes) When you click on a button or box( an application opens or a task is performed) Toolbars normally appear at the top of an application,s window) The Standard ool!ar shown in the ima e below is from Windows 2xplorer0 the standard toolbars in other applications may ha#e buttons that allow youto open a new document( sa#e( print( and spell check)

The )ormattin# ool!ar is used to format a text usin ali nments( font type( font size( bold( italic( and lists) -t is pro#ided in most applications) The ima e below shows the &ormattin Toolbar from %etscape Composer)

Sa*e and/or Sa*e +s

Sa*e is used when* -t is the first time you are sa#in a file) 3ou want to keep sa#in a existin file in different moments that you are workin on it) -t is the end of a workin period) %ote that clickin Sa#e will replace whate#er file you were workin on) <o to )ile menu and select Sa*e or use the combination keys CT'/4S) Sa*e +s is used when you want to sa#e a file with a different name to create backups of a file in the creation process) -n that way( you can ha#e different #ersions of the same document and can return to a pre#ious sta e) <o to )ile menu and select Sa*e +s or use the combination keys CT'/4S!-&T4S)

(rint Command
To print a pa e o to the )ile menu and select (rint. $ window will pop up with options for how many copies and which pa es you want to print) =ther options are also a#ailable dependin on the printer)

,ew )older
To create a ,ew )older( which means a new directory 9a place where documents from the same sub.ect are stored:( o to the )ile menu( then ,ew and select )older from the pop+up menu( either in My Computer or in Windows Explorer. To open Windows 2xplorer( click the Start button( select (ro#rams/+ccessories/Windows Explorer.

Copy/Mo*e )iles
To copy and mo*e a file or folder( use Windows 2xplorer) To open the 2xplorer application( click the Start button and select (ro#rams and Windows Explorer 9some computer ha#e 2xplorer under "ro rams/$ccessories:) Copy or mo*e a file usin Menu command*

7) 8) ;) >)

Select the disk dri#e that contains the file by clickin twice on it) Click on the folder where the file is located Select the file by clickin on it) <o to Edit menu( select Copy 9if you want to retain a copy of the file in the ori inal place: or Cut 9if you want to mo#e the file:) ?) %a#i ate to the new location where you want to paste the file) @) <o to Edit menu( select (aste) The same procedure can be used if you want to copy or mo#e an entire folder)

Dra# and Drop


Dra# is when the mouse button is held down while the mouse is mo#ed) -t is mostly used to mo#e files around in Windows 2xplorer or in some other applications) Drop is the release of the button( after finishin dra in the mouse)

!ere is an example of dra in and droppin a file from the hard dri#e to the floppy dri#e in Windows 2xplorer* 7) Select the file( hold down the left mouse button and dra it in the direction of the floppy dri#e on the left side)

8) $fter the floppy dri#e hi hli hts you can release the mouse button0 the file will be dropped and copied there)

)ile Extensions
$ file extension is the three letters of a file name after the dot) -t is created by the application when you sa#e a file) -t is the way operation systems identify which application to use to open a file) Windows often doesn,t list them when you are searchin for a file( but they are there) 2xamples are* )txt( )doc( )exe( )html( ).p ( ) if( )wa#) !owe#er( sometimes you will want to sa#e a file with different extensions) -n order to do that( select Sa*e +s in the &ile menu) The Sa*e +s box will open) Choose from the drop+ down menu next to Sa*e +s ype the type you want to sa#e) The extension of the type will be created for you by the application) !ere is an example from Microsoft Word*

Some file extensions*


<raphic files* .!mp, .#i%, .ti%, .-p# Word document* .doc "ro ram file* .exe Webpa es files* ."tm, ."tml Anformatted text* .txt 2xcel spreadsheet file* .xls Compressed file* .zip 'ich &ormatted Text* .rt% Sound file* .wa* $crobat 'eader file* .pd%

'ard Dri*e and )loppy Dri*e


-n your computer there are different dri#es* the "ard dri*e, the %loppy dri*e and the compact disk dri*e) The "ard dri*e( also called the C. dri*e( is used for storin all your applications and files) The %loppy dri*e( or +. dri*e( is used when you insert a floppy disk to store files that you want to transport or create a back up)

To select the hard dri#e or floppy dri#e for file mana ement you can o to either Windows Explorer in pro rams or to My Computer on the desktop) -n Windows Explorer select the "ard or %loppy dri*e)
Hard Drive C:

Floppy Drive A:

or in My Computer, select the 'ard or )loppy Dri*e)

Hard Drive C:

Floppy Drive A:

Rename/Delete a )older or )ile


Asin Windows Explorer you can rename or delete a file or folder) To Rename a file or folder* 7) %a#i ate and select the file or folder you want to rename from the proper dri#e 9c*( a*:) 8) <o to the )ile menu and select Rename. ;) The file name will be hi hli hted and blinkin in the ri ht corner waitin for you to type the new file name)

To Delete a file or folder* 7) %a#i ate and select the file or folder you want to delete. 8) <o to the )ile menu and select Delete.

