Anda di halaman 1dari 89

An Inquiry into the Collective Identity of Music Therapists in Canada

Christine Lee Anne Dibble

Wilfrid Laurier University Faculty of Music Music Therapy Program Supervisor: Dr. Carolyn L. R. Arnason, DA, MTA
Methodological Key words:
Qualitative Research, Modified Grounded Theory, Non-positivist, Abductive Reasoning, Basic Research, Philosophical Research, Profession Research

Content Key words:

Music Therapy, History of Music Therapy in Canada and the US, Identity, Collective Identity

Christine Dibble is from British Columbia, and received her undergraduate degree in Music Therapy from Capilano University, North Vancouver, in 2009. She graduated from the Master of Music Therapy program at Wilfrid Laurier University in 2010. Christine received her Diploma in Music, General Studies majoring in piano, from Kwantlen Polytechnic University in 2004. Christine has had an eclectic academic experience over the last eight years of postsecondary training, which included a variety of courses in everything from oil painting, criminology, French literature, Spanish and German language to archaeology, history of geometry and drawing. It seems conceivable that Christine also has an eclectic approach to music therapy, which is influenced by a variety of theoretical foundations from her training at Capilano and Wilfrid Laurier. Christine is a client-centered, humanist, and music-centered music therapist who enjoys working with a variety of clients in a variety of ways. Christine has recently started her own music therapy studio called Music for Life in her hometown of White Rock, BC.

The purpose of this qualitative research study is to explore the concept of collective identity with professional music therapists in Canada, and to discover how we view ourselves presently as a profession. The literature review explores the history of music therapy in the US and in Canada, as well as the concepts of identity and collective identity, in order to create a context for the research results. A modified grounded theory approach was used to analyze and interpret nine email and interview surveys collected from accredited music therapists across Canada. The majority of participants believe that music therapists in Canada do have a collective identity, which is described according to the themes of Commonality and Diversity. In the culminate chapter, future research ideas are suggested that expand beyond this exploratory study. The discussion and closing thoughts convey an important realization, and reveal the relevance of the research findings.


Thank-you to
My family for supporting me in all my academic adventures over the last eight years, and for believing in my dreams as much as I do. A special thank-you to Fern Connor, who has always seen me for who I am and has believed in me and supported me throughout my life. You have given me the greatest gift of all: Music! My research participants: without your enthusiasm and contributions, this study could not have been possible. Thank-you for sharing with us your experiences, perspectives, and beliefs. My research supervisor, Dr. Carolyn Arnason, for trusting my intuition and for guiding me throughout this complex journey. Her insights and awareness helped to inspire and focus my research. All of her time and effort in being a sounding board throughout this process has meant a great deal to me. Thank-you Carolyn for all your ardent sincerity, facile communication, and tireless support. My editor and partner extraordinaire, Scott Yetman, whose keen eyes and expert knowledge of all things literary helped to make this paper really shine. Thank-you for all the countless hours spent pouring over drafts, brewing many pots of tea, your perpetual patience, and for believing in me and supporting me every step of the way. My qualitative research instructor, Dr. Heidi Ahonen, for teaching the Master of Music Therapy students the ins and outs of qualitative research: your knowledge, patience, and openness to our learning processes is really remarkable. Thank-you for your thoughts during the Data Analysis Workshop, which contributed, to a new awareness about my research topic. Our program director for the MMT program at Laurier, Dr. Colin Lee: thank-you for your interest in all of our research studies, and for being so supportive in all that weve strived to accomplish. And last but certainly not least, to my classmates, my peers, the MMT class of 2010: thank-you for your input, thoughts, and ideas generated during the Data Analysis Workshop presentations. You really gave me a lot to think about and challenged me to push myself even harder to make this study the best I could possibly make it. A special thank-you to Naoko Matsumura McKee, who inspired the final title of this study. I truly appreciate and admire you all.


Table of Contents
Abstract Acknowledgements Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures i ii iii v vi

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose of the Study 1.2 Research Questions 1.3 Stance of the Researcher

1 2 3

Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.1 Literature Review Process 2.2 Literature Review History of Music Therapy in the United States History of Music Therapy in Canada Identity Collective Identity

7 8 8 11 17 21

Chapter 3 Methodology
3.1 Research Design Research Paradigm: Qualitative Epistemological View Abductive Reasoning Research Methodology Research Questions and their Development Authenticity & Trustworthiness of Research Methods 3.2 Data Collection & Participants

24 24 24 25 25 27 29 31

iv 3.3 Data Analysis & Interpretation Modified Grounded Theory Stages of Data Analysis 33 33 34

Chapter 4 Results & Discussion

4.1 Introduction of Results Themes, Category, and Sub Categories Found 4.2 Exploring the Research Questions Identity Influences of Identity Collective Identity Collective Identity Across Canada 4.3 Results from the Data Analysis Workshop 4.4 Dialoguing with the Literature Review Identity Collective Identity Theoretical Influences & Province of Origin

40 40 41 41 43 45 49 51 52 52 53 54

Chapter 5 Realization
5.1 Relevance of Findings 5.2 Evaluation of Research 5.3 Future Research Ideas 5.4 Closing Thoughts

56 57 60 61

References Appendices
Appendix A: Letters of Recruitment Appendix B: Informed Consent Statement Appendix C: Survey & Interview Questions Appendix D: Initial Research Process Diagram Appendix E: Open Coding Mind Map Appendix F: Synthesis Mind Map Appendix G: Glossary of Methodological Terms

62 67
67 69 72 73 74 78 81

List of Tables
Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Diagram of Themes & Categories Found Theoretical Influences & Regions of Canada Collective Identity Across Canada 40 41 49


List of Figures
Figure 1 Figure 2 Exploration Mind Map Axial Coding Mind Map 36 37

Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose of the Study The purpose of this research study is to explore the concept of collective identity with professional music therapists in Canada and to discover how we see ourselves as a profession today. I am conducting this study because I am curious to know where we stand as a profession in times of theoretical shift and as our field evolves. The theoretical shift I refer to comes from the College of Psychotherapy that is being established in Ontario. This college will potentially encompass a wide variety of therapists, and will potentially be the first governing body to regulate music therapy in Canada.

The process that led me to the topic of collective identity came from initial research meetings. Originally I had chosen the topic of music therapy and stroke recovery, but I soon discovered that would be more appropriate for a quantitative paradigm. I shifted my focus and left myself open to inspiration from any source: course materials, textbooks, novels, and discussions with peers. I gained interest in the concept of identity through reading Mandells (2007) book, Revisiting the Use of Self: Questioning Professional Identities, during a social work course, The Use of Self. The topic of identity was presented with discussion about the ideas of intersubjectivity, selfawareness and diversity (Mandell, 2007). Questioning professional identities made me think about the profession of music therapy. This generated internal questions like: Do we have an identity as music therapists? What are other music therapists ideas, thoughts and perspectives about identity? What about a collective identity? Do we identify with each other to the point that we feel we have a collective identity as music therapists in

2 Canada? These questions intrigued me as a student and soon to be music therapy professional. What would I find in the music therapy community when I graduated? I drew an image to represent the initial stages of my research process (see Appendix D). I have included it for the reader as a context to my research process as I used diagrams and mind maps to analyze and interpret participant data (see Appendices E, and F).

I wanted to study the collective identity of music therapists in Canada because I am fascinated by the concepts of identity and collective identity, and I wanted to create a discussion and hear the perspectives of other music therapy professionals. I am interested in discovering peoples ideas and viewpoints about many subjects; I am an inquisitive person who enjoys learning about many things. This topic directly relates to my world, as I am a music therapist in Canada. I am constantly constructing and deconstructing my personal and professional identities as I shift from a previous view of self as musician to an immerging identity as music therapist.

1.2 Research Questions My main research objective is to discover what music therapists in Canada think about collective identity, and if they believe one currently exists. My secondary objective is to discover what differences, if any, there are in the ideas of collective identity across Canada, and to understand why they exist. Will there be a consensus about collective identity? My tertiary research objective is to explore what elements contribute to collective identity: what does it mean, and how is it defined?

3 My research objectives led to the formulation of three major research questions: 1) What is our collective identity as music therapists in Canada? 2) What personal beliefs, values, and/or theoretical backgrounds influence and/or contribute to this identity? 3) Are there similarities and/or differences in the idea of collective identity across Canada?

1.3 Stance of the Researcher

Everything about the study-its focus, its design, its methods of gathering data, its approach to data analysis, its findings and conclusions-is determined or implemented by the researcher, not according to pre-established rules of science but on the basis of the researchers values, beliefs and pre-understandings being uncovered from moment to moment as she or he studies the phenomenon (Bruscia, 2005b, p. 129).

I have some knowledge about music therapy in Canada, as I am a music therapist in Canada. I completed my Bachelors of Music Therapy training at Capilano University in North Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) and am currently working on my Masters of Music Therapy at Wilfrid Laurier University (WLU) in Waterloo, Ontario. I am a student member of the Music Therapy Association of BC, and the Canadian Association of Music Therapy (CAMT).

My theoretical beliefs are influenced by my studies, and I identify with an eclectic approach to my clinical work through client-centered, humanist, music-centered, and behavioral models. I undertake my clinical practice eclectically because my clients are diverse; as Carolyn Kenny said, Each individual has different needs, at different times, in different places. My work reflects a humanist perspective as I aim to provide the best

4 therapy for my clients where they are in the here and now (Yalom & Leszcz, 2005). I am client-centered because my role as therapist is to focus on client need. I have adopted the music-centered approach from WLU because as a pianist, I resonate with the freedom, creative expression, and insight that musical improvisation can provide. I also adopt behavioral elements in my work from Capilano, as they may provide more structure and goal-oriented therapy.

My personal beliefs based on my Christian faith background, as well as my love of music, influenced me to enter the field of music therapy. I have a deep love and respect for human life, and I value human existence. I wanted to have a meaningful career; something that fulfilled my mind and soul, giving me a sense of well being and worth. I find sharing my experiences with others fulfilling, whether it be through music, time, or through helping others. When I discovered music therapy I immediately thought, This is for me. This is my purpose. It is my calling.

To me, identity is how we see ourselves, and the many aspects of self that form who we are as a person. There could be an infinite amount of elements that compose the essence of a person, some of which may include: life experiences, family, peer groups, genetic pre-disposition, gender orientation, faith background, personal beliefs, values, culture, and geographic location. These elements are constantly influenced by our environment and life experiences, and may change over time. I believe that we may have a core identity or essence that speaks to who we truly are.

5 The idea of collective identity is philosophical and difficult to clearly define. I think a collective is a group of individuals who are united in some way. But what defines unity? How similar do these individuals have to be, to be considered a collective? I believe that collective identity is in the eye of the beholder: if group members believe themselves to be united in some way by their commonalities, then they may see themselves as a collective despite their individual differences. How they see themselves becomes how they choose to define themselves. I believe that like identity, many different elements could contribute to the essence of the collective identity, and that this identity has the potential to change over time.

I have structured this paper within five chapters, beginning with the introductory chapter, followed by the literature review, methodology, results and discussion, and realization. The rationale for this structure is to provide the reader with context for the study before leading them chronologically through the processes of the research, how the data were collected, analyzed and interpreted, the results of the data and what they mean, and finally to a conclusion. Chapter one includes the purpose of the study, the research questions, and the stance of the researcher. This will help the reader to create a picture of how the study is colored by my perspectives, opinions, and experiences. Chapter two contains the literature review process and the literature review itself. This is to provide background context for the reader about the evolution of the profession, and theoretical approaches, of music therapy in North America. This directly relates to my second research question, as it asks what theoretical approaches influence identity. Chapter three is an illustration of the methodology used, and is meant to explain the processes of how

6 data were collected, analyzed and interpreted. Chapter four will present and discuss results of the study, and relate them to the literature review for further clarification. Peer results from the Data Analysis Workshop were used to review the themes, category (there was only one major category found), and sub categories found in the data. Chapter five will conclude the study with a discussion on the relevance of the findings, an evaluation of the research study itself, and future research ideas.

