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v w = design capacity of the fillet weld per unit length V f = design shear capacity of the base plate transferred

by means of friction V s = design shear capacity of the shear key V s.c = concrete bearing capacity of the shear key -out capacity of the concrete V = pullV s.b = shear capacity of the shear key based on its section moment capacity V s.w = shear capacity of the weld between the shear key and the base plate V w = design shear capacity of the weld connecting the base plate to the column = ratio depth and width of column = coefficient of friction

There is a large variety of drilled-in anchors available, many of which are proprietary bolts whose installation and design is governed by manufacturers specifications. References [2], [15], [17], [31] and [33] contain information on these types of anchors. This paper deals only with cast-in-place anchors, and specifically hooked bars, anchor bolts with a head and threaded rods with a nut/washer/plate. Grade 4.6 anchor bolts are recommended to be utilised in base plate applications.


Typical base plates considered in this paper are formed by one unstiffened plate only as shown in Fig. 3. For highly loaded columns or larger structures other base plate solutions or more elaborate anchor bolt systems might be required. Guidelines for the design and detailing of more complex base plates can be found in [4], [13], [14], [16] and [34]. Two types of anchor bolts are usually used, which are cast-in-place or drilled-in bolts. The former are placed before the placing of the concrete or while the concrete is still fresh while the latter are inserted after the concrete has fully hardened. Different types of cast-in-place anchors are shown in in Fig. 2. These include anchor bolts with a head, threaded rods with nut, threaded rods with a plate washer, hooked bars or U-bolts. These are suitable for small to medium size structures considering anchor bolts up to 30 mm in diameter. sp


Figure 3

Typical unstiffened base plate (Ref. [26])


The literature review presented covers only models regarding the design of the actual steel plate as the anchor bolts do not contribute to the strength of the connection under this loading condition. Unless special confinement reinforcement is provided the maximum bearing strength of the concrete f b is calculated in accordance with Clause 12.3 of AS 3600 [10] as follows: f b = min 0.85f c

(a) Hooked Bar

(b) Bolt with head

(c) Threaded Rod with Nut

A2 , 2f c A1


(d) Threaded rod with plate washer Fillet welds Square plate (e) U-Bolt

Figure 2

Common Forms of Holding Down Bolts (Ref. [26])

where: = 0.6 f b = maximum bearing capacity of the concrete based on a certain bearing area A 1 f c = characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days A 1 = bearing area which varies depending upon the assumed pressure distribution between the base plate and the grout/concrete A 2 = supplementary area which is the largest area of the supporting concrete surface that is geometrically similar to and concentric to A 1