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Eng 102SC

Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers Prepositions Relative pronouns

Reading a book, my cat crawled into my lap.

Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers

The hunter crouched behind a tree waiting for a bear to come along with a bow and arrow.

Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers

At the beginning of the novel, Tom Joad comes across a turtle on his way home from spending four years in prison.

Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers

Misplaced & Dangling Modifiers


Modifiers are words that describe other words in a sentence Modifiers should be near the words they modify Linda saw the White House flying over Washington, D.C. Flying over Washington, D.C., Linda saw the White House. Trying to eat a hot dog, my bike swerved off the path. While I was trying to eat a hot dog, my bike swerved off the path.

Put limiting modifiers in front of the words they modify


Limiting modifiers = only, even, almost, nearly, just These should appear in front of a verb only if they modify the verb At first, I couldnt even touch my toes, much less grasp them. If they limit the meaning of some other word in the sentence, they should be placed in front of that word. The cathedral almost took six centuries to complete. The cathedral took almost six centuries to complete.

Put limiting modifiers in front of the words they modify


Limiting modifiers = only, even, almost, nearly, just These should appear in front of a verb only if they modify the verb At first, I couldnt even touch my toes, much less grasp them. If they limit the meaning of some other word in the sentence, they should be placed in front of that word. The cathedral almost took six centuries to complete. The cathedral took almost six centuries to complete.

Put limiting modifiers in front of the words they modify

If you just interview chemistry majors, your picture of the student bodys response to the new grading policies will be incomplete.
If you interview just chemistry majors, your picture of the student bodys response to the new grading policies will be incomplete. If you interview just chemistry majors, your picture of the student bodys response to the new grading policies will be incomplete.

Put limiting modifiers in front of the words they modify

In the United States in 1860, not all black southerners were not slaves. In the United States in 1860, all black southerners were not slaves. In the United States in 1860, not all black southerners were slaves.

Place phrases and clauses so that readers can see at a glance what they modify

The soccer player returned to the clinic where he had undergone emergency surgery in 2004 in a limousine sent by Adidas. He had surgery in a limousine??? Traveling in a limousine sent by Adidas, the soccer player returned to the clinic where he had undergone emergency surgery in 2004

Place phrases and clauses so that readers can see at a glance what they modify There are many pictures of comedians who have performed at Gavins on the walls. The comedians are performing on the walls? On the walls are many pictures of comedians who have performed at Gavins. The robber was described as a six-foottall man with a heavy mustache weighing 170 pounds. Thats a heavy mustache!!! The robber was described as a 170pound, six-foot-tall man with a heavy mustache.

Place phrases and clauses so that readers can see at a glance what they modify

A squinting modifier leads to ambiguity The exchange students we met for coffee occasionally questioned us about our latest slang. Did they meet occasionally? Or did the questioning happen occasionally? The exchange students we occasionally met for coffee questioned us about our latest slang. The exchange students we met for coffee questioned us occasionally about our latest slang.

Move awkwardly placed modifiers

A sentence should flow from subject to verb to object without lengthy detours along with way Hong Kong, after more than 150 years of British rule, was transferred back to Chinese control in 1997. After more than 150 years of British rule, Hong Kong was transferred back to Chinese control in 1997. After more than 150 years of British rule, Hong Kong was transferred back to Chinese control in 1997.

Avoid awkward split infinitives


Infinitive = to plus base form of a verb (to think) Split infinitive = modifier between to and verb (to carefully balance, to completely understand) When a long word or phrase appears between parts of the infinitive, result is usually awkward If possible, the patient should try to avoid going up and down stairs. The patient should try to if possible avoid going up and down stairs. If possible, the patient should try to avoid going up and down stairs.

Dangling Modifiers

Modifier fails to refer logically to any word in the sentence Understanding the need to create checks and balances on power, the Constitution divided the government into three branches. The document understood the need for checks and balances? Understanding the need to create checks and balances on power, the framers of the Constitution divided the government into three branches.