I am hoping to find any ties that bind music therapists in Canada as a collective, although I am aware that each participant has their own subjective reality. Because of this, there may not be a single theme that they will all have in common. There may, however, be similar theoretical foundations or approaches to clinical practice, educational backgrounds, or personal beliefs, which influenced and motivated participants to enter this field. I am hoping this study will shed light on these topics in order to further our understanding about how we view ourselves presently as a profession.

Chapter 2 Literature Review

2.1 Literature Review Process As I was finding articles, books, and other sources to be used as references, I was not able to find published research on the collective identity of music therapists in Canada. The only reference I found about collective identity and music therapy was Bruscias (1998) book, Defining Music Therapy, 2nd Edition. I found articles about the history of music therapy in Canada and the US, but could not find books on the former. Many of these historical sources were dated; they were published in the 1980s. I was able to find current sources, from 2009, about music therapy training programs and the history of music therapy in Canada from the Voices: A world forum for music therapy website. The sources of identity and collective were not necessarily related to the research topic; they were written from psychological, psychoanalytic and social psychological viewpoints. I believe there are opportunities for further research about identity and collective identity in the field of music therapy in Canada.

The rationale for including a literature review is to create a context for the reader as this study pertains to the profession of music therapy in Canada, the theoretical influences and beliefs of those professionals, and their ideas and perspectives of identity and collective identity. The literature review begins with the history of music therapy in the US to show the reader how the growth of the field in the US aided the development of the profession in Canada. It also demonstrates the influence of theoretical approaches within Canada from the US and Europe. The following section on the history of music therapy in Canada shows the reader how the field was established and describes the

8 influences of theoretical perspectives from our pioneers and our training programs. The sections on identity and collective identity are to give the reader a sense of the various definitions of these concepts, and to inform the results of this study.

2.2 Literature Review History of Music Therapy in the United States

To understand current perspectives in our practice we need to look at our past and to seek out the situations which have influenced directions we have taken (Bonny, 1984, p. 4).

In North America, the first documented clinical use of music originated in the US in 1832 (Brontons et al., 1997). Columbia University in New York established the first course in music therapy in 1919, taught by Margaret Anderton and later by Isa Maud Ilsen; an official undergraduate program was not in place until 1952 (de lEtoile, 2000). Music therapy was initially being taught in hospitals with hospital music directors establishing the guidelines for lecture courses and clinical work (de lEtoile, 2000). Musicotherapy, as music therapy was then known, was being taught as the psychophysiological action of music (de lEtoile, 2000). Students, who were hospital musicians, were required not only to have a knowledge of music, but also of physics, psychology, anatomy and physiology (de lEtoile, 2000, p. 53). Columbia University held the most prominent training program in the US until the 1940s (de lEtoile, 2000).

Different colleges and hospitals across the US began implementing their own lecture series and courses on music therapy. The prominent theoretical beliefs and ideas that were being presented were of the psychodynamic, psychiatric and psychologic views

9 (de lEtoile, 2000). As training programs evolved, they promoted the popular psychologies of the day (Bonny, 1984). In the 1940s, there was a focus on the therapeutic effects of music from the viewpoints of psychology, and the psychology of music influenced by Roy Underwood; the influence of music on behaviour and elements of music education from the viewpoint of psychology and psychiatry, influenced by Dr. Ira Atlshuler and E. Thayer Gaston (Bonny, 1984; de lEtoile, 2000; Shugar, 1984). In the 1950s, music education was also influencing music therapy practices as many early training courses were offered through music or music education faculties (Bonny, 1984; de lEtoile, 2000).

In the 1960s the theoretical influence of the day was behaviouralism (Bonny, 1984), or as it is known today as behaviorism, which was influenced by Donald E. Michel, who wrote an introductory text on music therapy as a behavioural science (de lEtoile, 2000; Shugar, 1984). The work of Charles Braswell also influenced this era: he established an outline of courses in music therapy to be used as a training manual for students (de lEtoile, 2000, p. 65), supported student involvement in music therapy research, and suggested curriculum focus on sociology and group dynamics, as opposed to the traditional emphasis on psychology (Braswell as cited in de lEtoile, 2000, p. 6667). In the 1980s the focus became a wholistic approach; looking at clinical techniques that could work with the whole person (Bonny, 1984).

In 1944, music department chair Roy Underwood established the first official curriculum leading to a Bachelors Degree in Music Therapy at Michigan State College,

10 with a focus on the therapeutic effects of music based in psychology (de lEtoile, 2000). In 1945, plans for another program at the University of Kansas were taking shape (de lEtoile, 2000). In 1948, under the consultation of E. Thayer Gaston, one of the grandfathers of music therapy in the US, and psychiatrist Dr. Ira Altshuler, the first graduate degree offered in music therapy, the Masters of Music Education in Functional Music, was established (de lEtoile, 2000; Shugar, 1984). Courses in this program were focused on the psychology of music and the influence of music on behaviour (de lEtoile, 2000). Gastons curriculum focused on the function of music as being central to the therapeutic process as opposed to the aesthetic value of the music itself (de lEtoile, 2000, p. 60).

Other training programs were developed during the 1940s. In 1947, at the College of the Pacific, Wilhemina Harbert, the head of the music education department, developed a degree program (de lEtoile, 2000). In 1948, Alverno College in Wisconsin offered a Bachelor of Music degree with a major in music therapy in association with the Sacred Heart School of Nursing, which was directed by Sister Xaveria, a Franciscan nun (de lEtoile, 2000). A music therapy department was created at the Chicago Musical College in which the director, Esther Goetz Gilliand, implemented a curriculum including musicology, music education, sociology, psychology, psychiatry, biology and an understanding of patients diseases and symptoms (de lEtoile, 2000, p. 61). Gilliand focused on the the psychology of music, the influence of music on behaviour and the theory and practice of music therapy (de lEtoile, 2000, p. 61).

11 In 1950, the National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT) was founded by members of the Music Teachers National Association at the American Music Center in New York City. Their goal was to promote the progressive development of the use of music in medicine, and to help assist training programs to develop, and maintain standards of training for hospital musicians and music therapists (de lEtoile, 2000, p. 64). An Education Committee was formed, chaired by Roy Underwood, at the first annual conference of the NAMT in December 1950 (de lEtoile, 2000). Efforts were made towards a nationally-recognized undergraduate curriculum, which was presented by Underwood in 1952 (De LEtoile, 2000). The NAMT began publishing a journal, the National Association for Music Therapy Journal (NAMTJ) in 1964, which spoke to clinical practice, theoretical approaches, and music therapy research (Bonny, 1984).

History of Music Therapy in Canada

Intellectual curiosity is a uniquely human trait that needs no further justification. Much like music itself, history has value in and of itself without reference to other aspects of human endeavor (Heller, 2000, p. 245).

Music therapy in Canada began in the 1950s with three key figures working independently throughout the country: Fran Herman in Toronto, who was instrumental in forming the provincial association in Ontario, Thrse Pageau in Montral, who worked to form the provincial association in Qubec, and Norma Sharpe in Ontario, who organized conferences that lead to the founding of the CAMT (Alexander, 1993, p. 3; Buchanan, 2009; Moffitt, 1993, p. 132-133). Herman began working with children with special needs in 1955, and by 1956 had established The Wheelchair Players at what is now known as Bloorview Hospital in Toronto (Buchanan, 2009). She has served as

12 president of the music therapy association of Ontario and the CAMT, and has worked for the Canadian Music Therapy Trust Fund for the last ten years (Buchanan, 2009). Another pioneer in Canada was Dorothy Twente Sommers, who was the first music therapist to establish a provincial classification for music therapy in Saskatchewan in the mid 1950s (Moffitt, 1993, p. 133).

Herman, Pageau, and Sharpe received their training in the US and England under other music therapy pioneers such as Juliet Alvin, Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins, and were instrumental in the establishment of the CAMT in 1974 (Alexander, 1993; Moffitt, 1993). Other pioneers and music therapy practitioners were also key in bringing the CAMT to life: Susan Munro, Carolyn Kenny, Nancy McMaster, Valerie Ivy, Bill Shugar, Earl Charbonneau, Darlene Berringer, Connie Isenberg-Grzeda and others (Shugar, 2009). The founding group discovered strength in their diversity of backgrounds and experiences (Alexander, 1993). The chief goals of the CAMT in its earlier days were to improve music therapist recognition in the workplace, encourage and evaluate music therapy courses being offered throughout Canada, to encourage the organization of provincial association chapters, and to be a resource center for music therapists, students, educators, and the public (Alexander, 1993, p. 4).

Early on, the first Board of Directors looked to what was being done in the US with the NAMT and AAMT, and also looked to Germany and France for inspiration (Shugar, 2009). The first CAMT conference was held in St. Thomas, Ontario, in 1974 (Shugar, 2009, Para. 10). The first CAMT journal was published in 1974 and the first

13 newsletter in 1975 (Alexander, 1993; Moffitt, 1993). In 1979, the first accreditation candidates to hold the MTA (music therapist accredited) status were approved (Alexander, 1993; Moffitt, 1993). Today, there are chapters of the CAMT in every province of Canada except for the Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut, and the Maritime Provinces (Newfoundland & Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick) are united into one chapter.

Carolyn Kenny and Nancy McMaster were collaborating on a music therapy study, the Childrens Spontaneous Music Workshops, funded by the government during the mid 1970s in Vancouver, BC (Moffitt, 1993), and subsequently established the first Canadian music therapy training program at Capilano in North Vancouver in 1976 (Alexander, 1993; Burke, 1983; Howard, 2009; McMaster, Moffitt, Avery, Beatty, Carverhill, 1988; Moffitt, 1989). After their time with these workshops and before the program was established, both McMaster and Kenny completed music therapy training. McMaster completed the Nordoff-Robbins course in England at the Goldie Leigh hospital through the Guildhall School of Music in London, and studied with Paul Nordoff and Clive Robbins (Howard, 2009). Kenny completed the two-year equivalency program in Music Therapy at Loyola University in New Orleans (Howard, 2009).

The program at Capilano draws from the education curriculum of these countries to create a unique approach (Burke, 1983). In an article published on the Voices website, Nancy McMaster writes about the influences of the program at Capilano:
Awareness of altered states of consciousness, the music and values of other cultures, and disenchantment about conventions of power and inequality were contributing influences. So [Carolyn and I] were naturally aligned with humanist,

existential and transpersonal perspectives of Rogers, Maslow, Jung and Assagioli (Nancy McMaster as cited in Howard, 2009, Para. 17).

The training is eclectic and draws from a variety of theoretical models and different styles of treatment with the main theoretical foundation being humanism (Burke, 1983; McMaster et al., 1988; Moffitt, 1993; Shugar, 1984; Shugar, 1987). The program at Capilano was designed around the concept that every human being has an inner core which is a source of awareness, responsiveness, understanding, health, creativity, motivation and ability. Partnership between this inner being in clients and therapists is seen as a key to effective intervention (McMaster et al., 1988, p. 36). The program is also infused with McMaster and Kennys spiritual perspectives; McMasters view of the nature and potentials of human Beings (Nancy McMaster as cited in Howard, 2009, Para. 17), and Kennys First Nations heritage (Howard, 2009). Their shared interest in Eastern philosophies also had a powerful influence on the program (Howard, 2009).

Originally a two-year diploma, the program at Capilano became a four-year Bachelors program in 1990, with an internship administered by the CAMT, much like the NAMT model in the US (Alexander, 1993; Moffitt, 1989). Kenny also helped to establish the first Masters level Music Therapy training program in Canada through BCs Open University with Capilano College; thereby providing an opportunity for experienced Canadian music therapists to deepen their awareness, scholarship and clinical work in a Canadian graduate music therapy program (Howard, 2009, Para. 50). The program was short lived with only ten graduates (Howard, 2009).

