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General Chemistry Lecture # 4: Periodic Table and Naming of Compounds Prepared by: Engr.

Norman Giovanni Molina Guevarra Periodic Classification of the Elements Periodic Table Is the list of all the no!n elements arranged in order of increasing atomic number in hori"ontal ro!s of such a length that# elements !hich are chemically ali e fall directly beneath one another. $. %obereiner&s Triad '$($)* +ohn %obereiner grouped elements that e,hibit very similar characteristics in three or triads. The atomic !eight of the second element !as found to be the average of the first and third elements. Calcium '-.*# /trontium '((* and barium '$0)*# !ere the numbers of %obereiner&s 1irst Triad. %obereiner&s chart !as not a comprehensive classification of the elements but it suggested that the atomic !eight could be used to correlate the properties of true elements.

2. Ne!lands Table '$(3-* +ohn Ne!lands developed a periodic table in !hich the elements !ere arranged in order of increasing atomic !eight. 4e also proposed that any given element is similar to the eighth element follo!ing it. Ne!lands# therefore arranged the elements at intervals of eight# similar to the octave of the musical scale. This !as referred to as 5Ne!lands 6a! of 7ctave8.

0. Mendeleevs Table '$(39* %imitri Mendeleev# a :ussian Chemist# discovered that the atomic !eights of the elements are related to the periodic variation in their properties. 4ence# he arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic !eights providing intervals or period !ith !ere not al!ays of the same length.

-. Meyer&s table '$().* ;n a!are of Mendeleev&s study +ulius Meyer has also been !or ing on his Periodic Table that consists <3 elements.

<. Moseley&s Table '$(9-* The early periodic tables !ere arranged according to increasingly atomic !eight and this misspelled several elements such as =r and ># Co and N and 1e and I in the periodic table is no! related to the atomic number.

;ses of Periodic Table $. =id to remember and understand chemical data atomic number
$...9)

4$

symbol of element atomic !eight

2. =s guide in chemical prediction and theory Periodic Table of Elements

Group Period

? ?

@ertical 4ori"ontal

I A @II $A)

/ubgroup of 1amily =. 1amilies :epresentative or main group elements

B. 1amilies Color Indicates the states of matter Blac :ed Blue Group Group Group Group 1amily I= II= III= I@= @= @I= @II= @III= I D III I@ @A @II @III ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? solid gas liCuid 1ound at the center of the periodic table

metals borderlines 'metalloids* nonmetals inert gases or noble gas

al ali metals al aline earth metals Boron 1amily Carbon Nitrogen 1amily 7,ygen 1amily 4alogens Inert gases or Noble Gases

Transition Elements: B 1amilies 1ound at the center of periodic table Inner Transition elements 1 sublevel Is the process of being filled up :ules in Naming of Compounds I. Binary Compound =re those !hich are composed of t!o elements only

=. Compounds of t!o non metal $. The name of the less electronegative elements is !ritten first 2. The second term consists of Gree prefi, that indicate the number of atoms of the second element. The root of the name of the second element ending Eide8 E,ample: P 27 <

Phosphorus Pento,ide

B. =cids Compounds !here one element is hydrogen and the other element is non metal

$. The first term consists of the prefi, Ehydro8 the root !ord of the name of the non metal and the suffi, Eic8 2. The second term is the !ord Eacid8 E,ample: 4Cl 4ydrochloric =cid

C. /alts Compounds !hich consists of a metal and nonmetal

$. The first term is the name of the metal. The second term consist of the root of the name of non metal !ith the suffi, Eide8 E,ample: >Br Potassium Bromide

2. Fhen the metal is of variable valence either of t!o system is used. a. Classical Method This uses the suffi,es Eous8 to indicate the lo!er valence and Eic8 to indicate the higher valence. The root of the 6atin name of the metal is used. E,ample: 1eCl2 1errous Chloride E,ample: 1eCl0 1erric Chloride b. To give the molecular formulas for compounds the symbol of the positive or radical follo!ed by the negative elements or radical are !ritten together !ith their respective valences. The algebraic sum of the total positive valence and the total negative valence is eCuated to "ero so that the compound is electronically neutral $. Fhen the positive and negative valence of the same value# the formula is correct as it stands. E,ample: NaG BaG G G ClA /A2 NaCl Ba/