Exercise 12 1 pg. 130


1. The flood nearly displaced half of the citys residents, who packed into several overcrowded shelters. The flood displaced nearly half 2. Most lions at night hunt for mediumsize prey, such as zebra. Most lions hunt at night 3. Several recent studies have encouraged heart patients to more carefully watch their cholesterol levels. patients to watch their cholesterol levels more carefully.

Exercise 12 1 pg. 130


4. The gardens centerpiece is a huge sculpture that was carved by three women called Walking in Place. The gardens centerpiece is a huge sculpture called Walking in Place that was carved by three women. 5. The old Marlboro ads depicted a man on a horse smoking a cigarette. The old Marlboro ads depicted a man smoking a cigarette on a horse.

Exercise 12-2
1. While working as a ranger in Everglades National Park, a Florida panther crossed the road in front of my truck one night. While I was working as a ranger in Everglades National Park, a Florida panther crossed the road in front of my truck one night.

Exercise 12-2
2. By following the new recycling procedure, the citys landfill costs will be reduced significantly. If residents follow the new recycling procedure, the citys landfill costs will be reduced significantly.

Exercise 12-2
3. Serving as president of the missionary circle, one of Sophias duties is to raise money for the church. Serving as president of the missionary circle, Sophia is responsible for raising money for the church. 4. After buying an album by Ali Farka Toure, the rich and rolling rhythms of Malian music made more sense to Silas. After buying an album by Ali Farka Toure, Silas understood the rich and rolling rhythms of Malian music.

Exercise 12-2
5. Opening the window to let out a huge bumblebee, the car swerved into an oncoming truck. When the driver opened the window to let out a huge bumblebee, the car swerved into an oncoming truck.

Reading a book, my cat crawled into my lap.

How can this sentence be fixed?

The hunter crouched behind a tree waiting for a bear to come along with a bow and arrow.

How can this sentence be fixed?

At the beginning of the novel, Tom Joad comes across a turtle on his way home from spending four years in prison.

How can this sentence be fixed?

Can a sentence end in a preposition?

Prepositions
Consult chart on page 290 At, by, for, from, in, of, on, to , with Can you end a sentence with a preposition?
Where are you at? Where are you? She displayed the good humor shes known for. She displayed the good humor for which she is known. I want to know where he came from. I want to know from where he came.

Prepositions
She is a person I cannot cope with. She is a person with whom I cannot cope.

If the restructured sentence sounds contrived and unnatural, simply rewrite the sentence:

It is behavior I will not put up with. It is behavior up with which I will not put. It is behavior I will not tolerate.

Where vs. When


April the first is known as All Fools Day ______ people play practical jokes on each other.

The pound _____ Bella found me is in Kittanning.

Which Vs. That


Gems _____ sparkle often elicit forgiveness. Diamonds, _____ are expensive, often elicit forgiveness. There was an earthquake in China, _____ is bad.

Which Vs. That


Gems _____ sparkle often elicit forgiveness. Restrictive ClauseThat A restrictive clause is just part of a sentence that you can't get rid of because it specifically restricts some other part of the sentence.

Here's an example: The words that sparkle restrict the kind of gems you're talking about. Without them, the meaning of the sentence would change. Without them, you'd be saying that all gems elicit forgiveness, not just the gems that sparkle. (And note that you don't need commas around the words that sparkle.)

Which Vs. That


Diamonds, _____ are expensive, often elicit forgiveness. There was an earthquake in China, _____ is bad. Nonrestrictive ClauseWhich A nonrestrictive clause is something that can be left off without changing the meaning of the sentence. You can think of a nonrestrictive clause as simply additional information.

Explanation: Diamonds are always expensive, so leaving out the words which are expensive doesn't change the meaning of the sentence. (Also note that the phrase is surrounded by commas. Nonrestrictive clauses are usually surrounded by, or preceded by, commas.)

Grammar Portfolio

Restructure or rewrite five sentences that end in a preposition. Make sure to include the original sentence.

Create and illustrate 5 misplaced or dangling modifiers.

For Wednesday
Ethical essays