Anda di halaman 1dari 18

WhichExclusiveRightInfringed? 106(1)reproduction 106(2)derivative Copyrightablematerial? 106(3)distribution Excluded: FirstSaleDoctrine Factsanddiscoveries RentalExpectation Compilations,Feist (telephonebook) Importation Historicalinterpretationoffacts,A.A.Hoehling Bought,relabeled,resold, Leev.

sold, Leev.ART Portrayedasfact, Nashv.CBS 106(4)publicperformance Abstractideas Homestyleexception Commonthemes,Nicholsv.Universal (Jewishfamily) Businessexception Characters,MGMv.Honda (JamesBond) 106(5)publicdisplay Functionalworks Homestyleexception Systems,processes,methods,Bakerv.Seldon Businessexception (systemofbookkeeping) 106(6)digitalaudiotransmission MergerDoctrineOK Usefularticles ProvingInfringement: Mechanicalorutilitarian,Mazerv.Stein (lamp) Ownership SeparableOK,PivotPoint (mannequin) Copyinginfact Wordsandshortphrases Access

IssueChecklist

Validcopyright? Notfixedb/c: Spokenwordsatseminar,Fritzv.ArthurD.Little Copiedinbuffer,CartoonNetwork LoadedinRAM,MAI overruledbyDMCA LiveperformanceOK,17USC1101;18USC2319A Videogame'schangingscreenOK,WilliamsElectronics Notoriginalb/c: Notindependentcreation Authornothuman Useofdevice(i.e.camera)OK Nocreativityb/c: Deminimis,DonaldsonLitho Onlytrivialsize&materialchanges,L.Batlin&Son (UncleSamBank) ComplieswithFormalities? Nonoticebefore1/1/78: Generalorlimitedpublication Performanceorpublicdisplay Nonotice1/1/78to3/1/89: Notcuredwithin5years Performanceorpublicdisplay Noticemissing,year,ownername Noregistration=nostandinginfed.court,statutorydamages, attorney'sfees Registeredbutforgotdeposit

Probativesimilarity Improperappropriation Verbatimcopying Substantialsimilarity FairUseDefense? Purposeandcharacterofuse Commercialuse Parodyortransformativeuse Productiveuse Natureofcopyrightedwork Copyingsoftwarenecessarytoaccess unprotectedfeatures Amountcopied Effectonmarket SecondaryLiability? Nodirect,thusnosecondary Vicarious Supervisingorcontrolover Financialinterest Contributory Knowledge Causesorcontributesorinduces DMCAsafeharborsforonlineserviceproviders DMCAdeviceliability Purposetocircumvent Noothercommercialuse Marketedtocircumvent Reverseengineeringexception Remedies? Injunction Damages Actuallosses Infringer'sprofits Statutory Attorney'sfees

WhoOwnstheCopyright? Jointowner Workforhire Employee Commissioned Governmentwork Transfers Duration Renewal

Outline
FIXATION
CopyrightProtection102(a): Tobecopyrightable,aworkmustbe fixed 102 inatangiblemedium ofexpression,andthisembodimentinacopyorphonorecord isarelatively stableandpermanent embodimentmadebytheauthor orsomeoneunderherauthorization Theword"fixed"comesupinbothestablishingrightsandinprotectionforseveralreasons: 1. Writtenevidenceisrequired easiertoprove,i.e.SoFforcontracts,etc 2. Fixationaidsdisseminationandpreservation,promotestheprogressofsciencetothe public 3. Letsauthorsknowifalicenseisneeded Copies101: arematerialobjectsotherthanphonorecordsinwhichaworkisfixedbyany methodnotknownorlaterdeveloped,fromwhichtheworkcanbeperceived,reproduced,or otherwisecommunicated,eitherdirectlyorwiththeaidofamachineordevice Phonorecords101: arematerialobjectsinwhichsounds,otherthanthoseaccompanyinga motionpictureorotheraudiovisualwork,arefixedbyanymethodnowknownorlater developed,andfromwhichthesoundscanbeperceived,reproduced,orotherwise communicated,eitherdirectlyorwiththeaidofamachineordevice. LiveBroadcasts101: Livebroadcastsare"fixed"ifsimultaneouslytransmittedtoaplace beyondwheretheyarebeingrecorded DEFENSE:IFDEFENDANTDIDN'TMAKEACOPYBYFIXINGIT,NOINFRINGEMENT See Fritzv.ArthurD.Little ("original"wordsspokenaloudataseminarcanbecopiedand independentlycopyrightedbyall,iftheynotpreviouslyfixed) See CartoonNetworkv.CSCHoldings (buffering=/=fixedb/c 1.2secondsisembodiedonlyfora "transitory"period,andthusdidNOTviolateplaintiffs'exclusiverightofproduction) Butsee MAISystemsCorp.v.PeakComputer (loadingcopyrightedsoftwareintoRAMqualifies asfixationbecausetheprogramiswrittenintotheRAM untilthecomputeristurnedoff) Counterargument isthatloadingsoftwareintoRAMisequaltoskywriting,orwritinga poeminsandoronfrostofawindowpane TheDigitalMillenniumCopyrightActof1998overrulesMAI LiveMusicalPerformances: FixationrequirementoffederalcopyrightwasaproblemuntiltheUruguayRoundAgreements Actprovidedcivilandcriminalremediestocombatbootlegcopiesofliveperformances 17USC1101: providesacivilcauseofaction foraperformerwhoseperformancewas recordedwithoutherconsent 18USC2319A: providescriminalremedies tothegovernment See USv.Martignon (18USC2319AdidnotviolatetheCopyrightClauseandwasavalid exerciseofCongress'powerundertheCommerceClause) VideoGames: See WilliamsElectronicsv.ArticInternational playerchangingoutputtoscreendoesnotprevent fixationb/ctheworkdoesnothavetobewrittendownexactlyastheeyeperceivedit Allthatisnecessaryisthattheworkiscapableofbeingperceivedwiththeaidofa machineordevice

ORIGINALITY
Originality: AccordingtotheSupremeCourtinFeistPublications,thetwo"sinequanon ofcopyright" requirementsoforiginality are: 1. Independentcreation: Independentlycreatedworkisoriginal(evenifstronglyresemblinganother),aslongnot copiedfromanother "Authorship"impliesthatahuman musthavecreatedthework(i.e. avideofroma securitycameraordesignpatternproducedbyamechanicalprocessarenot copyrightable) 2. Modestquantumofcreativity: Theworkmustalsohaveademinimis amountofcreativeauthorship,see Bleisteinv. DonaldsonLithographingCo.(courtswillnotmakeaestheticdecisionsindecidingwhat hasartisticmerit) Butsee L.Batlin&Son,Inc.v.Snyder (theplasticcopyoftheUncleSamBank,whichwas inpublicdomain,NOTcopyrightableb/c onlytrivialdifferences minorchangesinsize, andmaterial=/=original) Nocopyrightonthemediumofexpression(plastic derivativework ofametalthing) Greattechnicalskill doesnotmakeupforlackofcreativity Butseealso Pruntev.UniversalMusicGroup,Inc. (nocopyrightonslogans andshorts phrases b/cnocreativity) OriginalityUsingaDevice/Photographs: Anauthormayuseadevice inacreativewaytoproducean originalwork,BurrowGilesLithographic;thethreeelementsforjudgingoriginalityofaphotograph: [1] rendition,[2] timing,[3] creationofsubject See Mannionv.CoorsBrewingCompany (copyrightprotectsonlytheimagebutnotidea otherscanphotographingthesameobjectorscene) Goaheadandtrytogetapictureofthefishinbear'smouth Butifthephotographercreatesthesubject,thencopyrightable