$nother way of renamin or deletin a file or folder is usin the ri ht+click button of your mouse) $fter hi hli htin the file or folder( you ri ht+click and a menu will appear where you can select Rename or Delete.

Di%%erent ypes o% Commputers

Brie% "istory o% computers 3ear 7BC7+7DB7 7D8; 7C;C 7C;C 7C>; 7C>> 7C>? 7C>@ -n#ented by Charles Babba e /ady /o#elace $u usta $da Fin Fonrad Guse Hohn $tanasoff $lan Turin and his team $iken 6on %eumann Mauchly I 2ckert %ame of the computer $nalytical 2n ine+ &ather of computers "unch cards E Mother of computers &irst computer pro rammer <eneral "urpose di ital computer $tanasoff+ Berry computer 9$BC: Colossus Mark Stored "ro ram concept 2%-$C

+pplications, merits and demerits o% a computer +pplications* Science:-Ased by scientists to analyze lar e 1uantity of data to analyze the effect of earth1uake on buildin s and dams for satellite launchin and remote controllin )

Education:-2+/earnin is becomin popular) Computers are used as teachin aid in ma.ority of educational institutions) Medicine and Health*+Dia nosin the illness to monitorin the patientJs status till his complete reco#ery) Asin the computer enerated ima es and results0 they can pin+point the cause of the disease Engineering/Architecture/Manufacturing:-2n ineers and architects use the computers for plannin ( desi nin and drawin the layouts for house( roads( dams etc) Communication:-send and recei#e e+mails( e+shoppin ( e+bankin ( e+commerce( e+learnin etc) Business and banking*+&or numerous administrati#e purposes( preparin salary bills Ased in bankin ( insurance sectors and marketin for online payments and transactions( publishin etc) =nline business Governments:-Ased for weather forecastin ( in military( satellite launchin and controllin ( communication( e+ o#ernment etc) &or police force to search for the information on criminals( crime scenes( dri#in licenses etc) Entertainment:-Ased in music industry( ames etc) Computer animation and colorful raphics with multimedia effect)

Merits.& S eed:-The computers can process data at #ery hi h speed) Speed is measured in terms in terms of M-"S and B-"S) Accurac!:-The results produced by the computer are #ery accurate) "eliabilit!:--t i#es correct and consistent result always e#en if they are used in ad#erse conditions) Storage ca abilit!:-They can store lar e amounts of data and can be retrie#ed at any time in fraction of a second) #ersatilit!:-They can do #ariety of .obs based on the instructions i#en to them) $iligence:-They can perform complicated work without any break for days to ether0 e#en year to ether without committin any error) De&merits.& %on-&ntelligent:--t .ust performs the specified operations) -t does not think whene#er it finds a command( instead it works accordin ly) -t does not possess any intelli ent for analyzin the problem) &nactive:--f the power supply is stopped then the computer ceases to work)

Di%%erent types o% computers)

Di ital Computer Based on technology $nalo Computer !ybrid computer

/(ES 0) C0M(1 ERS

Micro computer Mini computer Computers for organization Main frame computer Super computer

l. Computers !ased on tec"nolo#y&


$igital com uter*+Computers accept and process data in terms of di ital data such as KJs and 7Js Series of D consecuti#e bits is called a byte Series of bytes represent data or instruction 2) ) 9"ersonal Di ital Computer $ssistant: Analog com uter*+They accept data whose #alues keep chan in with respect to time)

Data may be in the form of continuous #olta es( fre1uencies( temperature etc) "rocessin is done on continuously #aryin si nals) 2) ) Speedometer H!brid Com uter*+-t is desi ned to handle di ital and analo computers and hence also called analo +di ital computer) $ccepts analo si nals and con#erts into di ital form)

2. Computers %or or#anization.& Micro Com uter*+-t is powerful( easy maintenance( low cost( unporable) -t is the most common type of "C and commonly called as desktop) They are small in size and do not ha#e lar e stora e capacities) The len th of a microcomputer lines in the ran e D+;8 bits 2) )* -BM "C( "S/8 Mini com uter*+Computers with capabilities intermediate of that between main frame and micro computers) !ence called mid+ran e computers) Word len th is ;8 bits -t is used by small and mid+size business or anizations) Main frame com uter:--t is more powerful than micro computers and their word len th size is >D(@K or @> bits They ha#e hi h processin speeds and can store lar e amounts of data They are used in research or anizations( lar e industries( and lar e business and o#ernment or anizations They consume more electricity 2) )* -BM ;KKK series( A%-6$C 77DK Su er com uters*+Computers that are used for scientific and en ineerin applications) Word len th is @>+C@ bit) They can handle #ery lar e data bases or a reat amount of data computation) They can perform one trillion operations per second) Ased in the field of science and defense( desi nin and launchin missiles( weather forecastin ( biomedical research !i hest processin speed for at a i#en time) 2) * C'$3+;( !-T$C S+;KK