2. Fhen the positive valence and the negative valence are not of the same value# the crisscross rules is applied so that the algebraic sum of the positive and negative valence is eCual to "ero. E,ample:

CaG2 6iG2

G G

ClA$ 7A2

CaCl2 6i27

0. Fhen a radical in a formula is ta en more than once# the symbol of the radical in enclosed in parenthesis and the correct subscript is placed after the parenthesis. E,ample: MgG2 G P7A0 Mg0'P7-*2

-. Fhenever the positive and negative valences are reducible to lo!est terms# the crisscross rule is applied and the subscript is reduced to the lo!est positive ratio. E,ample: PbGG /A2 Pb2/Pb/2 /ome Compounds that contains more than t!o are named li e binary compound. $. Metallic 4ydro,ide E,ample: Na74 /odium 4ydro,ide 2. =mmonium Compounds of the type N4-H E,ample: 0. Cyanides E,ample: 4CN 4ydrocyanic =cid N4-Cl =mmonium Chloride

II.

Ternary Compounds These are compounds !hich consists of three different type of elements# the third element is o,ygen =. Ternary =cid If there are t!o ternary acids that contain the same element# the suffi, Eic8 and Eous8 are used !ith the central element to distinguish them. The suffi, Eic8 is used to denote the acid !ith the higher number of 7 atoms and the suffi, Eous8 for the one !ith the lo!er number of 7 atoms E,ample: 4N70 4N72 Nitric =cid Nitrous =cid

B. If the same element forms more than t!o ternary acids the suffi, Eic8 is used to denote the common acid. The suffi, Eous8 denote an acid containing one less o,ygen. The prefi, Eper8 is used to denote t!o additional 7 atoms and the prefi, Ehydro8 to denote t!o less 7 atoms. E,ample: 4Cl7- is Perchloric acid 4Cl70 is Chloric acid 4Cl72 is Chlorous acid

4Cl7 is hypochlorous acid 2. Bases These compounds are named as hydro,ide for metals !ith variable o,idation state !ith the classical and the stoc method is used. E,ample: Na74 is /odium 4ydro,ide Cu74 is Cupros 4ydro,ide or Copper I Cu'74*2 is Cupric 4ydro,ide or Copper II 0. /alts of 7,y =cids =n Eous8 acid al!ays forms an Eite8 o,yanion or salts an Eic8 al!ays forms Eate8 ion or salt. The name of metal or cation is given first follo!ed by the name of nonAmetallic group or radical. E,ample: Na2/7- is sodium /ulfate Na2/70 is /odium /ulfite Trends in the Periodic Table $. /i"e Fhen electron is removed from the outermost shell# the si"e of the atom !ill decrease

1actors in the trend of si"e a. Nuclear Charge 1rom left to right Increasing atomic number decrease in si"e E,ample: b. Number of energy levels The more the energy levels# the longer the radius the bigger the atoms. 1rom top to bottom Increasing number of levels increase in si"e E,ample: smaller Cl$) Na$$ AAAAAAAI Cl$)

Bigger I<0 2. Ioni"ation Potential Energy that is reCuired to remove one or more electrons from a neutral atom. Ioni"ation Process of losing or gaining an electron by an atom

1rom left to right of the periodic table# the general tendency is to increase the ioni"ation potential and to decrease its tendency to give up electron 1rom to bottom# decrease in ioni"ation potential.

0. Electro negativity Measure of the capacity of the atom to attract electron Electron attracting po!er The longer the atomic radius# the !ea er the electron attracting po!er the lo!er the electro negativity 1rom top to bottom 'decrease in electro negativity 1rom left to right 'increase in electro negativity.

-. Electron =ffinity =mount of energy released or e,erted !hen atoms gain electron. 1rom top to bottom 'decrease in electron affinity 1rom left to right increase in electron affinity.

<. Metallic Properties 1rom top to bottom# increasing metallic properties 1rom left to right# decreasing metallic properties.