SUBJECTMATTEREXCLUDEDFROMCOPYRIGHT
ExclusionstoCopyright102(b): Innocasedoescopyrightprotectionforanoriginalworkofauthorshipextendtoanyidea, procedure,process,system,methodofoperation,concept,principle,ordiscovery,regardlessof theforminwhichitisdescribed,explained,illustrated,orembodiedinsuchwork. Fourdistinctcategoriesofnoncopyrightableworks: 1. FactsandDiscoveries: arenotcreated,onlydiscoveredbytheauthor Compare Feist (factualinformation,i.e.,phonenumbers,addresses,andnameslistedin alphabeticalorder, lackedtherequisiteoriginality) Compilations copyrightableonlyiftheauthoraddscreativityinthe selection, coordination,andarrangement ofthedata With CCCInfo.Servs.v.MacLeanHunterMkt.Reports (copyrightOKb/cthe"Redbook" containedmorethanjustcompilationsofdata,b/citcontained predictionsbasedon professionaljudgment) Seealso A.A.Hoehlingv.UniversalCityStudios,Inc. (historicalinterpretationoffacts NOT copyrightable) HistoricalFacts areNOToriginalworksofauthorshipb/cthefactsarenotcreated,only discoveredandrecorded See Nashv.CBS (totallyfictionalstoryofDillingerNOTcopyrightableb/ctheauthor portrayedhisworkasrealhistoryfact) 2. AbstractIdeas: toproveinfringement,thecopyrightownermustshowtheallegedinfringertookmore thananabstractideafromhiswork,butcopiedtheexpressionofthatidea See Nicholsv.UniversalPicturesCorp.(NOinfringementoncommonthemeoffamilyand

marriagestruggleinJewishfamily) J.LearnedHand: 2steptest concerningfictionalcharactersinliterature:hastheinfringer takenthe[1] expressivedetails of[2] anadequatelydelineatedcharacter ratherthanthe generalabstractideaofacharacter? Seealso MetroGoldwynMayer,Inc.v.AmericanHondaMotorCo. (JamesBond protectedby copyrightbecausethecarcommercialrenderedthetwo visual workssubstantiallysimilar) Doesthecharacter"constitutethestorybeingtold?"(collapsesprotectionofcharacter intoprotectionofplot) 3. FunctionUses: oflanguage,graphicsareNOTcopyrightableversusexpressiveuses FunctionalWorks carryoutspecifictasksandarenotcopyrightablebecause102(b)precludes copyrightprotectionfor"systems,process,andmethodsofoperation"(i.e. architecturalplans andstandardlegalforms) See Bakerv.Seldon (systemofbookkeeping NOTcopyrightable,shouldgetapatent) MergerDoctrine: butiftheunderlyingidea(orsystem,process,ormethodofoperation) caneffectivelybeexpressedinonlyoneway,theideaandexpressionaresaidtohave "merged"andtheworkisNOTcopyrightable UsefulArticles: worksembodiedinusefulobjectscanbegrantedcopyrighttotheir form,but NOTthemechanicalorutilitarianfeatures See Mazerv.Stein (usingstatuettesaslampbasesisOKforcopyrightprotection) Separability: iftheartcanbe physicallyorconceptually identifiedasseparatefromthe utilitarianaspectsofthearticle,thedesign iscopyrightable Conceptualseparability inartiswhen [1] anoriginalpictorial,graphic,orsculptural elementisincorporatedphysicallyintoanusefularticle but[2] theelementis not dictatedbythefunction oftheusefularticle. See PivotPointInt.v.CharleneProducts (mannequincopyrightable) [1] Sculpturalfeaturesalsoidentifiedandcapableofexistingindependentlyof itsutilitarianaspects [2] Designwastheproductofacreativeprocessunfetteredbyfunctional concerns ComputerPrograms: [1] copyrightcanexistinacomputerprogramexpressedinobjectcode; [2] copyrightcanexistinacomputerprogramembeddedinaROM;and [3] copyrightcanexist inaoperatingsystemprogram basicallyregardlessofformorexpressivecontent,computer programsarecopyrightable See AppleComputerv.FranklinComputer establishedcopyrightforcomputerprograms, eventhoughFranklinarguedthatunderBakerv.Seldon,therewasonlyonewaytowrite theprogramsoitfellunderthe mergerdoctrine ArchitecturalWorks: ConstructedBefore1990: A. Forastandingstructure,infringementdoesnotoccurunlessthecopierhas reproducedthebuilding's"separable"pictorial,graphic,orsculpturalfeaturesthat arecapableofexistingindependentlyofitsutilitarianaspects B. Forarchitecturalplans,notsubjecttotheseparabilitylimitationandcopyrightable, butthecopyrightdidnotconveyarighttocontroltheuseoftheplans ConstructedAfter1990: Buildingsarenolongerautosubjecttotheseparabilitytest: A. Examinetheworktodetermineifthereareoriginaldesignelements,including overallshapeandinterior B. Ifthedesignelementsarepresent,identifywhichelementsarefunctionally required ifnotrequired,workisprotectedregardlessofanyseparabilitytest 4. Words/shortphrases andtheirmeaningsarenotcopyrightable(lackcreativity)

PUBLICATIONANDFORMALITIES
WORKSPUBLISHEDBEFORE 1/1/78 Federalprotectionbeganon publicationwithpropernotice. Publicationwithoutproper noticeforfeitedworktopublic domain WORKSPUBLISHEDBETWEEN1/1/78 AND3/1/89 Noticerequiredforallpublishedworks. Ifworkpublishedwithoutcopyright, copyrightmustcomplywithcure provisionswithin5yearsorwork forfeited opublicdomain WORKSPUBLISHEDAFTER 3/1/89 Noticeisoptional. 401404.Lackofnoticestill mayallowtheinnocent infringerdefense. 401(d),402(d).

