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OSI Layers Layered protocol design Layering model is a solution to the problem of complexity in network protocols Model suggests

ts dividing the network protocol into layers, each of which solves part of the network communication problem These layers have several constraints, which ease the design problem Network protocol designed to have a protocol or protocols for each layer The ISO 7-layer reference model International Organization for Standards (IS ! defined a 7-layer reference model as a guide to the design of a network protocol suite "ayers are named and numbered# reference to $$layer n%% often means the nth layer of the IS &'layer reference model (

1) Physical Layer )oncerned with the transmission of bits( *ow many volts for +, how many for ,Number of bits of second to be transmitted( Two way or one'way transmission Standardi.ed protocol dealing with electrical, mechanical and signaling interfaces( HBT 2105 1


Many standards have been developed, e(g( /S'010 (for serial communication lines!( 2xample 3 4(0, *andles errors in the physical layer( 5roups bits into frames and ensures their correct delivery( 6dds some bits at the beginning and end of each frame plus the checksum( /eceiver verifies the checksum( If the checksum is not correct, it asks for retransmission( (send a control message!( )onsists of two sublayers3 "ogical "ink )ontrol ("")! defines how data is transferred over the cable and provides data link service to the higher layers( Medium 6ccess )ontrol (M6)! defines who can use the network when multiple computers are trying to access it simultaneously (i(e( Token passing, 2thernet 7)SM68)9:!( )oncerned with the transmission of packets( )hoose the best path to send a packet ( routing !( It may be complex in a large network (e(g( Internet!( Shortest (distance! route vs( route with least delay( Static (long term average! vs( dynamic (current load! routing( Two protocols are most widely used( $%2& )onnection riented ;ublic networks, telephone, 2uropean ;TT Send a call re<uest at the outset to the destination If destination accepts the connection, it sends an connection identifier IP (Internet Protocol) )onnectionless ;art of Internet protocol suite( 6n I; pac et can be sent without a connection being established( 2ach packet is routed to its destination independently( Network layer does not deal with lost messages( Transport layer ensures reliable service( =reaks the message (from sessions layer! into smaller packets, assigns se<uence number and sends them( /eliable transport connections are built on top of 4(0> or I;( In case I;, lost packets arriving out of order must be reordered( T); 3 (Transport )ontrol ;rotocol! Internet transport protocol( T);8I; ?idely used for network8transport layer (@NI4!( @9; (@niversal 9atagram ;rotocol! 3 Internet connectionless transport layer protocol( 6pplication programs that do not need connection'oriented protocol generally use @9;( Aust theoryB Cery few applications use it( 2nhanced version of transport layer( 9ialog control, synchroni.ation facilities( /arely supported (Internet suite does not!( HBT 2105 2

(2) Data Lin Layer

(!) "et#or Layer

(') Transport Layer

(&) Sessions Layer


(() Presentation Layer Aust theoryB Cery few applications use it( )oncerned with the semantics of the bits( 9efine records and fields in them( Sender can tell the receiver of the format( Makes machines with different internal representations to communicate( If implemented, the best layer for cryptography( )ollection of miscellaneous protocols for high level applications 2lectronic mail, file transfer, connecting remote terminals, etc( 2(g( SMT;, DT;, Telnet, *TT;, etc(

