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Port & Harbor Engineering

Radianta Triatmadja
Lecture note 2
Ship Movement
• swaying (swinging),
• yawing (a. to swing back and forth across its course, as a ship pushed
by high waves or b. to swing to the left or right on the vertical axis so that
the longitudinal axis forms an angle with the line of flight; esp., to rotate or
oscillate about the vertical axis: said of a projectile, aircraft, spacecraft, etc.)

• pitching (to plunge or toss with the bow and stern rising and falling
abruptly: said of a ship )

• rolling (due to wave)


• heaving (moving up and down, due to wave)
• squat (due to ship movement)
Ship Movement

Heaving and
Squating

swaying yawing

Pitching

rolling
Harbor’s Main Facilities
• Waterway
The Waterway serve as the road for the vessel to enter the harbor. A harbor
may be located in a shallower water than vessel’s draft. For this reason the
area should be dredged for harbor basin. Consequently, to enable a vessel
to arrive in the basin, certain area should be dredged connecting the basin
with the deeper water.
Waterway

Deeper
Harbor
water
basin
Harbor’s Main Facilities
• Waterway
The Waterway should be designed so that it performs well to serve the
traffic. Some factors that may affect the ability of vessels to go through
the channel are as follows:
2. Width (channel and the ship)
3. Length (channel and the ship)
4. Depth (channel) Weight (the ship),
Waterway
5. Speed (the ship)
6. Wind
7. Waves
Principle of Waterway Planning

1. Waterway should allow safe and smooth use of ship movement.


2. Waterway should be kept calm, must be provided with facilities to
prevent unwanted influence by waves.
3. Waterway should be facilitated with facilities to prevent sedimentation
or otherwise regular maintenance is required.
4. Waterways should be designed so that the slope is stable.
Principle of Waterway Planning
Lay out of waterway
1. Intersection angle should less than 30o
2. When an intersection is > 30o, the centerline of the curve should be
circular with R > 4 times the length of the ship.
3. The above principles are not apply for ships of high turning capability
such as motor boat, yacht, and if sufficient traffic control, marks and
signals are provided.

R=4L
Principle of Waterway Planning

< 30o
Principle of Waterway Planning

> 30o
Principle of Waterway Planning
Lay out of waterway
1. It is better to have one long curve rather than many short curves.
2. If dredging can be done easily and relatively cheap, a straight waterway
is better.

R=4L
The Width of Waterway
In designing the width of the Waterway, one should
remember that
• Waterway is not visible above water
• waves and current may divert ships from their courses
• changing the direction of a ship is not as easy as
changing the direction of a car
• It takes more time to change the speed of a ship

Width (channel, ship), Length (channel, ship), Depth, Weight (ship), Speed (ship), Wind, Waves
Can you see any waterway ??
Ships navigation

n
t io
c
d ire
d
in
W

Harbor
The Width of Waterway
The above reason suggests that the width of a Waterway
should be relatively wider than normal road needed for
land transportation.
In fact, in some reference the width of the channel is at
least equals the length of the ship (which normally > 5
times the width). For comparison the width of two way
traffic of land transportation is less than 8 m or less than
twice that of normal vehicle.

Width (channel, ship), Length (channel, ship), Depth, Weight (ship), Speed (ship), Wind, Waves
Principle of Waterway Planning
Width of waterway
1. Standard waterway (OCDI)

Length of Waterway Condition of Navigation Width

Relatively long Ships pass each other 2L


waterways frequently
Ships pass each other 1.5 L
infrequently
Waterways other than Ships pass each other 1.5 L
above frequently
Ships pass each other L
infrequently

Width (channel, ship), Length (channel, ship), Depth, Weight (ship), Speed (ship), Wind, Waves
Principle of Waterway Planning
Width of waterway
1. Standard waterway (comparison between OCDI and Per Brunn)

Length of Waterway Condition of Navigation Width

Relatively long Ships pass each other 2 L/ 7.6B


waterways frequently
Ships pass each other 1.5 L
infrequently
Waterways other than Ships pass each other 1.5 L
above frequently
Ships pass each other L/ 4.8 B
infrequently

Normal L/B > 5


Ratio between Width and Length of
Bulk ships
350
y = 7.5432x
Ship Length (meter)

300
R2 = 0.6607
250

200

150

100

50

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Ship Width (meter)

L>7B
Ratio between Width and Length of
Passenger ships
350

300 y = 8.46x
R2 = 0.7844
Ship Length (meter)

250

200

150

100

50

0
0 10 20 30 40

Ship Width (meter)

L>8B
Ratio between Width and Length of
General Cargo ships
200
180
y = 7.3719x
160
R2 = 0.6431
Ship Length (meter)

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Ship Width (meter)

L>7B
• The Width of waterways according to
Brunn is the minimum requirement. For
design purpose use OCDI standard.

OCDI Per Brunn


The effect of Wind and Current
• The Width of waterways according to
Brunn is the minimum requirement. For
design purpose use OCDI standard.

OCDI Per Brunn


Principle of Waterway Planning
Width of waterway.
The cross section of waterway

Ship
Sloping to ensure
slope stability

Width = B
Should not
be counted
for
Width (channel, ship), Length (channel, ship), Depth, Weight (ship), Speed (ship), Wind, Waves
Principle of Waterway Planning
Design the layout of waterway by considering minimal dredging, ease and
safety of navigation. The required width of the waterway 15 meter. The
length of the largest ship is 200 m. (please note that there are many
alternatives)

Water depth

10 t ion
irec
15 d
h ip
g S15
in
om harbor
n c 10
I
5 200 m
Scale:
• PIANC : Permanent International
Association of Navigational Congresses