PublicationUnderthe1909Act: Before1978, federalcopyrightprotectionappliedonlytopublished works andwassecured atthetime theauthorpublishedaworkwithpropercopyrightnotice. Forfeiture: forfeiturerequireda"generalpublication",whichmeantheworkwasavailableto membersofthepublicwithoutregardtotheiridentityorwhattheyintendedtodowiththe work;noforfeiturefor"limitedpublications"wheretheworkwasonlyavailableforselected personsandforlimitedpurposes I.e. ifapersonsoldthestorywithoutacopyrightnoticeitwouldbeforfeitedbutnotifhe justgaveittoselectmembersforcriticismorjournalists Compare AcademyofMotionPicturesandSciencesv.CreativeHousePromotions,Inc (distributing158Oscars wasalimitedpublication becauserestrictionswereimplied) NoOscarhadeverofferedtotransferanOscartothepublic EachOscarwaspersonalized Nopermission tosell,distribute,orcopyfromtheAcademy With PenguinBooksv.NewChristianChurch (copyrightwasinvalidb/cmaterialpublished withoutnoticepriortocopyrightdate) Distributeduncopyrightedmaterial toalotofpeople,evenunknownpeople Nolimitations onthedistributionoftheuncopyrightedcoursemanuscript Performance=/=PublicationBUTPublicDisplay=Publication Compare Nuttv.NationalInstituteInc.ForTheImprovementofMemory (aprivate performance beforegettingcopyrightdidNOTdedicatethematerialtothepublic) With LetterEdgedinBlackPressv.PublicBldgCommission (a publicdisplay ofart beforecopyright) The1909Actexcused thecopyrightownerifhetriedtocomplywiththenoticerequirementbut byaccidentormistakedidnotprovidenoticeonparticularcopies Musthaveattemptedtocomply,noexcuseiftheauthordidn'tknow Excusesonly asmallnumberofcopies Butcannotrecoverdamagesfroman innocentinfringerwithoutnotice PublicationUnderthe1976Act: ForworkspublishedbetweenJan.1,1978toFeb.28,1989, copyrightwasexpandedto [1] includeunpublishedworks, and[2] beganassoonasitwasfixed ina tangiblemediumofexpression. Noticeonpublicationsstillrequired butomissiondidnotinvalidatethecopyrightif: Noticeonlyomittedfromasmallnumberofcopies,OR Workwasregisteredwithin5yearsofpublicationandtherewasareasonableeffortto addnotice toexitingcopies,OR Noticewasomittedbyalicenseedespiteanexpresscontracttodoso See HardwickAirmasters,Inc.v.LennoxIndustries,Inc. (copyrightinvalidevenwhen3rdparty omittedcopyrightb/cauthordidnottrytofixtheproblem) PerformanceorPublicDisplay=/=Publication Copyrightownercannotrecoverdamagesfroman innocentinfringer withoutnotice AfterMarch1,1989: USremovedthecopyrightformalitiestofittheBerneConvention;acopyright holder"may"useacopyrightnotice Ifthereisnotice,aDcannotraise innocentinfringementdefense

FormofNotice401(b) (and1909Act)requiresacopyrightnoticetohave: [1]eitherthecopyright symbol,theword"copyright,"ortheabbreviation"copr.";[2] theyearoffirstpublicationofthe work;and[3] thenameoftheownerofthecopyright. Butsee Goodisv.UnitedArtistsTelevision (whenamagazinepublishesindividualauthor'swork, thecopyrightnoticeinthenameofthemagazineisOKtosecurecopyrightforauthor) Deposit407: [1]twocopiesofthebesteditionofevery copyrightableworkpublishedinthe[2] UnitedStatesbesenttotheCopyrightOffice [3] within3monthsofpublication, [4] tobemade automatically. NOTaconditionofcopyright onlyafineifnotdeposited FunctionistoprovidetheLibraryofCongressviatheCopyrightOfficewithcopiesand phonorecordsofallpublishedworks withintheUnitedStates. Depositmaybeaccomplishedwithoutregistration Registration408412: Acopyrightdoesnotneedtoberegisteredbeforeitmaybeinfringed,but theownerofthatcopyrightmustregisterthecopyrightbeforeafederalcourtcanhearan infringementsuitforworksoriginatingfromU.S. ButworksoriginatingfromBernecountries donothavetoberegisteredforaninfringementsuit Registrationrequiresdeposit Registrationprovidesprimafacieevidenceofvalidcopyright 410(c) BUTonlyifregistrationwaswithin5yearsofpublication Workmustberegisteredto recoverstatutorydamages andattorney'sfees 412 Derivativeworks thatarenotregistereddonotgetsubjectmatterjurisdictionfromthe registeredworkitwasderivedfrom See BrewerGiorgiov.ProducersVideo,Inc. (couldnotaddclaimofinfringementonan unregisteredscriptthatwasaderivativeworkofaregisteredbook) Copyrightonascriptisanentirelynewanddifferentthantheinfringementofthe copyrightofabook,anditdoesnotariseoutofthesameconduct,transaction,or occurrence Workspublished before1978 Workspublishedbetween1/1/78and 3/1/89 Workspublished after3/1/89 Optional408.

Requirement Optionaluntillastyear Optional 408. offirstterm,butnow mandatoryforworks publishedbefore1964 Prerequisite Yes,duringbothterms Yes411. toBringing ofcopyright Infringement Suit?

YesforU.S.works, exceptactions broughtunder 106(A)(a).411.No fornonU.S.Berne works.411.

Other Incentives

Exceptforactionsunder106(A)or Sameasleftforboth 411(b),statutorydamagesand U.S.andnonU.S. attorney'sfeesonlyavailableifworkis Berneworks.412. registeredbeforeinfringementbegan, orworkwasinfringedwithin3months ofpublicationandregistrationmade within3monthsofpublication.412.

OWNERSHIP
InitialOwnership201(a): copyrightvestsinitiallyintheauthororauthorsofthework;authorsofa jointworkarecoownersofcopyrightinthework SoleAuthorship101: theauthoristhepartywhoactuallycreatesthework(thepersonwho translatesanideaintoafixed,tangibleexpressionentitledtocopyrightprotection) Seee.g. Andrienv.SouthernOceanCountyChamberofCommerce (copyshopworkingunder author'sauthoritysoNOTanauthor) Fixedwhen:"itsembodimentinacopy... byorundertheauthorityoftheauthor,is sufficientlypermanent...topermitittobe...reproduced." JointOwners101: Ajointworkisaworkpreparedbytwoormoreauthorswiththeintention that theircontributionsbemergedintoinseparableorinterdependentpartsofaunitarywhole. [1] 2ndand7thCircuitsalsorequireeachauthormusthavethefurtherintenttoacknowledge theotherauthorsascoauthors 9thCircuit(Aalmuhammed):authorsmusthave [1] intent (sameas2ndand7thCir.),butalso [2] inamovietheauthormusthaveartisticcontrol,"superintendence,"or"inventive mastermind" [3] Eachauthormustcontributemorethanademinimis amountofcopyrightablematerialto thework Eachjointownerhasanundividedinterest inthework,eachcanuseorlicensetheentirework, withonlyobligationtoshareprofits andcannotgive,sell,orgrantanexclusivelicensetothe entirework Ifapersonmakesindependentcopyrightablecontributionbutdeniedstatusascoauthor, personisgivenannonexclusivelicenseandcompensationbyquantummeruit(reasonable) OwnershipofWorksMadeforHire201(b): Inthecaseofaworkmadeforhire, theemployer or otherpersonforwhomtheworkwaspreparedisconsideredtheauthor. DefinitionofWorksMadeforHire101: [1] aworkpreparedby anemployee withinthe[2] scopeofhisorheremployment;OR [3] aworkspeciallyorderedorcommissioned foruseasa contributiontoacollectivework,aspartofamotionpictureorotheraudiovisualwork,asa translation,asasupplementarywork,asacompilation,asaninstructionaltext,asatest,as answermaterialforatest,asanatlas,IFthepartiesexpresslyagree inwritingandsignedby themthattheworkshallbeconsideredaworkmadeforhire. [1] PreparedasanEmployee: Limiteddefinitionofemployeemeansa masterservant relationship,examinedbasedon fivecriteria,see CommunityforCreativeNonViolencev.Reid (sculpturewasNOTaworkofhireb/cthesculptorwasNOTanemployee butanindependent contractor,thusa coowner) (a)Controlofmannerandmeansofwork: sculptorhadallthecontrol Hiringofassistants:sculptorhiredhisownassistants (b)Skillrequired: onlyonpartofthesculptor Sourceoftoolsrequired tomake:sculptorsuppliedhisowntoolsinhisownstudio (c)Methodofpayment:paidaflatsuminsteadofregularemployeebenefits (d)Taxtreatment:sculptorpaidhisowntaxes (e)Durationandscopeofrelationship:workedforonlyalimitedtimeonasingleproject Notpartofmaster'sregularbusiness [2] TheScopeofEmployment: examine threecriteria toseeifworkwaspreparedinthescope ofemployment,see AvtecSystems,Inc.Peiffer (computerprogrammadebyemployeewasNOT inscopeofemployment) (a) Typeofworktheemployeewashiredtodo?: eventhoughsoftwareprogrammingwas whattheemployeewashiredtodo (b)Workcreatedduringthe timeandspaceofemployee'sjob?: theemployeecreatedthe workafterhoursandinhisownhouse (c) Employeewas motivatedbyapurposetoservetheemployer?: andtheemployeewas notmotivatedtofurtherthecorporategoals