15 According to Moffitt (1993), the main theoretical influence in the West Coast of Canada is humanism coming from a holistic model. Improvisational approaches may lend themselves to the here and now focus of Gestalt therapy, and there is an increasing influence from Carl Jung and the Guided Imagery and Music approach (Moffitt, 1993, p. 141). Other influences include Buber and Rogers writings on the therapist/client relationship, which sees two individuals meeting together to learn, grow and create together, the psychodynamic model influenced by Mary Priestleys approach, the medical model, behavioural model, and the influence of Carolyn Kennys view of music therapy as its own model based on the dynamic triadic relationship between the music, the client, and the therapist (Moffitt, 1993, p. 141).

In 1985, a French-speaking training program started at the University of Qubec in Montral, through a committee led by Susan Munro, and later by Connie IsenbergGrzeda (Alexander, 1993; Isenberg-Grzeda, 1985; Moffitt, 1993). Munro graduated from Englands Fuildhall School of Music and Dramas music therapy program, which was founded by Juliette Alvin, in 1973, and she pioneered the use of music therapy in palliative care at The Royal Victoria Palliative Care Unit in Montral. The first introductory music therapy course was taught at University of Qubec in 1977, and had a psychoeducational orientation revolving around the interactions between the client, the therapist and the music (Isenberg-Grzeda, 1985; Moffitt, 1993). The program included a variety of approaches, models and theories including: psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational, psychodynamic and humanistic, behavioural, active and receptive music therapy, psychology, and social sciences, with improvisational music being the

16 focus (Isenberg-Grzeda, 1985; Moffitt, 1993). The program, which is now closed, adopted from many different schools of thought which characterize music therapy practice in several countries, most notably, Canada, the U. S., England and France (Isenberg-Grzeda, 1985, p. 55).

The first English-speaking degree program began in 1986 at WLU under the department head Dr. Rosemary Fisher (Alexander, 1993; Moffitt, 1993). The program is clinically oriented, academically and musically rigorous, with a focus on performance skills, academic strength, psychology, and the influence of music on behaviour (Hall, 1985; Moffitt, 1993). The Master of Music Therapy (MMT) program (, Faculty of Music, Music Therapy), which was established in 2002, is music-centered, humanistic, and integrated; theoretical aspects are incorporated into the development of clinical techniques, both musical and humanistic. Currently the program is based on a music-centered psychotherapy approach, and is influenced by program director Dr. Colin Lees (1996, 2003) focus on music-centered aesthetic music therapy.

Research director of the Manfred and Penny Conrad Institute for Music Therapy Research (, Dr. Heidi Ahonen (2007; Ahonen & Houde, 2009), influences the MMT program with a focus on the psychoanalytic and psychodynamic aspects of music therapy. Dr. Ahonens research program currently covers a wide range of qualitative, Group Analytic Music Therapy and Music Psychotherapy research, Low Frequency Sound Wave research, and early intervention research. Dr. Carolyn Arnason (2003, 2006) also resides as a faculty member, and her influences on the program include

17 her studies on musical transparency and her focus on arts-based research (Arnason & Seabrook, 2010).

Today, there are six undergraduate music therapy training programs in Canada: Acadia University in Nova Scotia, Capilano in BC, the University of Windsor in Ontario, University of Qubec in Montral, Concordia University in Qubec, Mennonite Canadian University in Manitoba, and WLU in Ontario. There are two graduate training programs: one is the MMT program at WLU, and the other is a Master of Arts program with art therapy and drama therapy options, and a Graduate Certificate in music therapy, from Concordia.

Although the concept of self may be differently conceived within different theoretical traditions, there seems to be some general common understanding that self refers to our own person, to what I feel and think about myself (Ruud, 1997, p. 5).

There are many different ways to define or describe identity, and there is no general consensus within academic communities as to its precise definition (Ruud, 1997). Identity is a complex, philosophical idea that consists of different elements and perspectives: from the self outwards, from the self inwards, and by others viewing us. Identity is defined as, the condition of being oneself or itself, and not another, condition or character as to who a person or what a thing is, and the sense of self ( Unabridged, retrieved February 20, 2010). Identity can be thought of as an idea, a concept (Allen, 1996; Erikson, 1980; MacDonald, Hargreaves & Miell, 2002; Ruud, 1997), a being, a condition, a metaphor (Ruud, 1997) and a knowing. According to

18 Allen (1996), the concept of identity refers to the possession of a clear and stable picture of ones goals, interests, and talents (p. 152). It can refer to persons unique personal characteristics like name, age, gender, profession, as well as their inner self; a persons consciousness, awareness and experience of being uniquely different from others (Ruud, 1997, p. 5).

The concept of identity that MacDonald et al. (2002) and Ruud (1997) speak of is the idea of the self as an unchanging core aspect of personality; a personal essence, an inner core, the very Me (Rudd, 1997, p. 5). Pushcar (2009) describes identity as being the very core of who we are (p. 5). Erikson (1980) said that personality can develop according to predetermined steps in our readiness to be driven toward, to be aware of, and to interact with, a widening social radius (p. 54).

The other side of identity conceptualization is a more dynamic view of self, which is constantly re-evaluated and reconstructed within our minds as we experience and interact in our social worlds: identity is a process, something never fulfilled (Ruud, 1997, p. 6). According to Erikson (1980), identity formation is a lifelong developmental process that may be derived from conscious and unconscious elements. Postmodern feminism views identity as being constructed through reasoning and discussion, has multiple constructions, and is malleable in nature (Hadley, 2006). Pushcar (2009) writes, We are all changing on a daily basis, and our perceptions of who we are as individuals [is] constantly shifting. We are always defining and re-defining who we are (p. 5). Poststructuralists understand identity as being multi-storied, and are dynamic and

19 constantly constructed (Russell & Carey as cited in Amir, 2006, p. 271). Ruud (1997) explains identity as being understood as a metaphor for self in context (p. 3), which could refer to a persons social context. [Ruud] suggests that our identity is not static, not readymade, but a process (Hadley, 2006, p. 405). We require others to act as a looking glass in order to be visible to ourselves (Ruud, 1997, p. 7). Erikson (1980) also points to the different contexts of identity in relation to social experience by stating that identity is peppered with elements of cultural history and values.

In the 1890s, William James, one of the founders of psychology, was thought to be one of the first theorists to try and understand the self, which he called the most puzzling puzzle with which psychology has to deal (MacDonald et al., 2002, p. 7). The term self-identity, which is derived from social psychology, is defined as the overall view that we have of ourselves in which [the concepts of self-esteem and self-image] are integrated (MacDonald et al., 2002, p. 8). James made a distinction between two components of identity: the I and the me (MacDonald et al., 2002, p. 9). To James, the I was the real and unchanging self, the true self, whereas the me was seen as the dynamic view of self that is ever changing as its composition is affected by social realities; the perceived-self (MacDonald et al., 2002; Ruud, 1997). Milgram-Luterman (1999) also speaks to the dynamic view: she believes an expansion and growth of selfconcept occurs through seeking out social opportunities and experiences in all aspects of our lives (p. 25).

20 The concept of a reflexive I (the I as being the part that is able to reflect on the me, which has subjectivity and is the knower), also influenced the theories of Cooley, who wrote of the looking glass self in which we gain our identities partly by seeing reflections of what other people think of us (MacDonald et al., 2002, p. 9). Ruud describes reflexivity as an awareness of how our preunderstanding of a phenomenon informs our reading of the situation and our interpretations (Ruud as cited in Hadley, 2006, p. 405); identity is characterized by our own reflexivity. George Herbert Mead made the distinction between the personal and social aspects of the self in describing the I and the me (MacDonald et al., 2002, p. 9).

Neo-Freudian Erik Erikson was influenced by James work, and coined the term ego identity. In psychoanalytic thought, the self is seen as a product of the ego, made from subjective mental content (Ruud, 1997). Erikson (1980) wrote that the consciousness of identity is based on the perception of self as being the same continuously through time and space and the perception that others recognize this sameness and continuity (p. 22). Ego identity is the awareness of the fact that there is a selfsameness and continuity to the egos synthesizing methods and that these methods are effective in safeguarding the sameness and continuity of ones meaning for others (Erikson, 1980, p. 22). Identity in Eriksons (1980) thinking is achieved through having a conscious sense of individual identity, an unconscious striving for a continuity of personal character, ego synthesis, and maintenance of an inner solidarity with a groups ideals and identity (p. 109).

21 Collective Identity The term collective identity refers to individuals' sense of belonging (the identity) to a group (the collective). From the perspective of the individual, the collective identity forms a part of his or her personal identity (Wikepdia, the free encyclopedia, retrieved February 20, 2010). Erikson (1980) calls group, or collective, identity a concept, and it is a groups basic way of organizing experience (p. 20). Music therapists could be seen as a collective because we have a profession in common with one another. Ivy (1984) describes the word profession as an open declaration or avowal [of] all the persons engaged in any one calling (p. 75). She further describes it as referring to a career, a calling, a commitment to the profession by total personal involvement (Ivy, 1984, p. 77). She also speaks of a profession as a culture, which may further develop subcultures with specific values, norms, symbols, rules and roles (Ivy, 1984, p. 77).

Another way in which music therapists in Canada could be seen as a collective, is in Williams (2003) perspective that we have a singular voice that needs to be heard and published [internationally] (p. 68). He speaks of the collective as a single unit; referring to music therapists in Canada as we, and using words like our when speaking about clinical practice, beliefs, approaches and perspectives (Williams, 2003, p. 69). Moffitt (1993) speaks to a search for national identity eschewing and reclaiming links with cultural history and heritage (p. 143). In an interview with Buchanan (2009), Fran Herman spoke of music therapy pioneers in Canada helping to create an identifiable national approach on which is inclusive, a combination of many music therapy styles

22 (Para. 17). This may point to at least a few perspectives that music therapists in Canada are a collective, and may lead to more thought around the concept of collective identity.

Bruscia (1998) describes music therapy as having a dual identity: As a profession, it is an organized group of people using the same body of knowledge in their vocations as clinicians, educators, administrators, supervisors, etc. (p. 14). Individuals in the field of music therapy in Canada may identify themselves as being music therapists, and may see other music therapists as being part of the same group. Bruscia (1998) muses that when we conceptualize our collective identity as our discipline, then it is defined by the therapeutic applications of music; the boundaries, or our roles, are determined by the knowledge we have of them (p. 14). When we conceptualize it as a profession, collective identity then becomes defined by job titles and responsibilities, and role boundaries are imposed upon us by others (Bruscia, 1998, p. 14).

There are multiple ways to define our professional and collective identity as music therapists in Canada. Bruscia (1998) discusses the issue based on field-dependence theory, which defines identity as being either field-dependent or field-independent (p. 1415). If we are field-dependent, we define our identity in terms of the profession we are what we do and what we do is based on what they know (Bruscia, 1998, p. 14), and our task is to educate others. They are referring to people who are not music therapists by profession or discipline. If we are field-independent, we define our identity in terms of the discipline we are who we are because of what we know about [what] we

23 do (Bruscia, 1998, p. 14), and our task is to educate ourselves. Bruscia (1998) theorizes that our identity is being co-developed because our field is still under constant evolution, so the perceptions of others about what we do are important. The identity we give ourselves influences and is influenced by the identity given to us by others (Bruscia, 1998, p. 15).