(7) )pplication Layer

ISO*OSI "et#or +odel The standard model for networking protocols and distributed applications is the International Standard rgani.ation%s pen System Interconnect (IS 8 SI! model( It defines seven network layers( "ayer , ' ;hysical ;hysical layer defines the cable or physical medium itself, e(g(, thinnet, thicknet, unshielded twisted pairs (@T;!( 6ll media are functionally e<uivalent( The main difference is in convenience and cost of installation and maintenance( )onverters from one media to another operate at this level( "ayer 0 ' 9ata "ink 9ata "ink layer defines the format of data on the network( 6 network data frame, aka packet, includes checksum, source and destination address, and data( The largest packet that can be sent through a data link layer defines the Maximum Transmission @nit (MT@!( The data link layer handles the physical and logical connections to the packet%s destination, using a network interface( 6 host connected to an 2thernet would have an 2thernet interface to handle connections to the outside world, and a loopback interface to send packets to itself( 2thernet addresses a host using a uni<ue, EF'bit address called its 2thernet address or Media 6ccess )ontrol (M6)! address( M6) addresses are usually represented as six colon'separated pairs of hex digits, e(g(, F3+30+3,,3ac3F>( This number is uni<ue and is associated with a particular 2thernet device( *osts with multiple network interfaces should use the same M6) address on each( The data link layer%s protocol'specific header specifies the M6) address of the packet%s source and destination( ?hen a packet is sent to all hosts (broadcast!, a special M6) address (ff3ff3ff3ff3ff3ff! is used( "ayer 1 ' Network NDS uses Internetwork ;rotocol (I;! as its network layer interface( I; is responsible for routing, directing datagrams from one network to another( The network layer may have to break large datagrams, larger than MT@, into smaller packets and host receiving the packet will have to reassemble the fragmented datagram( The Internetwork ;rotocol identifies each host with a 10'bit I; address( I; addresses are written as four dot'separated decimal numbers between + and 0>>, e(g(, ,0G(&G(,H(E+( The leading ,'1 bytes of the I; identify the network and the remaining bytes identifies the host on that network( The network portion of the I; is assigned by InterNI) /egistration Services, under the contract to the National Science Doundation, and the host portion of the I; is assigned by the local network administrators, locally by nocIindiana(edu( Dor large sites, usually subnetted like ours, the first two bytes represents the network portion of the I;, and the third and fourth bytes identify the subnet and host respectively( 2ven though I; packets are addressed using I; addresses, hardware addresses must be used to actually transport data from one host to another( The 6ddress /esolution ;rotocol (6/;! is used to map the I; address to it hardware address( "ayer E ' Transport Fred @JKUAT HBT 2105 3

Transport layer subdivides user'buffer into network'buffer si.ed datagrams and enforces desired transmission control( Two transport protocols, Transmission )ontrol ;rotocol (T);! and @ser 9atagram ;rotocol (@9;!, sits at the transport layer( /eliability and speed are the primary difference between these two protocols( T); establishes connections between two hosts on the network through %sockets% which are determined by the I; address and port number( T); keeps track of the packet delivery order and the packets that must be resent( Maintaining this information for each connection makes T); a stateful protocol( @9; on the other hand provides a low overhead transmission service, but with less error checking( NDS is built on top of @9; because of its speed and statelessness( Statelessness simplifies the crash recovery( "ayer > ' Session The session protocol defines the format of the data sent over the connections( The NDS uses the /emote ;rocedure )all (/;)! for its session protocol( /;) may be built on either T); or @9;( "ogin sessions uses T); whereas NDS and broadcast use @9;( "ayer H ' ;resentation 2xternal 9ata /epresentation (49/! sits at the presentation level( It converts local representation of data to its canonical form and vice versa( The canonical uses a standard byte ordering and structure packing convention, independent of the host( "ayer & ' 6pplication ;rovides network services to the end'users( Mail, ftp, telnet, 9NS, NIS, NDS are examples of network applications( T,P*IP "et#or +odel 6lthough the SI model is widely used and often cited as the standard, T);8I; protocol has been used by most @nix workstation vendors( T);8I; is designed around a simple four'layer scheme( It does omit some features found under the SI model( 6lso it combines the features of some adJacent SI layers and splits other layers apart( The four network layers defined by T);8I; model are as follows( "ayer , ' "ink This layer defines the network hardware and device drivers( "ayer 0 ' Network This layer is used for basic communication, addressing and routing( T);8I; uses I; and I)M; protocols at the network layer( "ayer 1 ' Transport *andles communication among programs on a network( T); and @9; falls within this layer( "ayer E ' 6pplication 2nd'user applications reside at this layer( )ommonly used applications include NDS, 9NS, arp, rlogin, talk, ftp, ntp and traceroute( OSI +odel Layers