[3] CommissionedWorks: Acommissionedworkforhiremust:[A] fallintooneofthe101 categories,and [B] mustbeexpresslyagreedtoinwriting See Gaimanv.MacFarlane (Pwasnotanemployeeandtheworkwasnotacommissioned work,soPwasaindependentcontributor) MedievalSpawncharacter wasnotanabstractidea (thuscopyrightable),Court followsMGMv.AmericanHondaMotors (JamesBond)b/cGaimanwrotethe essentialcharacteristics whichismorethanjustsuggesting"youshouldhavea MedievalSpawn" Cogliostrocharacternota"scenesafaire" b/ceventhoughGaiman'sverbal descriptionofCogliostromaybewasofstockcharacter,withouthiscontributionthe characterCogliostrowouldnothavebeencopyrightableatall(asacharacter) GovernmentsandLegalWorks: U.S.Government105: TheU.S.federalgovernmentcannotowncopyright inworksprepared byfederalgovernmentemployees inthecourseoftheirofficialduties Oktoowncopyrightobtainedbytransfer,unlessoneofitsemployeescouldhavedone thework(cannotuseindependentcontractorstocircumventthelaw) StateGovernment: 105doesnotapplytostategovernmentsbutstatutes,ordinances, regulations,andjudicialopinionsareinherentlynoncopyrightable LegallyBindingPrivatelyDraftedWorks: privatelydraftedcodesenterthepublicdomainwhen enactedintolaw,see Veeckv.SouthernBuildingCodeCongress (privatelydraftedmodel buildingcodesenterthepublicdomainwhenenactedintolaw) Publicpolicy andlongtraditionthatpeopleownthelawb/cpublicmustbeabletoaccess andusefreely Alsothemergerdoctrine appliedb/cthebuildingcodescouldonlybeexpressedinone way

TRANSACTIONS
Divisibility201(d)(2): anyoftherightsspecifiedin106maybetransferredandowned separately BUT 1909Act thebundleofstickswasindivisible,butyoucangivelicenses Transfer 204(a): Underthe1976Act,exclusivecopyright transfersneedtobeinwritingandsigned byownerofrights,includingassignments,mortgages,exclusivelicense,BUT nonexclusivelicensescan betransferredorally Seee.g. EffectsAssociatesv.Cohen (industrypractices ofHollywoodallowedforanimplied nonexclusivelicense) BUT 1909Act (allgrantsexecutedbefore1978)onlyrequiredthetotaltransfer(saleor assignment)tobeinwriting,butnorequirementforexclusiveornonexclusivelicenses Recording205: Foracauseofactionthatarosebefore3/1/89: recordationisaprerequisite toan infringementsuit;but after3/1/89: recordationNOTrequiredtobringaninfringementsuit PriorityBetween: WhoPrevails: OtherReq's: 205(d) anyconflicting firsttransfereeifherecordswithin1monthof mustbe transfers, agreement,after1monthitsaracetorecord registeredin including BUTmustbeingoodfaith(i.e.hasconstructive additionto assignmentsand notice/actualknowledgeofpriortransfer)and recorded exclusivelicenses cannotbeatransferwithoutconsideration(i.e.gift orbequest) 205(e) conflictbetween nonexclusivelicenseeoveratransferee(assigneeor transfereeand exclusivelicensee)onlywhen:[1] nonexclusive nonexclusive licenseinwritingandlicensedbeforetransfer, OR licensee [2] aftertransferbutbeforerecordingoftransfer andlicenseinwriting,goodfaith,andhadnonotice oftransfer InterpretingCopyrightAgreements: Nosetform,butmostagreementscontain:(1)royalties,(2) duration,(3)geographicscope,(4)mannerinwhichworkcanbeexploited,(5)termination circumstances,(6)nameoncopyright,(7)whoisresponsibleforbringinginfringementsuitifneeded ScopeofMedia:usuallybasedonlanguageofthecontract,intentofparties,anduseofthe mediaintheparticularindustry NewMediaTechnologies: somecourtsuseastrictliteralreading ofcontractterms,others placetheburdenonthelicensortoshowthetermsofthelicensedonotextendtothenew medium Compare Cohenv.ParamountPictures (distribution"bymeansofTV"doesnotincludea VCR)with Bartschv.MetroGoldwynMayer,Inc. (transmission"bycinematography" analogousto"bylivetelecast") OpenSourceSoftwareLicensing: opensourcesoftwarelicensesarecopyrightlicenses See Jacobsenv.Katzer (opensourcesoftwareiscopyrightablesotheopensourcelicensecan specifytheextenttowhich"copying"ispermitted andunderwhattermsandconditions)

