Anda di halaman 1dari 19

Domains in Instructional Technology

Lecture 2 Semester I/II Academic Session 2011-2012


1

Introduction
Definition of Technology Evolution of Instructional Technology Definition of Instructional Technology Educational Technology or Instructional Technology?

Technology

The word technology, as used by scientists and philosophers of science, refers to the means by which we make science work to solve practical problems. There may or may not be machines involved in technology, but there is always the application of science. Technology, in its truest form, refers to endeavors to solve human problems

Technology

Technology does not need to be electronics or machines. It is a word for a tool that we use to solve practical problems. It could be a scientific methodology, organized knowledge or the systematic application of practical tasks.

Instruction
Instruction is a process of decision-making and activities that are made and carried out in order to procure the desired out comes for learners. That is including such as examination of learners prior knowledge, determining the structure and combination of learning materials, determining goals and the required capabilities for the desired learning outcomes and so forth.

Evolution of IT
In recent years, there has been a rapid infusion of technology into instruction (Bonk & King, 1998; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, 1996; Fisher, Dwyer, & Yocam, 1997; Grabe & Grabe, 1998; Jonassen, Peck, & Wilson, 1999). Technology (the Greek form of techn, translated as art, craft or skill) was conceived by the ancient Greeks as a particular activity and as a kind of knowledge. The development of a new process for doing something, for example, is considered as technology (Saettler, 1990). Since then, however, authors such as Clark (1988) have argued that a 'craft' and 'technology' are not synonymous, and that we should think of them as such is detrimental to the field.
6

Evolution of IT
It is unclear who first used the term educational technology. We have documented evidence that Franklin Bobbit and W.W. Charters used educational engineering in the 1920s. The first author first heard educational technology used by W.W. Charters in an interview with this author in 1948 The late James D. Finn used instructional technology in a forward he wrote for the first publication of the NEA sponsored Technological Development Project in 1963. However, the focus of the application was audiovisual communications (Saettler, 1990, p. 17).

Evolution of IT

However, in the 1977 Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT, 1977) definition had made a distinction between Educational and Instructional Technology and Technology in Education. Educational Technology was first seen as a tool technology. It referred to the use of devices, media and hardware for educational purposes. Instructional Technology was defined as a subset of Educational Technology using the rationale that instruction is a subset of education which deals only with learning that is purposive and controlled (AECT, 1977). Technology in Education was used to describe technological applications used by support systems for education such as grade reporting, scheduling, and finance.
8

Evolution of IT

AECT (1977) therefore defined instructional technology as a complex, integrated process involving people, procedures, ideas, devices, and organization, for analysing problems, and devising, implementing, evaluating and managing solutions to those problems, in situations in which learning is purposive and controlled (Part 1-16).

Definition of Instructional Technology (IT)


IT is the scientific and systematic application of strategies and techniques for better outcomes from a processs of teaching and learning. Confused IT referred to computerized education or online courses. IT doesnt mean what kind of tools we use or what kind of forms of learning environment.

10

Definition of Instructional Technology (IT)


Instructional Technology is the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management, and evaluation of process and resources for learning. Barbara Seels, Rita Richey. (1994). Instructional Technology: The Definitions and Domains of the Field. Washington, D.C. , Association for Educational Coommunications and Technology.

11

Definition of Instructional Technology (IT)


The Assocciation for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) (1994) defines IT as the theory and practice of design, development, utilization, management and evaluation of processes and resources for learning. Silber (1970) describes IT as the development of instructional systems components (messages, people, materials, devices, techniques, settings) and the management of the development in a systematic manner with the goal of solving educational problems.
12

Definition of Instructional Technology (IT)


Tickton (1970), instructional technology is a way of designing, carrying out, and evaluating the total process of learning and teaching in terms of specific objectives, based on research in human learning and communication and employing a communication of human and non-human resources to bring about more effective instruction.

13

Definition of Instructional Technology (IT)


Therefore, IT stands as a method, process, or tool used to make instruction more efficient.

14

Definition of Instructional Technology (IT)


Definitions of Instructional technology on the Web: The use of computers, multimedia, and other technological tools to enhance the teaching and learning process. Sometimes referred to as educational technology. www.iteawww.org/TAA/Glossary.htm Instructional technology is the systemic and systematic application of strategies and techniques derived from behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist theories to the solution of instructional problems. www.modares.ac.ir/elearning/Mchizari/AEA/Page/Class%209/definitions.htm The use of technology (computers, compact disc, interactive media, modem, satellite, teleconferencing, etc.) to support learning. www.neiu.edu/~dbehrlic/hrd408/glossary.htm various types of hardware and software, combined with innovative teaching methods, to accommodate students' learning needs in the classroom. (See 377) highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072494638/student_view0/chapter12/glossary.html Instructional technology is the systemic and systematic application of strategies and techniques derived from behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist theories to the solution of instructional problems. Instructional Technology = Instructional Design + Instructional Development Instructional technology is the systematic application of theory and other organized knowledge to the task of instructional design and development. www-personal.umich.edu/~cberger/def-inst.html
15

Definition of Instructional Technology (IT)

Instructional technology is the systemic and systematic application of strategies and techniques derived from behavioral, cognitive, and constructivist theories to the solution of instructional problems. Instructional Technology = Instructional Design + Instructional Development Instructional technology is the systematic application of theory and other organized knowledge to the task of instructional design and development. Instructional Development: The process of implementing the design plans.

16

Instructional Technology

The foundation of IT is instructional design, the process of planning instruction. Instructional design seeks to answer three questions: Where are we going, how will we get there, and how will we know when we arrive? (Beattie, 1999). Instructional design is a process technology completely independent of any hardware or software.

17

References
Albright, M.J. (1995). Reaffirming Instructional technology as an Imperative for Higher Education as We Approach the Third Millennium. Paper presented at the annual conference of the Educational Media Institute, South African Association for Research and Development of Higher Education, Cape Town. Beattie, S. (1999). What is Educational Technology? BiblioTech. 1(1) Available online http://www2.augustana.edu/library/Newsletter1/index.htm . Commission on Instructional Technology. (1970). To improve learning. A report to the President and the Congress of the United States. Washington, D.C: U.S. Government Printing Office. Jones, B.W. (1999). A Differentiating Definition of Instructional Technology and Educational Technology. Available online: http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Campus/7941/trmpprh.html Seels, B.B. and Richey, R.C. (1994). Instructional technology: The definition and domains of the field. Washington, D.C: AECT. Silber, K.H. (1970). What field are we in, anyhow? Audiovisual Instruction, (15(5), pp. 21-24. Tickton, S.G. (1970). To improve learning: An evaluation of instructional technology. New York: R.R. Bowker Company. Websters Dictionary (1989). Edited by Patterson, R.F. and Litt, D. Miami, FL, P.S.I. & Associates, Inc.

18

Thank you

19