Layer )pplication /ser Interface Fred @JKUAT


"et#or ,omponents 9NS# DT;# TDT;# 0ate#ay used for applications specifically written = T;# to run over the network allows access to network services that SNM;#/" 5IN# HBT 2105 4


Presentation Translation

Session 2syncs and sessions2

Transport pac ets3 flo# control 4 error-handling


support applications# SMT;# MIM2# NDS# DIN52/# directly represents the services that T2"N2T# N);# directly support user applications handles network access, flow control and 6;;)# 6D;# SM= error recovery 2xample apps are file transfer,e'mail, Net=I S'based applications 0ate#ay Translates from application to network 1edirector format and vice'versa all different formats from all sources are made into a common uniform format that the rest of the SI model can understand responsible for protocol conversion, character conversion,data encryption 8 decryption, expanding graphics commands, data compression sets standards for different systems to provide seamless communication from multiple protocol stacks not always implemented in a network protocol 0ate#ay establishes, maintains and ends sessions Net=I S Names ;ipes across the network Mail Slots responsible for name recognition /;) (identification! so only the designated parties can participate in the session provides synchroni.ation services by planning check points in the data stream KL if session fails, only data after the most recent checkpoint need be transmitted manages who can transmit data at a certain time and for how long 2xamples are interactive login and file transfer connections, the session would connect and re'connect if there was an interruption# recogni.e names in sessions and register names in history additional connection below the session T);, 6/;, /6/;# 0ate#ay S;4 )d5anced ,a6le layer N?"ink Tester manages the flow control of data Net=I S 8 7ro.ter between parties across the network Net=2@I divides streams of data into chunks or 6T; packets# the transport layer of the receiving computer reassembles the message from packets MtrainM is a good analogy KL the data is divided into identical units provides error'checking to guarantee error'free data delivery, with on losses or duplications provides acknowledgment of successful HBT 2105

"et#or addressing3 ro.ting

Data Lin data frames to 6its

transmissions# re<uests retransmission if some packets donNt arrive error'free provides flow control and error'handling translates logical network address and IP# 6/;# /6/;, 7ro.ter I)M;# /I;# SD;# 1o.ter names to their physical address (e(g( I5M;# -rame 1elay computername KKL M6) address! IP$ De5ice responsible for N?"ink )T+ S#itch addressing Net=2@I )d5anced ,a6le determining routes for sending SI Tester managing network problems 99; such as packet switching, data 92)net congestion and routing if router canNt send data frame as large as the source computer sends, the network layer compensates by breaking the data into smaller units( 6t the receiving end, the network layer reassembles the data think of this layer stamping the addresses on each train car 7ridge turns packets into raw bits ,++,+, and at Logical Lin S#itch the receiving end turns bits into packets( ,ontrol ISD" 1o.ter error handles data frames between the correctio Intelligent 8.6 Network and ;hysical layers n and "I, the receiving end packages raw data )d5anced ,a6le flow from the ;hysical layer into data frames Tester control for delivery to the Network layer manages responsible for error'free transfer of link frames to other computer via the ;hysical control "ayer and this layer defines the methods used to defines transmit and receive data on the network( S6;s It consists of the wiring, the devices use F+0(, SI Model to connect the NI) to the wiring, the F+0(0 "ogical "ink signaling involved to transmit 8 receive )ontrol


HBT 2105

data and the ability to detect signaling errors on the network media

Physical hard#are3 ra# 6it stream

+edia )ccess ,ontrol communi cates with the adapter card controls the type of media being used3 F+0(1 )SM68)9 (2thernet! F+0(E Token =us (6/)net! F+0(> Token /ing F+0(,0 9emand ;riority 1epeater transmits raw bit stream over physical I222 F+0 I222 F+0(0 +.ltiple9er cable IS 0,,+ 8.6s defines cables, cards, and physical IS9N Passi5e aspects )cti5e defines NI) attachments to hardware, TD1 how cable is attached to NI) Oscilloscope defines techni<ues to transfer bit stream )mplifier to cable


HBT 2105