Chapter 3 Methodology
3.1 Research Design Research Paradigm: Qualitative I used the qualitative research paradigm (Smeijsters, 1997) for this study. This paradigm is the most appropriate method as music therapists perceptions, experiences, and ideas about collective identity are being studied. Qualitative research is used to study the essence of phenomena and subjective experiences (Smeijsters, 1997, p. 43). One goal of this paradigm is to discover meaning (Wheeler & Kenny, 2005); what the collected data mean. I want to understand how music therapists view collective identity and how their beliefs, values and/or theoretical backgrounds influence and/or contribute to this identity. Because of this, research findings cannot be generalized beyond the context in which they have been discovered. The reality of the data comes from mental constructions that are influenced by the participants life experiences. For these reasons, I chose the qualitative paradigm.

Epistemological View Epistemology is a branch of philosophy that is best understood as the science of knowledge (Wheeler & Kenny, 2005, p. 61). Epistemology asks: What are the ways in which knowing can be achieved within the frame of this reality? (Wheeler & Kenny, 2005, p. 61). I believe it is possible to discover if a music therapy collective identity exists by asking music therapists about their perspectives. I think it is probable to learn what elements influence or contribute to this identity through the data collection methods (see Section 3.2). Because data were collected from different individuals, they will

25 contain multiple constructions and perspectives. Although it is not possible to record and interpret data from every music therapist in Canada, participants from this population submitted their surveys, and I compared and contrasted the results from province to province. Through this study, I believe a sense of what music therapists in Canada think about collective identity can be gained.

Abductive Reasoning Abductive reasoning was formulated through the works of philosopher Charles Peirce in the late 1800s (Wikepdia, the free encyclopedia, retrieved March 05, 2010). It is an approach to qualitative analysis where the writers previous knowledge of the research topic provides a framework to describe and interpret the data (Peirce, 1958). My reasoning is abductive, and is explained by H. Ahonen: previous knowledge of the research topic heuristically frames every aspect of the research (Personal communication, September 17, 2009). The literature review contributes to my awareness of the history of music therapy in North America, and to the concepts of identity and collective identity. I am a music therapist; therefore, I have my own perspectives about these concepts in the context of the profession in Canada. I spoke to these views in Section 1.2.

Research Methodology This study is an example of basic research, which is described by Wheeler (2005) as being done primarily to increase knowledge without necessarily having in mind an application of the research findings (p. 11). Basic research is best suited for this study as one of my research goals is to increase awareness of what collective identity might be

26 and that it does exist. This study is not focused on a practical application of the findings: I am searching for knowledge, for knowledges sake, by using this research to survey experiences, beliefs, and perspectives (Wheeler, 2005).

This study is an amalgamation of aspects of philosophical research (Aigen, 2005b) and profession research (Bruscia, 2005a). According to Aigen (2005b), Philosophy provides the foundation for all forms of knowledge (p. 526), and a philosophical question cannot be solved by a particular discovery or experience (Danto as cited in Aigen, 2005b, p. 526). I am not seeking to define collective identity for the entire profession, but to explore the topic. Philosophical inquiry is a never-ending circle of knowledge; Carolyn Kenny describes philosophy as the roots of a tree, with theory being the trunk, method the branches, and data as the leaves which fall to the ground, nourishing and influencing the roots (Kenny as cited in Aigen, 2005b, p. 526). This speaks to my research process, which is described further in Section 3.3. Though it may be abstruse to define philosophy, Bruscia states that Philosophical inquiry involves the use of philosophical procedures to analyze and contextualize theory, research, and practice within the history of ideas (Bruscia as cited in Aigen, 2005b, p. 527). Victory Cousin (1792-1867) said that, True philosophy invents nothing; it merely establishes and describes what is. As a researcher, I believe this to be true: I am not trying to invent a theory; I am attempting to establish and describe the phenomenon.

This study is also an example of profession research (Bruscia, 2005a), as I am seeking how music therapists define and/or describe identity and collective identity.

27 Profession research covers a range of topics about music therapists as a group and the various contexts in which they work (Bruscia, 2005a, p. 82). I will be focusing on: Music Therapists: Studying attitudes towards various matters related to clinical practice values and orientations; motivation [and] identity issues; (Bruscia, 2005a, p. 82).

I take a non-positivist (Wheeler, 2005) approach to this research as I believe absolute truth does not exist; there is no single answer to anything in life, and there is no right or wrong way of being. Thus, there is no particular way to define, and no absolute answer, about what collective identity is or what it means. I am seeking to understand participants realities and create a constructed definition of collective identity from them.

Research Questions and their Development In the early stages of the research process, my initial research questions were unrefined: What is it about our personalities that make us want to be life long helpers? What aspects of our personalities, life experiences, and beliefs motivate us to do this work? How do we see ourselves as professional music therapists? How do we define ourselves? What is our collective identity as Canadian music therapists? Why do we do this work? What common personality traits, beliefs, and life experiences do we share? I clarified these questions through my research proposal, presenting at a data analysis workshop at WLU in April 2010, and writing drafts of this paper. Some of these initial ponderings became interview and survey questions (see Appendix C), and eventually evolved into my research questions (see Chapter 1).

28 In the research proposal, my research questions were as follows: What is our collective identity as Canadian music therapists? What theoretical backgrounds influence and/or contribute to this identity? What aspects of our personalities, life experiences, and personal beliefs motivate us to work in this profession? These questions were further developed and directly influenced by the formation of my primary and secondary research objectives (see Chapter 1). During this time, and for the data analysis workshop, my research questions were as follows: 1) What is our collective identity as Canadian music therapists? 2) What personal beliefs, values and/or theoretical backgrounds influence and or/contribute to this identity? 3) Are there similarities/differences in collective identity cross-provincially?

A shift in perspective came during the data analysis workshop: a peer suggested I change the title of my research to An Inquiry into the Collective Identity of Music Therapists in Canada (N. Matsumura McKee, personal communication, April 8, 2010). Matsumura McKee said, from her perspective as an immigrant to Canada from Japan, that she was confused by the wording Canadian music therapist, as she considers herself to be a music therapist working in Canada (Personal communication, April 8, 2010). Dr. H. Ahonen also expressed a similar view, as she shared that she immigrated to Canada from Finland, and thus identified with being a music therapist in Canada (Personal communication, April 8, 2010). I became aware that I unconsciously and unintentionally assumed that, because I was born in Canada and identified as a Canadian music therapist, others would also identity with this title. I was thankful to recognize this blind spot; I changed the title of my study, my first research question to What is our collective

29 identity as music therapists in Canada?, and my perspective: that our profession consists of many viewpoints, ideas, influences, and cultures.

Authenticity & Trustworthiness of Research Methods According to Aldridge, trustworthiness means to show the work is well grounded, to make transparent the premises that are being used, to develop a set of sound interpretations and relevant observations, and to make these interpretations credible (as cited in Smeijsters, 1997, p. 37). Trustworthiness is used in qualitative research as an alternative to the quantitative notions of validity, reliability and objectivity (Aigen, 2005a, p. 216). I am striving to establish trustworthiness by describing the processes that contributed to this inquiry: the collection, interpretation, and presentation of the data. These processes also include myself as a tool in my own research (Smeijsters, 1997, Chapter 9). This means that pre-knowledge as researcher, values and beliefs surrounding the nature of the research topic and questions, and my personal background as a music therapist in Canada influenced the process of this study.

Authenticity in qualitative research consists of different aspects, including the communication personal values, being aware of biases and perspectives, acting in a way that is consistent with what is in that awareness (Bruscia as cited in Smeijsters, 1997, p. 129), questioning who benefits from the research, and being open to unexpected and contradictory findings. I have been open to the findings by letting the data speak for themselves. Smeijsters (1997) states that, There can be inauthenticity when we are not aware of our own perspectives (p. 43). I worked to stay aware of my influences, and all

30 data collected is that of the research participants; it has not been altered in any way. I am, however, making a conscious decision to let the findings speak for themselves. I have previously outlined personal perspectives in Chapter 1 Stance of the Researcher.

In an effort to demonstrate authenticity and trustworthiness, I have used the following elements: triangulation (Amir, 2005), peer debriefing (Abrams, 2005; Aigen, 2005c), member checking (Abrams 2005; Smeijsters, 1997), and expert review (Abrams, 2005; Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997). Triangulation (Amir, 2005) was achieved through multiple data collection methods: email and interview surveys. A detailed explanation of the stages of data analysis is found in Section 3.3. This study has been approved by WLUs Research Ethics Board, project #2260, and I have attempted to minimize risks for participants (see Appendix B).

Peer debriefing (Abrams, 2005; Aigen, 2005c) occurred through the data analysis workshop: peers contribute[d] additional perspectives on the researchers already well-informed understandings of participants experiences, research methods, and constructed findings (Abrams, 2005, p. 254). There was discussion and investigation of biases and interpretations of the data thus far (Aigen, 2005c). I supported my discernments through the data themselves. I was challenged by questions about participants influences: How many participants were male or female? From what cultures do these participants come from? Where were they trained? I could not answer these questions for confidentiality reasons, and because some of these elements were unknown. The ideas generated from these questions contributed to Section 5.3, Future

31 Research Ideas. I collected seven email surveys from my peers and the instructor of this workshop, which were analyzed in the same fashion as the research data. These surveys, as well as one I completed, were used to verify themes, categories, and subcategories, and to attest to the definitions of identity and collective identity formed by participants.

Member checking (Abrams 2005; Smeijsters, 1997) is a collaboration with participants by asking [them] to compare their own experiences and meaning (as they intended to convey these to the researcher) with the way the researcher has recorded and represented these experiences and meanings (Abrams, 2005, p. 253). I modified this procedure, as responses were mainly clear and intelligible: I used it as clarification with participants if data appeared incomprehensible or elusive.

The final element, expert review (Abrams, 2005; Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997), was provided by my research supervisor, who acted as a sounding board and consultant during research processes and practices (Abrams, 2005). She helped to promote the ethical integrity of the study, as well as providing support, guidance, scrutiny, dialogue, uncovering and arrival at insights (Abrams, 2005).

3.2 Data Collection & Participants I used the interview format for the email and interview survey, in which questions were open-ended, meaning they could be answered by more than a yes or no statement. I used semi-structured and meaning questions to guide and focus the participants on the areas to be explored (Ahonen, 2009; Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997). The data were

32 collected through email correspondence, post mail, and on-site campus mail. Participants included any age, culture, or gender, and are music therapy professionals who have achieved a minimum of an equivalent to a BMT degree, as well as MTA status with the CAMT. Participants were informed of the study through their membership with the CAMT and/or a provincial chapter, as these associations sent electronic advertisements to their constituents (see Appendix A).

The data came from nine participants across Canada. There was one interview survey and eight email surveys completed. There were no face-to-face interviews conducted, as one pioneer who responded preferred the email interview for convenience as they reside in Europe. The rationale for not requiring potential pioneer participants to be currently living or practicing in Canada is that some of our pioneers no longer reside in the country. Because pioneers are identified as having helped establish the profession, it is assumed they possess ample knowledge of it. Of the other eight participants who completed the email survey, one lives in Nova Scotia (NS), three live in Ontario (ON), one lives in British Columbia (BC), one lives in Saskatchewan (SK), one lives in Manitoba (MB), and one is of unknown origin. One participant requested not to have direct quotes published. Other than province of origin, no other identifying information will be disclosed.

33 3.3 Data Analysis & Interpretation Modified Grounded Theory The research methodology used to collect, analyze and interpret the data was informed and inspired by a modified grounded theory approach (Amir, 2005). Grounded theory (Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997) seeks to [develop] interrelated concepts that can describe reality as well as possible (Smeijsters, 1997, p. 63), and discover theory from data (Glaser & Strauss as cited in Amir, 2005, p. 365). This theory was developed by Glaser and Strauss in 1967 in the field of social sciences, and was later reshaped by Strauss, Corbin, and Glaser (Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997). The process of data analysis in grounded theory, called coding, requires full immersion into the data; becoming intimately acquainted and developing a detailed knowledge of it (Amir, 2005, p. 365). This knowledge helps to shape and reshape categories, develop themes, and come up with a grounded theory; a comprehensive description, analysis, and interpretation of the data that explains the properties, dimensions, and connections among categories (Amir, 2005, p. 365).