DURATIONOFCOPYRIGHT
Works: createdonorafter 1/1/78 Dateof Nature LengthofTerm Protection ofTerm Fixation unitary BASICTERM: author'slife+70 term ALTTERM: foranonymousor pseudonymousorworksmade forhire:95yearsfrom publicationor120yearsfrom creation,whicheverisshorter unitary sameasabovebutatleast term 12/31/2002iftheworkremained unpublishedasof12/31/2002 unitary 12/31/2047 term automaticrenewal termof67years (renewal registrationis optionalbut incentivesattachto renewal registration) renewaltermof67 years.Butonlyif renewalwas properlyobtained

createdbutnot publishedbefore 1/1/78

1/1/1978

createdbefore 1/1/1978 1/1/78butpublished before1/1/2003 Workspublished between1964and 1977

when dual 28yearfirstterm published term= withnotice 95total

publishedbetween 1923and1963

when dual 28yearfirstterm published term= withnotice 95total n/a n/a nowinpublicdomain

publishedbefore 1923

RenewalRightOwner: WorksthatcameuptotheirrenewaltermBEFORE1964 hadtobeactivelyrenewedbyauthor Authorcouldproperlytransfer hisrenewalrighttoanotherduringthe1st termifheused clear,concise,unambiguouslanguage,FredFisherMusic Butifauthordiesbeforerenewaltermvests,goestosuccessorsinsteadoftransferee Spouseorkids Executorofestateifthereisawill Owner'snextofkinifnowillorspouse/kids Workforhirestaysw/owner,doesnotrevert Statutoryheirscanassignawaytheirinterestinrenewal WorksthatcameuptotheirrenewaltermBETWEEN19641978 wererenewedautomatically w/1yearoforiginaltermexpiration,with incentivestovoluntaryrenewal: Presumptionofvalidityandownership Ownershipoftherenewalinterestbasedonwhoisaliveasofthedateofthefiling Ifauthorassignsrenewalrightanddies,theinterestwillgotothetransfereeif voluntaryrenewed,NOTreverttoauthor'sstatutoryheirs Iftheauthordiesw/outvoluntarilyrenewing(renewedautomatically),renewal interestvestsattheendoftheoriginalperiodw/hisstatutoryheirs Transferredderivativerightsworksend andderivativeworkownercannotfurtherexploit Ifnotvoluntaryandautorenewed,derivativeworkcanbeexploitedduringthe renewedterm,butnonewderivativeworkcanbemade

EXCLUSIVERIGHTSANDLIMITATIONS
ExclusiveRights106andExceptions107121: Copyrightprotectionprovidestheownerofa copyrightwith6exclusiverightsunder106:reproduction,adaptation,distribution,performance, display,anddigitalsoundrecordingtransmission,withlimitationssetoutin107121.
Exclusive Right 106(2)Righttoprepare derivativeworks 112Ephemeral Recordings 113Picturesorphotographs ofuseful articles 1008Noncommercial use bya consumerofdigital oranalog recordingdevicetomake musical recordings 109(a),(b)Effectoftransfer ofcopyorphonorecord 116Publicperformancesby jukeboxes Limitations 114(b) Sound recordings 115Compulsory license formaking anddistributing phonorecords 108Reproductionsby 117Computer librariesandarchives programs 121Reproductionfor 118public the blindanddisabled broadcasting compulsory 109(e) Effectof license transferofcopyor phonorecord 110Exemptionof certainperformances anddisplays 111Secondary transmissions(cable compulsorylicense) 119,122satellite compulsorylicenses

106(1)Rightof reproduction 106(3)Rightof distribution 106(4)Rightofpublic performance

107 FairUse

106(5)Rightofpublic display

109(c) Effectof transferof copyorphonorecord 114(d)(j) publicperformance ofsoundrecordingsbymeans ofdigital audiotransmissions: limitationsandlicenses

106(6)Rightofpublic performance bydigital audiotransmission

Reproduction,Distribution,DerivativeRights ReproductionRight106(1): Exclusive righttoreproduceacopyrightedworkincopiesor phonorecordsmeanstofixitinatangible andrelativelypermanentform inamaterialobject. Distinguishfromgeneralterm"copying"whichdoesnotneedfixation,i.e.performanceor display Compare MAISystems (youtubevideostransmissioncopiesarefixed onserver)with Cartoon Network (youtubevideostransmissiondoesnotmeancopiesarefixed onserver) DistributionRight 106(3): Exclusiverighttodistributecopiesorphonorecordsofthecopyrighted worktothepublicbysaleorothertransferofownershiporrental,lease,lending Distinguishfromgeneralterm"copying",distributiononlyconcernstherightto transferphysical copiesorphonorecordsofthework DistributiontothePublic: circuitssplit,someholdsimplybymakinganunauthorizedcopy availabletothepublic (atthelibraryorontheinternet)violatesdistributionright,others require"actualdissemination",(CapitolRecordsInc.v.Thomas) FirstSaleDoctrine109(a): Theownerofacopyorphonorecordisentitledtosellorotherwise dispose ofthatcopyorphonorecord,aslongas:[1] copywas lawfullymade withauthorization ofcopyrightowner;[2] copyrightownertransferredtitle ofthecopy; [3] Disrightfulowner of copy;[4] Ddisposedof butdidnotreproducethecopy See UMGRecordingsv.Augusto (firstsaledefenseOK) [2] mustbethroughsaleorgiftonly,notalicense,rental,orloan:mailingtheCDs tomusicindustryinsiderswascharacterizedasagiftorsale,notalicense Indicationofgift: didnothaveintenttogetCDback(likealicense) See C.M.PaulaCo.v.Logan (firstsaleOKdefenseagainstbuyingsoftcoverbooks,putting theminhardcovers,thenreselling)

[2][3] lawfullypurchased Cannotusefirstsaledefensewhenyoubuyand useapiratedcopy,evenif youdidn'tknowitwaspirated [4] disposingphysically:oktoputhardcoversonthemandresell RentalExceptiontoFirstSaleDoctrine109(b): prohibitsownerof[1] amusicalsound recording phonorecord(copy)orcomputerprograms from[2] renting ittothepublic[3] forcommercialgain (publiclibraryOK) See BrillianceAudio,Inc.v.HaightsCrossCommunications,Inc. (notinfringingb/c firstsaledefenseappliesandtheexceptiondidnot) [1] exceptionisformusicalrecordings,NOTrecordingsofliteraryworks (audiobooks) Importation602(a): barsunauthorizedimportation ofcopiesorphonorecordsintothe U.S.whichwere made andprocuredoutsidetheU.S.(copiesmadeinU.S.protectedby thefirstsaledoctrine) See QualityKingDistributors,Inc.v.LAnzaResearch ifaproductis[1] lawfully madeintheU.S. and [2] subjecttoavalidfirstsale,thesubsequentimportation intotheU.S.isnotprohibitedby602(a) RighttoPrepareDerivativeWorks106(2): Theadaptationrightisinfringedwhena3rdpartymakes anunauthorized[1] derivativework (i.e.atranslation,musical,movie)that:[2] mustatleast transform,recast,oradapt [3] aportion ofthecopyrightedworkinsomeform See Leev.A.R.T.Company (buyingP'spostcardsandgluingthemonceramictilesdidNOT violatederivativeright) [1] thetileswasnotaderivativework b/cnointellectualeffortorcreativitywasrequired togluethepostcardtothetile See GameGenie (alteringtheperformanceofaNintendogamedidNOTviolatederivativeright) [2] Nintendogameitselfwasnotrecast,transformed,oradapted [3] GameGeniedidnotuseanypart ofthegame REDUNDANT: infringingtheadaptationright alsoinfringesreproductionright,performance right,orboth (i.e. aplaythatsubstantiallyembodiesacopyrightedbookviolatesboth reproductionandadaptationright;ifplaywasperformed,alsoperformanceright) LimitstotheFirstThreeExclusiveRights LimitsonMusicalWorks&CompulsoryLicensesfor"Covers"115: Limits reproduction, adaptation,anddistribution rightsof musical works copyrightownersbyallowingacompulsory licensefor:[1] makinganddistributionofphonorecords of[2] nondramaticmusicalworks thathavebeen[3] lawfully distributedtothepublic intheUnitedStates;and [4] thelicensee's primarypurposemustbetodistributetheworktothepublicforprivateuse The"cover"mustbefaithfultooriginalworkormightinfringeonadaptationright LimitsonSoundRecordings 114(b): Limitsreproduction, adaptation,andperformance rights insoundrecordings;infringementofacopyrightinasoundrecordingoccursby:[1] reproducing,rearranging,remixing,oralteringitbymechanicalmeans;but [2] independent fixationisNOTinfringement (theworldisfreetoimitatetheworkaslongasanactualcopyof thesoundrecordingisnotmade) Distinguishbetweenthetwokindsofcopyrightablesubjectmatterthatcouldbe embodiedonthesamephonorecord:musicalworkandsoundrecording See Newtonv.Diamond (performerswereauthorizedtousethesoundrecording,sothey wereliable onlyifcompositionwasinfringed andno,b/ccopying3notesfromthe compositionwasdeminimis) See BridgeportMusic,Inc.v.DimensionFilms Levies,MandatedTechnicalMeasures,andtheAudioHomeRecordingAct Iftested,seetextbookexcerpt

