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# General Chemistry Lecture # 3: Atomic Theory Prepared by: Engr. Norman Giovanni M.

Guevarra Atomic Theory Daltons Atomic Theory 1. Elements are composed of extremely small invisible particle called atom which a certain their identity in any chemical change. 2. Atoms of the same element have the same average mass and their other properties are also the same. 3. Compounds are formed by combination of atoms of different elements. 4. Atoms of two or more elements may combine in more than one ratio to form other compounds. John Dalton British chemist and physicist Atom Is the fundamental unit of a particle of an element Parts of Atom 1. Proton Positively charged particles located in the nucleus of an atom 2. Neutron Uncharged particles located in the central part of an atom 3. Electrons Negatively charged particles located outside the nucleus of an atom Isotope Atoms with same atomic number but different mass numbers Proton
1 1

Electron 1 1 1

Neutron 0 1 2

Atomic Mass 1 2 3

H H H

1 1 1

Atomic Number Is a number of positive charge Atomic Mass Is the sum of the weight of the proton and neutron Weight of Neutron = atomic mass atomic number Example: Na Atomic mass of Na = 23 Atomic number of Na = 11 Weight of Neutron = atomic mass atomic number = 23 11 Weight of Neutron = 12

Quantum Numbers Are set of numbers which define the location of an electron in an orbital Four Quantum Numbers 1. First or Principal Quantum Number, n It designates the main energy level of the electron such as 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 2. Second Quantum Number, l It designates the shape of the orbital whether it is S (sharp) =0 d (diffused) =2 P (principal) = 1 f (fundamental) =3 3. Third Quantum Numbers, s It describes the number of orbital of given kind for main energy level 4. Fourth Quantum Number, s It is called the spin quantum number which describes the two ways in which an electron May be aligned with a magnetic field whether the direction is clockwise and counterclockwise. Example: n= 4 l=1

m = +1 S = +

4p3 n = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 l=s=0 l = p = -1, 0, +1 l = d = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2 l = f = -3,-2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3 -1 0 +1 s = = + S = = -

SPDF Configuration It is the arrangement of the electrons in the various atomic orbital. May be expressed in terms of the spdf Mnemonic Device for SPDF Configuration 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 7s 7p 7d

Rules in spdf Electron Configuration 1. Generally electrons occupy atomic orbital with the lower values for the sum of n + 1. Thus, the 4s orbital is first filled before 3d orbital. 2. If two orbital have the same value for n + 1 in 3rd and 4p (n + 1 =5) the one with lower n value that is 3rd is preferably filled to capacity before 4p. 3. Empty atomic orbital with the same n and l values are each simply filled first before pairing of electrons is allowed, this guide is known as Hunds Rule 4. Atomic orbital with the same n and l values exhibit preference for an arrangement whereby they are all singly filled or completely filled. Sometimes electrons from neighboring atomic orbital are shifted to achieve their configuration. 5. Exception are observed among heavy elements because of the uncertainty in the energy level sequence of atomic orbital with higher or values.

Method of sketching atoms of elements 1. Complete Atomic Structure Shows the nucleus with different number of proton and neutron. It also shows the distribution of electron around the nucleus in different shells. The electron travel in pairs and are represented by small circles. Example: 19 9 F 2. Electron Dot Formula The nucleus and the inner shells are represented by the symbol of the element and only the electron in the outermost shell are represented by using a dot or x around the nucleus Example: F F 3. Symbol and Electron Number The nucleus of the atom is represented by the symbol of the element and only the distribution of electrons in the different shells are represented by Arabic numbers enclosed in brackets Example: F[2, 7] Electron Structure of Atom 1. Main energy level or Shell Represented by letters and numbers Example K L M N 1 2 3 4 2. Subshells or Sub Level Represented by letters S, P, D, F Example: S = sharp P = principal D = diffuse F = fundamental 3. Orbital It is the region or space where electron are most likely to be found 4 Kinds of orbital a. 1s orbital b. 3p orbital c. 5d orbital d. 7f orbital Subdivision of main energy level K 1 1 s 1 1s 2 L 2 2 s, p 4 2s,2p 2, 6 M 3 3 s, p, d 9 3s,3p,3d 2, 6, 10 N 4 4 s, p, d, f 16 3s,4p,4d,4f 2,6,10,14

I. Mel or Shell II. No. of Subshell III. Kinds of Subshell IV. No. of orbital of each in each subshell V. Kinds of Orbital VI. No. of Electron in each Sublevel

## VII. Max. no. of electron in each shell

18

32

Two Methods of Showing Entry of Electron into the Orbitals 1. Orbital Method Follows order of filling of orbitals using the mnemonic device for spdf configuration 23 2 2 6 1 Example: 11Na 1s 2s 2p 3s 2. Rectangular arrow Method Shows the position of electrons in orbitals. Electrons are represented by arrows pointing in opposite direction. 23 Example: 11Na