I modified the grounded theory approach for a number of reasons: I am not seeking to form a specific theory, or grounded theory, from the data, as theories can only be viewed as tentative and in a state of evolution, and new potential data will constantly emerge (C. OCallaghan as cited in Amir, 2005, p. 370, 374). I am studying lived human experiences, perspectives, and values as they exist in the world; I am attempting to be fully present with the participants experiences as they are revealed through their responses (Forniash & Grocke, 2005). Therefore, I am searching for

34 ideographic (Ahonen, 2009) core categories or concepts (Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997) to systematically develop a description of the phenomenon and to understand the meaning of the data rather than derive a generalizable theory. This also supports my epistemological view of non-positivism as opposed to grounded theorys post-positivist view (Strauss & Corbin as cited in Amir, 2005). Because I do not believe in absolute truths, I do not think that only one specific theory could be generated; many different theories could exist.

Another way the grounded theory is modified is because I am using abductive, not inductive, reasoning (see Section 3.1). Amir (2005) describes grounded theory as a general approach of comparative analysis linked with data collection that uses a systematically applied set of methods to generate an inductive theory (p. 365). I am also considering the scope and timeframe of this study: because this is a major research paper, the modified approach takes less time than a formal grounded theory study, and requires only a small number of participants (Amir, 2005).

Stages of Data Analysis Data analysis using the modified grounded theory approach consisted of the following steps 1: 1. Open coding: I initially read through the data, pulling out important words called meaning units or concepts (Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997), and recorded these in my research notes. Examples of the many meaning units I derived in this stage include:

Terminology that appears in Arial Narrow font and is listed in Appendix G.

35 beliefs, client need, help others, power of music, self-expression, love, human value/worth, humanist, meaningful experiences, adaptable, compassion, family, education, influences, motivations, and values. I also highlighted potential quotes that would be useful in explaining the properties (Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997) of the meaning units, or seemed potentially important for category creation. I used the inductive approach (Amir, 2005) to the open coding process. I did not begin with a predetermined list of codes; rather I allowed the codes to emerge from the data. Once initial data are collected and the researcher starts to become familiar with them, the researcher begins to have a general feel of the data and to dissect patterns, processes, relationships, concepts and categories (Glaser & Strauss as cited in Amir, 2005, p. 366). I found this to be part of the analysis process during this stage (see Appendix E).

2. Exploration: I registered data in an excel spreadsheet to further analyze them for potential categories and subcategories (Smeijsters, 1997). The spreadsheet contained four columns: the survey format (interview or email), the survey question, the participants responses entered as meaning units (chosen from open coding), and the potential quotes. I was unable to include this spreadsheet as an appendix due for confidentiality reasons. Categories and their properties were being derived from the data: I began making mind maps (Budd, 2004) on sheets of paper to further analyze the data and see how they were taking shape (see following page):

36 Figure 1 - Exploration Mind Map

3. Axial coding: I completed the axial coding (Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997) stage through mind maps by writing down the main categories I found, and relating them to subcategories and other main categories (see the following page):

37 Figure 2 Axial Coding Mind Map

I went back to the data to verify the categories and subcategories as they were being created. I discovered that the data were being connected in new ways between the main categories and subcategories through this process. A few examples of this are: words like Identity being related to Collective Identity; these words were also used to describe Motivations, Influences, Beliefs, Music and Client-centered. The properties of Motivations are similar to that of Influences. Music appears as its own category and also as a property of other categories like Collective Identity, Influences, and Motivations.

38 The data were becoming interwoven as categories, sub categories, and their properties surfaced over and over again.

4. Selective coding: I accomplished selective coding (Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997) by looking at the categories and subcategories illustrated in the mind maps, and by determining which major categories could possibly be themes by comparing them with other categories. A theme can be found when it is abstract enough to encompass all that has been described in [the responses of the participants] (Strauss & Corbin as cited in Smeijsters, 1997, p. 69), and captures the essence of the idea(s) being explored in the participants response. Again, I went back to the data to verify how these themes and categories could be connected: I found that if a major category, like Influences, had many subcategories relating to other major categories, like Motivations, and that Influences was part of other categories, I would consider it becoming a theme. In this case, neither category became a theme, but they were identified as having the core category Life Experiences in common. Data synthesis, the following final stage of the data analysis process, describes the formulation of the main themes.

5. Synthesis: The themes Commonality and Diversity were found by synthesizing (Amir, 2005) larger categories, and using meaning units of categories and subcategories to describe their properties (see Appendix F). How and why the themes, category, and sub categories were connected, relate to the data, my previous knowledge, and the literature review. I am using the data themselves to describe the themes, and I am using my pre-knowledge and the literature review to explain how they are interrelated to the

39 categories and subcategories in the following chapter, Chapter 4 Results & Discussion.

The subsequent chapter introduces the reader to the results of the study, explores and discusses the research questions, looks at the results from the data analysis workshop, and dialogues with the literature review for further illustration and verification of the results.


Chapter 4 Results & Discussion

4.1 Introduction of Results

Themes, Category, and Sub Categories Found The main themes derived from the data were Commonality and Diversity 2. These themes described the nature of collective identity, which trickled down to definitions identity and explorations of influences. The main category, Life Experiences, along with its sub categories, career, family/relationships, persons nature, motivations & influences, professional organization, values, music, client-centered, and faith background, are related as being simultaneously common and diverse.
All results are taken directly from participants responses, and will be discussed from this point of view for the duration of this chapter unless otherwise specified, as in the case of peer responses taken from the data analysis workshop. Peer results are discussed in Section 4.3. Direct quotes from participants responses are displayed in italics. Music therapy will be represented by the abbreviation MT, and provinces of origin will be represented by their postal abbreviations: ON, BC etc.

41 Participants revealed a variety of theoretical models that influence their clinical work: client-centered (NS, ON), eclectic approach based on client need (MB), creative MT (MB), aesthetic MT (SK), group analytic MT (SK), music centered psychotherapy (ON), music psychotherapy (BC), existentialist (ON), community MT model (MB), humanist (Unknown, ON, Europe, BC), music as education model (ON, MB), experiential (Europe), Nordoff/Robbins Music Child (Europe, ON), Aigens music centered approach (ON), the work of Carolyn Kenny (Europe), Florence Tyson & Mental Health (ON), music and verbal work (BC), individualized approach (NS), and the behavioural model (NS, ON, MB).

4.2 Exploring the Research Questions Identity Participants defined identity according to a persons nature and their values, as they are related to Life Experiences. A persons nature was seen as their personality; their way and sense of being; their core: Identity can come into reality as qualities or

42 characteristics but sometimes it reveals itself as a persons unique overall sense of beingthat unknown something .... A persons nature was also communicated as ones character traits, qualities, and ideas: Identity would be a set of traits/ characteristics/beliefs/values that make us who we are I would say that there are core aspects that would remain the same/similar over long periods of time, or even over a lifespan Another wrote, My definition of identity is character traits that define a person; traits that make one individual different from the millions of other people who walk around them. A persons nature was illustrated as how we understand and see ourselves, and as being in a constant state of fluctuation: Identity is how you see yourself, how you understand yourself, and helps direct how you exist in your world.

Values were described as a persons morals, family values, and what importance each of these has for the individual: Family, religion, beliefs, morals, culture, past experiences, etc all contribute to an individuals identity. Another stated: Identity [is] the things that are important to a person, [the] groups to which they feel they belong, [and the] ideas that resonate true with them. Life Experiences referred to cultural identities, various social relationships including family, and educational experiences: I think [identity] evolves from cultural background, personality, education, life experience, [and an] openness to question ones attitudes and actions. I would say that many influence factors in my life (experiences, education, relationships, encounters with ideas) all contributed to forming my identity, and continue to do so.

43 Influences of Identity Participants conceptions of identity, personal and professional, were influenced by a persons nature, values, and Life Experiences. This is similar to the age-old question of Which came first, the chicken, or the egg? Is identity formed and then influenced by our very nature, values, and Life experiences, or do these elements shape our identity, or both? Defining identity is a cyclical process that, like a persons nature, is always in flux: Identity is not fixed! My personal identity is often in flux; there are also many other aspects [to my identity] that are very fluid and changing.

Music, career, family, and faith background motivated participants to become music therapists. Music was conveyed as a source of healing, a passion, and of value for its creative aspects that are a vehicle for self-expression: My passion for music and desire to bring about change has led me to become a MT, and I feel this fits in with my identity. Music was also seen as the influence of music and the creative arts in participants lives prior to their music therapy career: All my life I had been involved in music and yet was unable to make a living as a musician. Years later I discovered that music therapy was the light shining through the window of the room wherein I had been locked. Career included educational opportunities, experiences, and interests, the value of self-fulfillment from the work, and of being in a helping profession: Since I was very young, I imagined myself in a people-focused career, where I could build meaningful relationships with others, and feel fulfilled in my work. Family was depicted as the influence of parents and other family members, and their values: I was raised in a family of helpers and have always believed that working in a helping profession was a

44 valuable thing to do. Faith background was explicated as a persons beliefs from their faith background: I think that my beliefs influenced my decision to become a music therapist because in the nature of our profession we serve and help others, and as a Catholic, we are called to serve others.

Life Experiences were also found to influence participants in pursuing music therapy as a vocation: Before entering the field, musical experiences involving personal companions with mental health concerns were my primary influences. After these experiences, I wanted to continue to learn about the therapeutic value of music. All participants spoke of personal Life Experiences: Like I said before, certainly my experiences with music as a child/teen/young adult had an influence I would say this, and other experiences working with vulnerable populations, also had an influence. I imagine that my family experiences growing up also partially led me to working in this field, or at least, led me to seek out a helping-profession of some sort.

Client-centered was characterized as the value of helping others, possessing a true capacity for caring, compassion, and empathy for others, and finding value and worth in human life. It was also found to be a link between motivations and professional identity: Because my motivations are centered around this need to express the inexpressible and [have] respect for what is hidden and what is revealed, I find that as a music therapist, my identity is much the same: I allow space, I am open-minded, I am adaptable to the clients space. Each participant wrote about wanting to help people in some way:

45 A desire to help and to work with people ... motivated me to become a music therapist [and] is most definitely connected to my professional identity. Another wrote, Theyre very connected. I would say that Im pretty relentlessly caring about people [which] probably motivated me to enter a helping profession, and, a huge part of my professional identity is my ability to empathize and listen, demonstrate compassion, facilitate meaningful experiences for others, etc.

Collective Identity Identity can be a foundation for collective identity, and vice versa: individual identity may exist before collective identity, and influences of collective identity may also influence identity. Identity is cyclical and does not seem to have strict borders or defining lines. Collective identity consisted of Commonality and Diversity, which grew from my overall analysis and understanding of the results, and motivations & influences, music, and professional organization, which were derived from the data analysis process.

Commonality was expressed as similar or common traits and underlying identities that we possess: When I think of the term collective identity I think of a group of people who share similar and common traits which unite them more than a random collection of people. Commonality was also: being united in our profession (a sense of unity), our education backgrounds in music therapy training, and the importance of, and how we define, identity: A collective identity makes me think of common threads within a larger group. In a collective there can be many different individual identities that make up a common diverse identity. Another wrote,

46 characteristics that bring a group of people together, making them connected to one another and distinguishable from a different group. These people would likely have many differences from one another as well, but there would have to be something unifying that brings them together, to be able to call on the term collective identity. There were a number of words used to explicate collective identity as a Commonality: openness, adaptability, enthusiasm, humour, organization and communication skills, emotional, career, passion, passion for music, musicians, change, dependable, flexible, free spirit, improvisation, love for people, and a desire to help. Another participant wrote, I think the [collective] identity starts with our passion for the field. One can not work successfully as a MT without having a deep passion for music, and a belief in the ability for it to bring about change. I think every MT has a love for people, and a desire to help them in whatever way we can (be it small or great).