PublicPerformanceandDisplayRights PublicPerformanceRight106(4): Ownerofacopyrightinaliterary,musical,dramatic,and choreographicworks,pantomimes,andotheraudiovisualworkshastheexclusiverightto [1] perform thework[2] inpublic [1] Perform101: torecite,render,play,dance,oract,eitherdirectlyorbymeansofany deviceorprocess (soperformingcoversinitialrenditionplusfurthertransmissions) Deviceorprocesscoverstransmissions,i.e. radio,television evenifreachingasingle personatdifferenttimes(hotel) See Davidv.Showtime/TheMovieChannel,Inc. (transmissionofsignaltolocalcable company=publicperformance,evenifD=/=distributesignaldirectlytothepublic) [2] Publicly101: (a)toperformitataplaceopentothepublic,OR (b) aplacewherethereare substantialnumberofpeoplegatheredoutsideanormalcircleoffriendsandfamily IfPublic (clubs,summercamp,office):sizeandcompositionofpeopledon'tmatter IfPrivate (yourbathtub,invitingfriendsovertowatchamovie):lookatsizeand compositionofaudiencetodetermineiftheperformancewaspublic See FermataInternationalMelodies,Inc.v.ChampionsGolfClub (performancewasPUBLIC b/c21peoplegatheredataprivategolfclub wasstillasubstantialgatheringofpeople) See ColumbiaPicturesIndustries,Inc.v.ReddHorne,Inc. (PUBLICperformancetotransmit movietoprivatescreeningrooms,butnotifeachroomhadaVCR,suchasanhotelroom) PublicDisplayRight106(5): Ownerofcopyrighthasexclusiverightto [1] display thework [2] in public,appliestoallworksexceptforsoundrecordings,andarchitecturalworks [1]Display: toshowacopyofit,either (a)directly,OR (b)bymeansoffilm,slide,TVimage,or anyotherdeviceorprocess See Perfect10,Inc.v.Amazon.com,Inc. (thumbnails onGoogle'sserverviolatesdisplay right,butonlylinkingtotheimagedoesnot) [2] Publicly: samemeaningasperformingright(seeabove) Exception109(c): Notwithstandingtheprovisionsofsection106(5),theownerofaparticular copy lawfullymade,oranypersonauthorizedbysuchowner,isentitled,withouttheauthority ofthecopyrightowner,todisplaythatcopypublicly,eitherdirectly orbytheprojection ofno morethanoneimageatatime,toviewerspresentattheplacewherethecopyislocated RESULT:106(5)ISMAINLYABOUTTRANSMISSIONS TheDigitalPerformanceRightforSoundRecordings106(6): givestheexclusiverighttopublicly performsoundrecordingsbymeansofadigitalaudiotransmission Addressesproblemofinternettransmissions Exemptions114(d)(i): Noninteractive,nonsubscription broadcastdigitalaudiotransmissions(i.e.internet radio)andsaysnolicenseneededatall Butsee BonnevilleInternationalCorp.v.Peters ("broadcast"doesNOTcover simulcastinternetaudio) sostillneedtogetstatutorylicense Digitalsatellitesubscription ONLYIF yougetastatutorylicenseANDshitin114(d)(2) Transmissionswithinbusinessestablishments forcommercialuseasbackgroundmusic LimitsonthePublicPerformanceandDisplayRights110: (1) facetofaceteaching; (2) instructional broadcast, (3) religiousservices, (4) certainpublicreceptionsoftransmission "Homestyle"exemption110(5): coversalltypesofworks,whenperformanceisbyreception ofatransmissiononasinglereceivingapparatusofakindcommonlyusedinprivatehomes See CartoonNetworkLP,LLLPv.CSCHoldings,Inc. (playbackofDVR copiesdidnot infringeplaintiffs'exclusiverightofpublicperformanceunder106(4)becauseeachDVR playbackwasmadetoa singlesubscriber usingasingleuniquecopyproducedbythat subscriber,thusaplayback=/=publicperformance) "Business"exemption110(5): coversnondramaticmusicalworks,withlimitationsonsquare feetofestablishment(640sq.ft.),numberofloudspeakersandvideoscreens See BroadcastMusic,Inc.v.ClairesBoutiques,Inc. (eachindividualstoremustuseasingle homestylepieceofequipment)