Diversity was delineated as different nationalities, races, ethnicities, cultural backgrounds, individual identities, geographic distance and location: Definitely. [We have] a very diverse collective identity. I think that having several training institutions and a large group of people trained in other countries gives us a collective identity that is rich in different approaches, philosophies, cultures and models music and a desire to help is at the root of it all. Diversity also spoke to how our differences bring us together:

47 Immediately, I think of unity, a collection of things of being that are similar in the way they operate and think the term collective identity asks the questions: how are we the same? Or, if we are all different, then how do the differences bring us together? It was also seen as, multifaceted: we have things in common and we are also very different: we are all rocks [and] we are all different coloured rocks.

Motivations & influences consisted of professional training and education, including theoretical perspectives, beliefs or faith and a common sense of purpose, the career of music therapy itself as a specialized field, and life relationships with family, friends, and peers. One participant described motivations & influences as: Family, friend groups, peer groups, faith organization CAMT nationalism being from a small town or big city, ones race, ethnicity. Being a musician Music was outlined in the previous section, Influences on Identity. Professional organization referred to the CAMT and provincial chapters, and in terms of collective identity, it was described as: having a sense of belonging to a group of peers that work together towards shared professional goals, an opportunity for making professional networks and connections through conferences and workshops, our professions pioneers, and a sense of respect and acceptance towards each other. Yes I do [believe we have a collective identity], even though [it] may work in various ways. I strongly believe that this is the result of the solid groundwork of the CAMT pioneers and the fact that some of them continued and continue to be

48 instrumental in supporting growth and change (Fran Herman, Liz Moffitt, Nancy McMaster and others).

Of the nine participants, seven responded that we do have a collective identity: Yes. For one, I think we have a collective identity by first being Canadian, and then the similarities go from there, such as being members of the CAMT, [and] going to schools that have similar approaches to their training programs. Another wrote, I do think that as Canadian MTs we share a collective identity. MT is a very specialized field, and even though we as MTs share different backgrounds, experiences etc, I think our common character traits unite us more than our differences separate us. One responded that we do not have a collective identity: No, I do not think Canadian music therapists currently have a collective identity. The more involved in [music therapy associations] , the more opportunity there has been to do things collectively with other therapists. This by far increases the chances of a collective identity beginning to take shape. One responded that they think we do, but is uncertain: I think that we do but Im not sure if this is the case. collective identity involves how we describe ourselves, but it also may involve how others outside the profession view us as well. I worry that sometimes we may have a collective stereotype instead of a collective identity. Another spoke to this, [MT] is being used in so many different ways, [and] in so many different fields, [that] it is difficult for the general public to be able to formulate an all

49 encompassing description of what is involved in [MT]. [Because of this] it is difficult for [MTs] to see a consistent reflection of that identification.

Collective Identity Across Canada

Meaning units used to describe collective identity are displayed in Table 3. Commonalities in the definitions of collective identity were found across Canada: career or profession (music therapy), that this field is specialized or unique, our professional organization (CAMT and provincial chapters), educational and professional training, a passion for music and that we use music to heal, clientcenteredness, shared experiences, aspects of a healthy therapeutic relationship (like respect, communication, empathy, organization, flexibility and dependability), and a passion about the work.

50 Diversities in collective identity were also found: MB described collective identity as being rich in its diverse approaches, as well as being composed of different philosophies, cultures, and models; SK wrote that collective identity is multifaceted in its differences; NS described music therapists has having humour, being emotional, passionate, and free spirited people; ON noted work method, personal identity of music therapy, society, and that our collective identity as music therapists in Canada is beginning to take shape; BC stated improvisation, sense of self, and coming together; Europe noted efficiency, openness and adaptability; and the participant of unknown origin marked approach.

I believe the reason why Commonalities were found is due to the very elements participants described. Many of these elements are facts: they are music therapists, and we do have a professional organization. Other aspects, like a passion for the work and the value of the therapeutic relationship, were found in many responses though each was unique. Participants may value the therapeutic relationship, but in various ways and for different reasons based on life experiences and/or beliefs. They may also distinctively demonstrate their passionate for the work, and may have specialized in assorted areas of the field as seen in the array of theoretical influences shared.

Diversities can also be explained through participants definitions of them: participants may come from different cultural backgrounds, and have individual philosophies and approaches to clinical practice. As reality is subjective, it is logical that Diversities can be seen in how collective identity is described province to province. Though the majority of participants believe we have a collective identity as music therapists in Canada, the data reveal that this collective shares as many Commonalities as they do Diversities.

51 4.3 Results from the Data Analysis Workshop Of the seven peer surveys collected, collective identity was described by the themes Commonality and Diversity 3. The category Life Experience, and the sub categories: music, faith, relationships, client-centered, and persons nature were derived. The theoretical influences identified were similar to the data: music centered psychotherapy, aesthetic MT, behavioural, client-centered, and Nordoff/Robbins. Other theoretical influences reported were: Carl Jung, psychodynamic, music-centered, and psychoanalytic. Three peers responded that we do have a collective identity, two wrote that we do not, and two were uncertain.

One peer described identity and collective identity in a way that I had not seen in any other data: as being a subjective perspective and reality, with multiple views. One view being the music therapist looking at the profession from the inside to define our collective identity, and the other view being non-music therapists looking at our group from the outside and defining us. This echoes Brusicas (1998) view of collective identity based on field-dependence theory; music therapists can see our profession as fieldindependent or field-dependent. It seems that both Brusica (1998) and this peer share the opinion that, The identity we give ourselves influences and is influenced by the identity given to us by others (p. 15).

These peer results are from the data analysis workshop and were used as peer debriefing (Abrams, 2005; Aigen, 2005c) for the purposes of authenticity and trustworthiness (see Chapter 3, Section 3.1).

52 4.4 Dialoguing with the Literature Review Identity Identity was illustrated in the literature review as being an unchanging core aspect of a persons personality (MacDonald et al., 2002; Ruud, 1997). Participants described identity similarly through a persons nature: one wrote that a persons nature is their unique overall sense of being; another wrote that identity contains core aspects of the self that are stable throughout a persons life. Identity can also refer to a persons character traits or characteristics, which two participants described as defines and distinguishes a person from others.

Identity was also seen by participants as being in a constant state of fluctuation as we journey through life. According to Ruud (1997), identity is a process that is never fulfilled (p. 6). Participants identified with this perspective: one responded that identity is fluid and constantly in flux; many aspects and characteristics of self are continuously changing. Erikson (1980) also points to identity being related to social experience, which was reflected in Life Experiences and values. According to Erikson (1980) and MilgramLuterman (1999), identity can be linked through cultural history and values, and relate to our social worlds; identity is an expansion and growth of self-concept through social opportunities and life experiences. Life Experiences was described by participants as cultural identities, social relationships and educational experiences, and many wrote about how social experiences, groups, families, culture, and faith contributed to their identity. Erikson (1980) also suggested that identity can be linked to our values. Values

53 were described by participants as being fixed or malleable; they included morals, family values, and what personal importance these have.

Collective Identity In the literature review, collective identity was explained as an individuals sense of belonging (identity) to a group (collective), and as being part of personal identity. Erikson (1980) calls group identity the basic way in which a group organizes experience (p. 20). Williams (2003) spoke about music therapists in Canada being a group or collective unit. Collective identity was reflected in professional organization: it was centralized to the CAMT and provincial chapters, and described as having a sense of belonging to a group of peers that work together towards shared professional goals.

Motivations & influences contained properties such as professional training and education, theoretical perspectives, beliefs, faith, a common sense of purpose, music therapy as a specialized field, and life relationships. Ivy (1984) describes something similar: a profession is the same as a culture with values and roles; a calling and a commitment through total personal involvement (p. 77). Collective identity, according to Erikson (1980), is achieved through having a conscious sense of individual identity, as well as maintaining an inner solidarity with a groups ideals and identity (p. 109). Participants who feel they are part of the music therapy collective may see this identity as being motivated and influenced by their Life Experiences.

54 One participant responded that we do not have a collective identity, and another was uncertain. Both are not alone in such a perspective: Bruscia (1998) theorizes that the collective identity of music therapists is not being defined by music therapists, but is being co-developed with our society: The identity we give ourselves influences and is influenced by the identity given to us by others (p. 15). In exploring collective identity, Commonality and Diversity were not found in the literature review. This could be because the data collected are unique and of the participants worlds. There may be sources in existence that describe collective identity as common or diverse, though I was unable to locate all materials that speak to collective identity.

Theoretical Influences & Province of Origin Table 2 displays participants theoretical influences. The history of music therapy in the US showed a music education influence in the 1950s (Bonny, 1984; de lEtoile, 2000), which was reflected in ON and MBs music as education model. Behaviourism, which seems to permeate throughout US history, was seen in NS, MB and ON. Musiccentered MT, (initially the influence of Gaston (de lEtoile, 2000; Shugar, 1984), and later manifested in Bonnys GIM method (Bonny, 1980)), was reflected in ON with the music centered psychotherapy model, and Aigens music centered approach.

From the history of music therapy in Canada, humanism is seen as an influence in the West (Burke, 1983; McMaster et al., 1988; Moffitt, 1993; Shugar, 1984; Shugar 1987), though it was reflected in ON, BC, Europe, and from the Unknown origin. Existentialism, an influence of Capilano, appeared in ON. The work of Carolyn Kenny,

55 who helped establish this program, is seen in Europe. The Nordoff/Robbins approach from England was brought to Canada and established as part of the program at Capilano, and Nordoff & Robbins themselves were part of the formation of the CAMT (Alexander, 1993; Moffitt, 1993).The Nordoff/Robbins method, also an influence at WLU, appears in ON and Europe. In the now closed program at the University of Qubec in Montral, psychotherapeutic, psychoeducational, and psychodynamic models were once part of the curriculum (Alexander, 1993; Isenberg-Grzeda, 1985; Moffitt, 1993). BC, ON, and SK noted music centered psychotherapy, music psychotherapy, and group analytic MT respectively. NS, ON, and MB noted the client-centered approach though it is not specifically mentioned in the literature; it may be seen as a belief rather than a theoretical model.

The following chapter, Realization, will bring this study to a close through discussing the relevance of the research findings, evaluating the research itself, exploring future research ideas, and ending with closing thoughts.


Chapter 5 Realization
5.1 Relevance of Findings The majority of participants expressed that, as music therapists in Canada, they do have a collective identity. This may be relevant for conducting similar studies in the future, as it suggests that other music therapists may also share this perspective. I think it is important for our profession to reflect on how we are defined, by ourselves and others, and to spread that knowledge. It is relevant for the continued growth of our field to be aware of these explanations, even as they evolve. As Bruscia (1998) stated: The identity we give ourselves influences and is influenced by the identity given to us by others (p. 15). Thinking about how we define ourselves as a collective may inhibit the stereotyping or misunderstanding of the profession, which may allow us to become a more understood, and significant part of our health care system.

I found it interesting that Commonality and Diversity were key themes in describing the concept of collective identity. It seems that similarities and differences are equally important in how participants defined the profession as a collective. Commonality and Diversity are both pertinent forms of exploration that may give us a better understanding of each other as professionals; this may lead to a more enhanced sense of belonging to a collective group. It may also assist us in discovering more about ourselves, our personal identity, as we relate to our professional identity as music therapists.

57 Another potentially significant finding is the participants province of origin and their theoretical influences and approaches. It seems that there is a US and European influence in Canada, and yet there is also a Canadian influence in Europe (the pioneer participant resides in Europe). Province of origin may not be the deciding factor in how participants approach their clinical practice, and I have suggested further research into this topic in Section 5.3.

5.2 Evaluation of Research This study may have helped participants gain a more in-depth awareness into their own identity, and their ideas about collective identity, by exploring and writing about their perspectives, and experiences. It may also stimulate readers to think about their own concepts of identity and collective identity. Erikson (1980) said that, An increasing sense of identity is experienced as a state of psychosocial well-being. Its most obvious concomitants are a feeling of being at home in ones own body, a sense of knowing where one is going, and an inner assuredness of anticipated recognition from those who count (p. 127-128). The research questions enabled participants, and may enable readers, to think about their clinical work and their professional identity as music therapists. As researcher, I wonder whether this study provided participants with any certitude about their personal constructions of identity and collective identity.

In Chapter 1, I expressed that as this was my first qualitative research study, I had not fully grasped the ability to work and think from a purely qualitative perspective. This may have affected how I analyzed and interpreted the data; I may have taken participant

58 responses at face value more so than attempting to decipher any underling or unsaid meaning. Ethically, I believed it was my responsibility as researcher to accurately represent the data to the best of my ability; therefore, I presented research findings with as much support from the data as possible. I outlined the findings in Chapter 4 methodically, by using the data and literature review sources to fully support the rationale behind my interpretations.

This study could be applicable to the field of music therapy itself. It may have assisted participants and, with further research, may aid our profession as a whole to gain insight into how we see ourselves as music therapists in Canada, and to affirm or denounce the existence of a collective identity. It is important for our profession to feel unified in a way that is meaningful to its members in order to keep our field strong and to foster its continued growth. Merrill (2006) states that: Claiming an identity, whatever that might be, is empowering ; just as focusing energy within a form increases its potency. From an ethical point of view, it is also important for music therapists of all ideologies to have some kind of sense or articulation about the values they bring to their work. (p. 189) This study may have also help participants in gaining a more thorough understanding about the theoretical influences and motivations in their clinical work through explaining and describing them.

59 In regards to the scope of this research project, I received data from nine participants which was enough for me to process, though not every province in Canada was represented. I am uncertain as to why there were nine participants as advertisements about this study were sent across the country. This may be due to a number of factors; though the CAMT sent electronic advertisements to their constituents, not all provincial associations responded to my letter of recruitment. I assume that not every music therapist in Canada is a member of the CAMT as well as their provincial association; therefore, some may not have received the advertisement. Of those who do hold membership, some may not have an email address or access to the internet. Also, therapists who did receive the advertisement may have been too busy to respond due to work obligations or for personal reasons.

The nature of the email survey and interview questions caused redundancy as participants repeated their responses to certain questions. I was overwhelmed with the seeming complexity of the data and how they were cross-pollinating amongst themselves. In the future, I would simplify the survey and interview questions to better reflect the research questions, and to potentially make the data more clear for analysis purposes.

Another element I might have looked at more specifically in this study, was other factors that may have influenced participants; requesting participants to disclose more information about themselves may have shown how those elements contributed to their constructions of identity and collective identity. This idea may be too large to be part of a study, and could be a research project within itself (why people respond the way they do

60 and what influences their responses). Providing such information may potentially give more context and specificity to the large and conceptual topic of collective identity.

The outcomes of this initial study may advance knowledge as to where the professional practice of music therapy in Canada is headed. This study may contribute to the unification of music therapists as we strive to gain further awareness and acceptance for our field in medical and scientific circles, and throughout the larger communities of Canada.

5.3 Future Research Ideas In response to survey question nine, Are there any other questions I need to be asking in regards to Canadian music therapists collective identity? there were a number of suggestions from participants: looking at the training programs attended and seeing how they influence perceptions of collective identity; how people outside the music therapy community would describe the collective identity of music therapists in Canada; how music therapists work and how that influences their identity; and possible role models who influence our constructions of identity and/or collective identity.

I want to conduct a similar research project in the future, perhaps on a larger scale with more participants, and thus more contextualized data. It would be interesting to target specific provinces, and then compare and contrast the data in the form of a metaanalysis; there may be more specific information discovered through those means than by doing another Canada-wide study.

61 5.4 Closing Thoughts This study has taught me the mechanics of how to write about and conduct qualitative research, and I hope to continue being a researcher far into the future. I want to continue exploring the subjective experiences of the qualitative paradigm. By listening to peoples perspectives and beliefs, and trying to understand in even the slightest of ways how their world is constructed, qualitative research can help further our understandings about ourselves, and others.

I have learned that there are still many questions to be explored about music therapists concepts of identity and collective identity in Canada. There is plenty of room in the global music therapy community for voices from Canada to be heard sharing our histories, and our experiences as music therapy professionals. As a collective we appear concurrently eclectic and cohesive; I believe there is more to these dynamisms than what has already been uncovered. As research in our field continues to grow, I am hoping to find a place within it by working towards increasing awareness, furthering understanding, and uncovering meaning through the qualitative paradigm.


Abductive Reasoning. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved May 05, 2010 from website: Abrams, B. (2005). Chapter 20: Evaluating qualitative music therapy research. In Barbara L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Edition (pp. 246-258). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Ahonen-Eerikinen, H. (2007). Group analytic music therapy. Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Ahonen, H. (2009). Qualitative research. [Printed copy of power point slides]. Wilfrid Laurier University. Copy in possession of Christine Dibble. Ahonen, H., & Houde, M. (2009). Something in the air: Journeys of self-actualization in musical improvisation. Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy, 9(2). Retrieved September 10, 2010, from Aigen, K. (2005a). Chapter 17: Writing the qualitative research report. In Barbara L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Edition (pp. 210-225). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Aigen, K. (2005b). Chapter 39: Philosophical inquiry. In Barbara L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Edition (pp. 526-539). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Aigen, K. (2005c). Chapter 28: Naturalistic inquiry. In Barbara L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Edition (pp. 352-364). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Alexander, D. (1993). A reflective look at two decades in CAMT. Canadian Journal of Music Therapy, 1(1), 1-18. Allen, M. L. (1996). Dimensions of educational satisfaction and academic achievement among music therapy majors. Journal of Music Therapy, 33(3), 147-160. Amir, D. (2005). Chapter 29: Grounded theory. In Barbara L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Edition (pp. 365-378). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Amir, D. (2006). Chapter 11: Awakening the wild woman: Feminist music therapy with Israeli women who suffered trauma in their lives. In Susan Hadley (Ed.), Feminist perspectives in music therapy (pp. 267-290). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.

63 Arnason, C. (2003). Music therapists' listening perspectives in improvisational music therapy: A qualitative interview study. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 12(2), 124-138. Arnason, C. (2006). Woman to woman: A music therapist's experience of working with a physically challenged and non-verbal woman. British Journal of Music, 20(1), 1321. Arnason, C., & Seabrook, D. (2010). Reflections on change in arts-based research: The experiences of two music therapists. Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy, 10(1). Retrieved September 10, 2010, from Bonny, H. L. (1980). GIM therapy: Past, present and future implications. Baltimore, MD: ICM Books. Bonny, H. L. (1984). Keynote address: The musical lifeline: Present perspectives and future possibilities. In, Canadian association for music therapy, book of proceedings of the eleventh annual conference: Vol. 6, (pp. 3-12). Brontons, M., Graham-Hurley, K., Hairston, M., Hawley, T., Michel, D., Moreno, J., Taylor, D. (1997). A survey of international music therapy students in NAMTapproved academic programs. Music Therapy Perspectives, 15(1), 45-49. Bruscia, K. E. (1998). Defining music therapy, 2nd Edition. Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Bruscia, K. E. (2005a). Chapter 7: Research topics and questions in music therapy. In Barbara L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Edition (pp. 81-93). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Bruscia, K. E. (2005b). Chapter 11: Designing qualitative research. In Barbara L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Edition (pp. 129-137). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Buchanan, J. (2009). Fran Herman, music therapist in Canada for over 50 years. Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy, 9(1). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from Budd, J. W. (2004). Mind maps as classroom exercises. The Journal of Economic Education, 35(1), 35-46. Burke, K. (1983). Capilano college music therapy program. In, Canadian association for music therapy, book of proceedings of the tenth annual conference: Vol. 5, (pp. 90-93).

64 Collective identity. (n.d.). Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from website: de lEtoile, S. K. (2000). The history of the undergraduate curriculum in music therapy. The Journal of Music Therapy, 37(1), 51-71. Erikson, E. K. (1980). Identity and the life cycle. New York, NY: Norton & Company, Inc. Forinash, M. & Grocke, D. (2005). Chapter 26: Phenomenological Inquiry. In Barbara L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Edition (pp. 321-334). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Hadley, S. (2006). Chapter 17: Developing a feminist pedagogical approach in music therapy. In Susan Hadley (Ed.), Feminist perspectives in music therapy (pp. 393414). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Hall, A. C. (1985). Music therapy at Wilfrid Laurier University. In, Canadian association for music therapy, book of proceedings of the twelfth annual conference: Vol. 7, (pp. 46-55). Heller, G. N. (2000). History, celebrations, and the transition of hope: The American music therapy association, 1950-2000. Journal of Music Therapy, 37(4), 238-249. Howard, M. (2009). An interview with two pioneers of Canadian music therapy: Carolyn Kenny and Nancy McMaster. Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy, 9(2). Retrieved May 27, 2010 from Identity. (n.d.). Unabridged. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from website: Isenberg-Grezeda, C. (1985). Music therapy at University du Qubec Montral. In, Canadian association for music therapy, book of proceedings of the twelth annual conference: Vol. 7, (pp. 50-55). Ivy, V. (1984). On composing our music therapy profession in Canada. In, Canadian association for music therapy, book of proceedings of the eleventh annual conference: Vol. 6, (pp. 74-78). Lee, C. (1996). Music at the edge: The music therapy experiences of a musician with aids. New York, NY: Routledge. Lee, C. (2003). The architecture of aesthetic music therapy. Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers.

65 MacDonald, R., Hargreaves, D., & Miell, D. (2002). What are musical identities, and why are they important? In MacDonald, R., Hargreaves, D., & Miell, D. (Eds.), Musical identities (pp. 1-20). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. McMaster, N., Moffitt, E., Avery, P., Beatty, B., & Carverhill, P. (1988). The music therapy training program at Capilano College. In, Canadian association for music therapy, book of proceedings of the fifteenth annual conference: Vol. 10, (pp. 3640). Mandell, D. (Ed.). (2007). Revisiting the use of self: Questioning professional identities. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholars Press Inc. Merrill, T. (2006). Chapter 7: Power and voice in the institutional setting: A journey towards activating a feminist music therapy approach. In Susan Hadley (Ed.), Feminist perspectives in music therapy (pp. 187-204). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Milgram-Luterman, J. (1999). Towards a disposition of music therapy expertise as expansion of the self. Canadian Journal of Music Therapy, 6(2), 24-38. Moffitt, E. (1989). The creation and evaluation of the music therapy internship at capilano college. In, Canadian association for music therapy, book of proceedings of the sixteenth annual conference: Vol. 11, (pp. 14-19). Moffitt, E. (1993). Chapter six: Music therapy in Canada. In Cheryl Dileo Maranto (Ed.), Music therapy: International perspectives (pp. 132-155). Pipersville, PA: Jeffery Books. Pierce, C.S. (1958). Collected Papers of C.S. Pierce. In Charles Hartshorne & Paul Weiss, (Eds.), Collected Papers of C. S. Pierce, vols 1-6. Cambridge, UK: Belknap Press. Pushcar, K. (2009). Identifying yourself: A music and art psychotherapy model (Unpublished masters major research paper). Department of Music, Wilfrid Laurier University of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Ruud, E. (1997). Music and identity. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy, 6(1), 3-13. Shugar, B. (1984). Music therapy and music education: Never the twain shall meet? In, Canadian association for music therapy, book of proceedings of the fourteenth annual conference: Vol. 9, (pp. 48-60). Shugar, B. (2009). An interview with Susan Munro-Porchet. Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy, 9(3). Retrieved May 27, 2010, from

66 Smeijsters, Henk. (1997). Multiple perspectives: A guide to qualitative research in music therapy. Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Wheeler, Barbara L. (Ed.). (2005). Chapter 1: Overview of music therapy research. In Barbara L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Edition (pp. 3-19). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Wheeler, B. L. & Kenny, C. (2005). Chapter 5: Principles of qualitative research. In Barbara L. Wheeler (Ed.), Music Therapy Research, 2nd Edition (pp. 59-71). Gilsum, NH: Barcelona Publishers. Williams, S. (2003). [Review of the book A comprehensive guide to music therapy: Theory, clinical practice, research and training, by Tony Wigram, Inge Nygaard, Pedersen & Lars Ole Bonde]. Canadian Journal of Music Therapy, 10(1). 66-70. Yalom, I. D., & Leszcz, M. (2005). The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy (5th ed.). New York, NY: Basic Books.