INFRINGEMENTANALYSIS
Infringement:[Aparty]violated[thecopyrightowner's] exclusiveright[toreproduce,adapt, distribute,publiclyperform,orpubliclydisplay]in106 DeMinimisCopying: Butthereisnoliabilityfordeminimis copying,copyingsotrivialandinsignificant asjudgedbytheearsofthejurors(nobrightlinerule) I.e. samplinga3notesequencequalifiesasademinimiscopying,butusingthreewordsand somemusicfromasongwasinfringement ProvingInfringement: toproveinfringement,theremustbe:[1] proofofownership;[2] copyingin factbytheD;and[3] improperappropriation. 1. Ownership : Toproveownership,plaintiffmustshow:(1) originality,(2) copyrightablesubjectmatter, (3) compliancewithstatutoryformalities,and(4) thenecessarycitizenshipstatus Copyrightregistration is primafacie evidenceofownership 2. CopyinginFactbytheDefendant: Theplaintiffmustproveactualcopying ...thatD'sallegedly infringingworkwouldnotexistbutfor D'sexposuretoP'swork(absenceofindependentcreation), usingevidenceof:(a) access and(b) probativesimilarity (a) Access: PcanproveaccessbyshowingthatDhadareasonableopportunitytovieworcopy thework Theevidencemustshowareasonable probability ofaccess,notmerepossibility ofaccess basedonspeculation,examples: WorkwasavailabletoemployeesofD Workwasin possessionofa3rdparty thathaddidbusinesswithbothPandD Seealso BrightTunesMusicCorp (songhadbeenplayedsoextensively,eventhoughD mayhave subconsciously copiedthetune,unintentionalcopyingisstillcopying) (b) ProbativeSimilarity (similarityastomistakesanddefectsthatareotherwiseunlikely) I.e. fakephonelistingsinFeist;Mara'sdoublehairlineinPivotPoint Butcopyingfroma3rdparty'sworkornaturalobjects=/=copyinginfact Accessmaybepresumedwhencomplexworks arevirtuallyidentical,butevenreally similarcommonplace works donotproveaccesswithoutadditionalevidence 3. ImproperAppropriation: infringementdoesnotoccurunlesstheD'scopyingwasanimproper appropriation,whichmeans Dtookasufficientamount ofthecopyrightowner'soriginalexpressionin creatinga"substantialsimilar"work i.e. copyingapurelyfunctionalaspectofausefularticleisnotimproperappropriation Provesubstantiallysimilarworkintwoways:(a) verbatimcopying and/or(b) patternsimilarity (a) VerbatimCopying: iseasytoshowinfringementonwhollycreativeworkssuchas originalpoetryoranovel,buthardertodistinguishcompilationsorhistoricalfacts (b) SubstantialSimilarity:aninfringementisnotconfinedtoliteralandexactrepetitionor reproduction;itincludesalsothevariousmodesinwhichthematterofanyworkmaybe adopted,imitated,transferredorreproduced Difficulty=didDappropriatedtheauthor'scopyrightableexpression orthejustthe abstractideasbehindthework SubstantialSimilarityAnalysis (Arnsteinv.Porter):didDtakefromP'sworkso muchofwhatispleasingtothelaypublic aboutitthatitwillprovideapartial substitute fortheoriginal,thusreducingpotentialfinancialreturnsforP? SimilarityinComputerPrograms (ComputerAsso.v.Altai,Inc.):substantiallysimilar forcomputeprogramsisanalyzedusinga3parttest: (i) Abstract theprogramintovariouslayersofgenerality,dissectingthe program'sstructureandisolatingeachlevelofabstraction (ii) Usemergerdoctrinetofilterout elementsoftheprogramthatare dictatedbyefficiencyorexternalfactorssuchasmechanicalspecifications, compatibilityrequirements(informationinthepublicdomain) (iii) Compare remainingelementsintwoprograms

FAIRUSEDEFENSE
FairUse,generally: Fairuseisadefense tocopyrightinfringement,definedasa"privilegeinothers thantheownerofacopyrighttousethecopyrightedmaterialinareasonablemannerwithout consent" 17USC107Preamble: "Thefairuseofacopyrightedwork,includingsuchusebyreproductionin copiesorphonocordsorbyanyothermeansspecifiedbythatsection,forpurposessuchascriticism, comment,newsreporting,teaching(includingmultiplecopiesforclassroomuse),scholarship,or research,isnotaninfringementofcopyright" Usefallinginoneofthe107categoriesisfavored,butNOTdeterminateoffairuse Fairusecanbedefenseagainstunpublishedwork,Harper&Row Courtsalsoconsiderotherfactorsaswell,suchaslackofgoodfaith,industrycustomorpractice DeterminingFairUse: Courtsshall use 4factors indeterminingifausequalifiesasfairuse:[1] the purposeandcharacter oftheuse,includingwhethertheuseiscommercial natureorisfornonprofit educationalpurposes; [2] thenature ofthecopyrightedwork;[3] theamountandsubstantiality of copyrightedworkused;[4] theeffectoftheuse uponthemarket orvalueofthecopyrightedwork See Sonyv.UniversalStudios (recordingTV programsathomeforwatchinglaterOKfairuse) [1] noncommercial,nonprofit,andforprivateviewingofworkthatwas [2] wasbroadcastforfree [4] noeffect broadcastforfree Emphasizedif[1] purposeiscommercialuse,burdenshifts toD torebutpresumption[4] effectoftheuse adverselyaffectcopyrightedoriginal Dissentsaysweshouldfavorproductiveuses thateither:(1) benefitsocietyor(2)create derivativeworks See Harper&Rowv.NationEnterprises (stealingandpublishingpartsofanunpublishedbook NOTfairuse) [1] eventhoughnewsreporting wasafavoreduse,itwascommercialpurposes [2] protectedcreativeexpression (vs.justfacts) [3] largeandsubstantialamountwhenitcouldhaveeasilycopiedunprotectedfacts [4] specificharm (lostprofits)wasshown Storywasunpublished didn'tmatter See Campbellv.AcuffRoseMusic,Inc. (2livecrew'sparody ofPrettyWomanOKfairuse) [1] commercial BUT [2] parodyortransformativeuse addedindependentcreativematerial [4] nomarketharm totheoriginal See PrincetonUniversityPressv.MichiganDoc.Services (compilingtextbooks NOTfairuse) [1] commercialdrivenbymotiveforprofit [2] textbooksclearlycreativeexpressionthatnarrowedscopeoffairuse [3] copiedlargeamountand valuableinfo [4] harmedbooksalesandlicensing See Perfect10v.Amazon.com (Googlesearchengine thumbnailsOKfairuse) [1] picture searchenginewasa newandhighlybeneficialfunction [3] "highlytransformative"use [4] potentialharmwashypothetical See SegaEnterprisesLtd.v.Accolade,Inc. (Accoladedisassembled aSegagamecartridgeto reverseengineer anoninfringingprogramOKfairuse) [1] commercialBUTAccolade'susewasintermediateonlyand productive innature [2] softwareunique b/ccontainedunprotectedfeaturesthatcouldnotbeexamined withoutcopyingtheintermediate [4] didnotusurpmarket,justmadenoninfringingproductstocompete(goalofcopyright) Buttobeafairuse,itmustbenecessary (nootherway)todisassembleandcopythe intermediatecodeinordertoaccesstheprogram'sunprotectedideas