Appendix A: Letters of Recruitment
*This letter will be sent to the president of the Canadian Association of Music Therapy (CAMT) and each provincial chapter president to either gain access to their mailing lists or for the associations to mail to their membership, whichever the case may be.

Wilfrid Laurier University Letter of Recruitment

To (name of president of association): My name is Christine Dibble and Im a Masters of Music Therapy student at Wilfrid Laurier University. I am conducting a research study entitled, An Inquiry into the Collective Identity of Canadian Music Therapists. I am writing to you for help in advertising my research study to potential participants. The purpose of my study is to discover and explore what Canadian music therapists feel their collective identity is: how we see ourselves as music therapy professionals today. I am conducting this study because I am curious to know where we stand as a collective profession in times of theoretical shift and as our profession evolves. My main research objective for this study is to discover what the collective identity of Canadian music therapists is presently, or if one exists. My secondary objective is to discover what differences (if any) in collective identity there are crossprovincially and why these differences exist. Will there be any kind of consensus as to our collective identity? I am requesting your permission to either a) have access to a list of MTAs that are members of your chapter including their email addresses OR b) for a volunteer from your association to email your membership a copy of the letter of consent and email survey form I have prepared for this research study. Your participation in this research study is greatly appreciated. Please contact me at your earliest convenience. I can be reached via email at: or by phone at: 519-729-6606 for further questions and/or clarifications.

Thank-you. Sincerely,

Christine Dibble, BMT, MMT Candidate

68 *This letter will be sent to potential participants._________________________________

Wilfrid Laurier University Letter of Recruitment

To (name of potential participant):

My name is Christine Dibble and Im a Masters of Music Therapy student at Wilfrid Laurier University. I am conducting a research study entitled, An Inquiry into the Collective Identity of Canadian Music Therapists.

The purpose of my study is to discover and explore what Canadian music therapists feel their collective identity is: how we see ourselves as music therapy professionals today. I am conducting this study because I am curious to know where we stand as a collective profession in times of theoretical shift and as our profession evolves.

My main research objective for this study is to discover what the collective identity of Canadian music therapists is presently, or if one exists. My secondary objective is to discover what differences (if any) in collective identity there are crossprovincially and why these differences exist. Will there be any kind of consensus as to our collective identity?

The study will involve an email survey, email interview or face-to-face interview with the participant. The timing of this process is dependent upon the responses of the participants, but is designed to last no more than one hour. Please see the Informed Consent Statement for more information.

If you are interested in being part of this research study, please contact me at your earliest convenience. I can be reached via email at: or by phone at: 519-729-6606 for further questions and/or clarifications.



Christine Dibble, BMT, MMT Candidate


Appendix B: Informed Consent Statement Wilfrid Laurier University Informed Consent Statement
Researcher: Christine Dibble, BMT. 519-729-6606. Research Supervisor: Dr. Carolyn Arnason. 519-884-0710 ext.2154. You are invited to participate in a research study. The purpose of this study is to discover if Canadian music therapists have a collective identity, and if so, what defines this identity. How do we see ourselves as music therapy professionals today? This study will also be looking at differences in identity cross-provincially. The researcher is a Masters of Music Therapy student at Wilfrid Laurier University. Information Potential participants will be asked to read the informed consent statement and to ask questions about the research procedures. They will be asked to return it electronically or by letter mail to the researcher's provided address. The next step would be to fill out the email survey and return it electronically to the researcher. Clarification questions may be asked by the researcher upon return of the email survey to ensure the understanding of the data collected. In the case of any pioneers of Canadian music therapy wishing to participate in this study, the researcher will request a face-to-face interview or email interview from the potential participant(s). The face-to-face interviews will be audio recorded. The amount of time required of the participant to complete the survey/interview will depend upon the responses of the participant. The survey/interview is designed to take no longer than one hour to complete. Risks The nature of this study is to discuss and reveal the professional identity, influences and motivations of the participants. There are potential psychological and/or emotional risks associated with this research study as the discussion of any personal information can potentially pose these risks. The researcher will attempt to minimize these risks by giving the participants the option of omitting any question(s) on the survey/in the interview the participant does not feel comfortable answering. *The participant may also request not to have their province of origin revealed in the major research paper. Benefits The benefits of this research study could be applicable to the music therapy community at large. This study may help our profession as a whole and/or the participants to gain clarity in terms of our collective identity, if one indeed exists.
*Please note that the province of origin (of the data collected) will be the only identifying factor associated with the data in the written study unless otherwise indicated by the participant. Initial_______

70 This study may also assist the participant(s) to gain clarity of the theoretical influences and motivations of their own clinical work through the process of discovering and/or discussing it. The outcomes of this study may advance knowledge about where our field is headed in terms of professional practice. This study may contribute to unifying ourselves as professionals as we strive to gain further awareness for our field in the medical and scientific communities, and throughout the population at large. Confidentiality Because the email survey will be returned to the researcher, the researcher will be aware of the name of the participant, their email address and the province of origin of the information (unless this information is withheld), and any other personal information the participant chooses to include on the survey. The identifying information that will be published in the research will be the province of origin of the data, unless withheld by the participant. The research supervisor will also have access to the data collected from the participants. Because of the nature of this study, the researcher may wish to include direct quotations from the participants. The participants have the option of giving or not giving consent for direct quotations to be included in the major research paper. In the case of any pioneers of music therapy in Canada completing the email interview or face-to-face interview, the researcher may request to include identifying information (name and province of origin of data) from the participant as it relates to the necessity of the research. The participants have the option of giving or not giving consent for the inclusion of this identifying information. The face-to-face interviews will be audio recorded. The researcher is the only person who will have access to the raw data. Email surveys may be printed off by the researcher and/or stored electronically on the researchers personal lap top computer in a word document format. Any paper copies of raw data will be kept in a locked compartment located at the researchers personal residence. The electronic data will be password protected (encrypted) on the researcher's personal computer. In the case of a face-to-face interview, the researcher will transcribe the interview(s) from the audio recording to a word document format, which will be stored in the same manner as the email surveys. The audio recorded data will be stored digitally on the researchers personal computer and will be password protected. Upon completion of this project, all raw data, including paper and electronic data, will be archived by the researcher for a period of 7 years. All electronic data, including audio recordings and word documents, will be taken off the researcher's personal computer and be put onto discs which will be stored in a locked compartment located at the researchers personal residence. After the period of 7 years, all raw data will be destroyed. Paper documents will be shredded and electronic data will be deleted, and/or information discs will be destroyed. Initial_______

71 Participation Your participation in this study is voluntary; you may decline to participate without penalty. If you decide to participate, you may withdraw from the study at any time without penalty and without loss of benefits to which you are otherwise entitled. If you withdraw from the study before data collection is completed, your data will be returned to you or destroyed. You have the right to omit any question(s)/procedure(s) you choose. Contact If you have questions at any time about the study or the procedures, you may contact the researcher, Christine Dibble BMT, at 207A Foxhunt Road, Waterloo ON, N2K 2R8, at and (519) 729-6606. This project has been reviewed and approved by the University Research Ethics Board. If you feel you have not been treated according to the descriptions in this form, or your rights as a participant in research have been violated during the course of this project, you may contact Dr. Robert Basso, Chair, University Research Ethics Board, Wilfrid Laurier University, (519) 884-1970, extension 5225 or Feedback & Publication The results of the research will be presented in a written research study (major research paper), and presented as an oral defence in September 2010. The researcher may disseminate her research in a variety of academic journals, including the Canadian Journal of Music Therapy. The researcher may also present the research findings at various allied-health and inter-disciplinary conferences and workshops, including the annual Music Therapy Association conference. Participants will be able to access the Major Research Paper as an e-document on the Laurier Centre for Music Therapy Research web site,, Research Library. The planned posting of the research is November, 2010. Participants can consult the website for the exact date on which findings will be posted. Consent Please print your name in the following space(s) that apply to you. If none apply please leave the space(s) blank: I, _______________________________, agree that direct quotes may be used in the researcher's major research paper. I, ________________________________, agree that my province of location may be used in the researchers major research paper. All participants please sign below: I, ________________________________, have read and understood the above information. I have received a copy of this form. I agree to participate in this study. Participants signature:______________________________ Date:__________________ Investigators signature:_____________________________ Date:__________________


Appendix C: Survey & Interview Questions Email/Interview Survey

Please answer the following questions. Where possible, please give an example. If there are any questions that are too difficult to answer, feel free to leave the response area blank. Please note that the response box will expand with your typing. 1) How did your beliefs and or/values motivate you to become a music therapist (e.g. your personal belief systems and/or ideals, customs, etc.)?

2) What connections are there between your motivations and your identity as a music therapist?

3) Are there any other influences that may have led you to working in this field (e.g. education)?

4) What theoretical model(s) influence your clinical work? Why?

5) What is your definition of identity and how do your influences, motivations, theoretical models etc. affect your definition?

6) When you think of the term collective identity, what comes to mind?

7) Do you believe that as Canadian music therapists, we have a collective identity? Why or why not?

8) If so, could you describe what that identity is?

9) Are there any other questions I need to be asking in regards to Canadian music therapists collective identity?

Thank-you for your participation in this research study! This document should be saved in the .doc format, and be returned electronically to the researcher, Christine Dibble, at


Appendix D: Initial Research Process Diagram


Appendix E: Open Coding Mind Map





Appendix F: Synthesis Mind Map




Appendix G: Glossary of Methodological Terms

Axial Coding: is a procedure for connecting categories found in open coding, and occurs when data are connected in new ways through categories and their subcategories (Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997). Categories: are classifications of concepts or meaning units that are grouped into a more abstract order (Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997). Codes: meaning units, categories and/or themes. Inductive Approach: codes are developed from the analysis of the data as it is collected (Amir, 2005, p. 366). Meaning Unit: a word that can mean something more or is connected to something bigger than itself, like a sub category. Mind Maps: are diagrams used to represent words and ideas that are linked to and arranged around a central key word or idea, and are used to visualize and classify ideas as an aid to organization and writing (Budd, 2004). Properties: are attributes or characteristics (meaning units or concepts) that describe a category (Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997). Selective Coding: is the process of identifying core categories or theme(s) from the analysis, and systematically relating them to other categories to validate those relationships (Amir, 2005; Smeijsters, 1997); how the categories are interrelated with other categories. Subcategories: smaller categories that are related to larger categories. Synthesis/Synthesizing: is an opportunity for the researcher to tell the story of the data from the point of view of the research participants, as understood and interpreted by the researcher (Glaser as cited in Amir, 2005, p. 367). After the categories are integrated and synthesized into a core set of themes, the researcher describes the properties and circumstances as to how and why they are connected (Amir, 2005, p. 367). Themes: are a statement of meaning that runs through all or most of the categories or a category that carries meaningful impact (Ely et al. as cited in Amir, 2005, p. 368, 365).