SECONDARYLIABILITY
VicariousLiability: WhentheDhas:[1] therightandabilitytosupervise theinfringingactivity,and[2] adirectfinancialinterest insuchactivity(lookathowcloselytheD'sincomevarieswithamountof infringement) KnowledgeNOTrequired See Fonovisav.CherryAuction (fleemarketownerswerevicariousliable) [1] Controlover directinfringingbootlegCDsellers [2] Hadadirectfinancialinterest intheinfringingactivity ContributoryInfringement: WhentheD:[1] with knowledge oftheinfringingactivity,[2] causesor materiallycontributes totheinfringingconductofanother See Fonovisav.CherryAuction (fleemarketownercontributoryliabletoo) TheD [1] knowingly[2] contributed totheinfringementbyprovidingthesiteforthe activity Butsee Sonyv.Universal (VHSmakernotcontributoryinfringerjustbyprovidingequipment thatwasusedtoinfringewhentheequipmentwasa staplearticleofcommerce suitablefor othersubstantialnoninfringinguses) InducementofInfringement: "Onewhodistributesadevicewiththeobject[intent]of promotingitsusetoinfringecopyright,asshownbyclearexpressionorotheraffirmativesteps takentofosterinfringement,isliablefortheresultingactsofinfringement." See MetroGoldwynMayerStudiosInc.v.Grokster,Ltd. (liable forcopyrightinfringement b/cthey encouraged consumerstoillegallyswapcopyrightedworks) Probativeevidenceofintent: GrokstermarketedtowardspreviousNapsterusers aknownsourceof demandforcopyrightinfringement Advertisingincomeincreasesastraffic(whichismostlyinfringing)increases Failuretodevelopfilteringtoolstodiminishinfringingactivity J.Ginsburg:toqualifyunderSony,mustshow"areasonableprospectthat substantialorcommerciallysignificantnoninfringinguseswerelikelytodevelop overtime" J.Breyer: 10%lawfuldownloadingwouldbeadequateforasubstantial noninfringingusewherethereisaprospectofexpandedlegitimateusesovertime DMCASafeHarbors512: limitsliabilityfor4express typesofonlineserviceproviders 1. "transitorydigitalnetworkcommunications"(i.e. transmissionservices) 2. "systemcaching" automaticcopyingtoprovidecontinuedaccesse.g.whennetworkis clogged 3. "informationresidingonsystemsatdirectionofusers"(i.e.webhosting) 4. "informationlocationtools"(i.e.searchengines) Companiesthatcomplywith512 areprotectedfromcontributoryinfringementandvicarious liability butnotcomplyingdoesn'tmeantheyareautomaticallyliable Tocomplywith512(i)(1): aonlineserviceprovidermust: [1] reasonablyimplement apolicyofterminatingsubscribersandaccountholderswho are repeatinfringers BUT 512(c): aserviceprovidershallnotbeliableformonetaryreliefifit: Had noknowledge ofinfringement Actsexpeditiouslytoremove,ordisableaccessto,thematerialwhenit(a) getsactualknowledge,or(b) isawareoffactsorcircumstancesthatmake infringementapparent,or (c) hasreceivednotification ofinfringement [2] accommodateandnotinterferewithstandardtechnicalmeasures(i.e.watermarking, encryption)

DMCAdeviceliability1201(a)(2),1201(b): Cannotmakeorofferdevicesthatare:[1] primarily designedorproducedforthepurposeofcircumvention;[2] hasonlylimited commerciallysignificant purpose oruseotherthancircumvention;or [3] ismarketedfor circumvention See UnitedStatesv.Reimerdes (D'sprogramthatunscrambledtheCSScodewhichencrypted DVDswas primarilyintendedtocircumvent theDVDprotection doesnotviolatethe1st Amendment b/c1201(a)wasacontentneutrallaw andwhateverburdensitputonfreespeech wereproportionatetothegovernment'slegitimateinterests) 1201Exceptions: Noexception forcircumventioninordertomakefairuse (orotherexceptionstoexclusive rightsincopyright) Reverseengineeringexception1201(f): cancircumventaccesscontrolmeasureto computerprogramto"identifyandanalyzethoseelementsoftheprogramthatare necessarytoachieveinteroperabilityofanindependentlycreatedcomputerprogramwith otherprograms."(i.e. Segav.Accolade) Otherminorexceptions: nonprofitlibraries,archives,educationalinstitutionsfor acquisitionpurposes;lawenforcement;encryptionresearch Newspecificexceptionsaddedin2009: AudiovisualworksonDVDs,toincorporateshortexcerptsforeducationaluse, documentaries,noncommercialfilms "Jailbreaking"phonestoenablethemtorunappsnotauthorizedbyphonemaker Cellphonecomputerprograms,forthepurposeofswitchingserviceproviders Videogames,forpurposesoftestingsecurityvulnerabilities Computerprogramsprotectedbyobsoletedongles

REMEDIES
Damages 504: acopyrightinfringerisliableforeitherthecopyrightowner's actualdamages AND anyadditionalprofit theinfringermade,OR statutorydamages ActualDamages504(b): Aplaintiffcan"recovertheactualdamagessufferedbyherasaresult oftheinfringement,"generallyequaltotheprofits shewouldhaveaccruedbutfor D's infringement. See BanffLtd.v.Express,Inc. (actualdamageswasnotprovenb/cPofferedlittle probativeevidencesuggestingExpresswouldhaveactuallyboughtsweaters) P'sproductssoldatsignificantlyhigherprices,thusadifferentmarket P couldnothavesupplied the40,000knockoffsDbought NobusinessrelationshipbetweenPandD Infringer'sProfits504(b): Aninfringer'sprofitsarecalculatedas[1] thegrosssales of infringinggoods(P'sburden),[2] minusthecosts (D'sburden)attributabletotheproduction andsaleofthosegoods Seee.g. Caffeyv.Cook (infringementnonwillful,soDcandeducthercostfromthe damagesamount,includingincometaxfromprofit) Apportionment:canreducethepercentageofrecoverableprofitsbyshowingthesuccess oftheinfringingproductwas duetootherfactors (i.e. infringingmoviethatissuccessful b/cplotchanges,famousactors,goodmarketing) Indirectprofits: requireareasonablysufficientcausallink betweentheinfringingactsand indirectprofits(i.e. profitsahotelmadebyshowinganinfringingplayOK,butaninfringing advertisementforaproductdoesnotallowrecoveryofprofitfromsaleofproduct) StatutoryDamages504(c): AprevailingPwhocomplieswithcopyrightregistration mayrecover statutorydamagesinsteadof actualdamagesandprofitsintheamountsof: 1. Default:$750 $30,000 2. Willfulness: upto$150,000 Dependsonstateofmind,courtshavefoundwillfulnesswhenDsknow,havereason toknoworrecklesslydisregardedthefactaworkwascopyrighted 3. Innocent infringement:aslowas$200 NotavailableifDhadaccesstocopiesthathaveacopyrightnoticeonthem 4. Nonprofit withreasonable beliefoffairuse:nostatutorydamages "Perwork"hardtodetermine(i.e. individualTVepisodescan beindividualworks) Butsee Bryantv.MediaRightProductions,Inc. (statutorydamagesareforeachalbum, noteachsongb/c504(c)(1) saysallthepartsofacompilationcountasonework) Newunder1976Act 1909Actdidnotrequireregistrationtorecoverstatutorydamages Attorney'sFees: Attorney'sfessareavailableequallytoprevailingplaintiffsandprevailingdefendants (Fogertyv.Fantasy),providedthecopyrightedworkisregistered Awardedusing"equitablediscretion"notasamatterofcourse See MatthewBender&Company,Inc.v.WestPublishingCo. (abuseofdiscretiontoaward attorney'sfeeswithoutspecificevidenceofbadfaithandlitigationmisconduct) Injunctions502(a): allowscourtstogranteitherpreliminaryorpermanentinjunctionsasaremedy tocopyrightinfringement Generaltestforinjunctions (Salinger): 1. Likelihoodofsuccessonthemerits(forapreliminaryinjunction) 2. Irreparableharm ifinjunctionisnotgranted Preliminary showthatdelaywoulddeprivePofrelief (i.e. shortcommerciallife) Permanent MUSTshow[1] damagesalonewouldbe inadequate,AND [2] threat offurtherinfringement Difficultyinmeasuringproofoflossofsales Irreparableinlightofpossiblemarketconfusion Alossthatoneshouldnotbeexpectedtosuffer 3. Publicinterest 4. Balanceof hardships tipsinplaintiff'sfavor