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AQA Chemistry Unit 2

Halogens
o

Reaction with concentrated Sulphuric acid


Sodium Chloride

NaCl +H2SO4 --> HCl +NaHSO4 NaBr +H2SO4 --> HBr + NaHSO4 then 2NaBr +2H2SO4 --> 2H2O +Br2 +SO2 +Na2SO4 NaI +H2SO4 --> HI +NaHSO4 then 8NaI + 5H2SO4 --> 4I2 +H2S +4H2O +4Na2SO4

Sodium Bromide

Sodium Iodide

Trends in chemical properties


chlorine will displace bromine and iodine bromine will displace iodine but not chlorine Iodine will displace neither chlorine or bromine !idising "ower

F2>Cl2>Br2>I2 Halide ion 1) Br 2) IObservations 1) ello!"bro!n 2) bro!n #olo$r% bla#& ''t Con#l$sion 1) Br2 dis'la#ed 2) I2 dis'la#ed Halide ion 1) Cl 2) IObservations 1) no #han(e 2) bro!n #olo$r% bla#& ''t Con#l$sion 1) Cl2 not dis'la#ed 2) I2 dis'la#ed Halide ion 1) Cl-

Reactions with Cl2

Reactions with Br2

Reactions with I2

2) BrObservations 1) no #han(e 2) no #han(e Con#l$sion 1) Cl2 not dis'la#ed 2) Br2 not dis'la#ed

Trend in electronegati#ity

decreases as atomic number increases


Be#a$se )to*i# n$*ber in#reases attra#tion +or bondin( ele#tron 'air in #ovalent bond in#rease in#rease n$*ber o+ ele#tron shells shieldin( in#reases ele#trons less stron(l attra#ted ato*i# radi$s in#reases

Trend in boiling point


all e!ist as diatomic molecules attraction $ wea% intermolecular &orces #an der 'aals &orces increase with si(e o& molecule Tests &or halide ions Reagents

Tests

Silver nitrate sol$tion Fl$oride ions Silver +l$oride is sol$ble no ''t +or*ed Chloride ions ,hite ''t +or*ed sol$ble in dil$te a**onia Bro*ide ions #rea* ''t +or*ed sol$ble in #on#entrated a**onia Iodide ions ello! ''t +or*ed insol$ble in a**onia sol$tion +ollo!ed b a**onia sol$tion

)nergetics
o

Q$mcdelta*t+

heat energy $ mass ! heat capacity ! the change in temperature

Standard enthalpy o& &ormation


enthalpy change when , mol o& a compound is &ormed &rom its elements under standard conditions all reactants and products in their standard states enthalpy when , mol o& a substance is completely burned in o!ygen under standard conditions and all reactants and products in their standard states enthalpy change that accompanies the neutralisation o& an acid by a base to &orm , mol o& H2 under standard conditions 2-. / ,00/"a ,moldm1*23+

Standard enthalpy o& combustion


standard enthalpy o& neutralisation

Standard conditions

Redo!
o

!idation

loss o& electons addition o& o!ygen gain o& electrons loss o& o!ygen

reduction

o o

reactions which in#ol#e both o!idation and reduction o!idising agent is reduced reduing agent is o!ididesd Titanium

)!traction o& metals


o

Batch process Argon


Inert at*os'here to 'revent #onta*ination o+ *etal !ith o- (en or nitro(en

Ti 2 42C 42Cl2225 TiCl6 42C TiCl6 467a 225 67aCl 4Ti economic &actors

o o

#hlorine and sodi$* have to be 'rod$#ed hi(h te*'erat$res involved ar(on at*os'here has to be #ontained

Aluminium
Bau!ite

)l2O.

bau!ite dissol#es in molten cryolite At cathode


)l/.+) +.e- --> )l 2O/2-) --> 4e- +o2

At anode In blast &urnace


Iron

hae*atite Fe2O. #o&e C li*estone CaCO. hot air

2C 4 2 225 2C 8e2 3 43C 225 28e 4 3C 2 28e2 3 43C 225 68e 4 3C 2 Impurities

SiO2 CaCO. + SiO2 --> CO2 + CaSiO. CaSiO. is sla( s$l'h$r i*'$rities 0( + S --> 0(S 1hos'hor$s 0an(anese O2 $nder 'ress$re blo!ed on *olten iron #arbon o-idised to #arbon *ono-ide

9a%ing steel

)conomic &actors and recycling


"urity re:uired )nergy costs cost o& reducing agent


*an$+a#t$rin( #hlorine and sodi$* ele#trol sis o+ brine !ater #hea'er to re# #le al$*ini$* than *ine ba$-ite and ele#trol sis

Recycling aluminium

ele#trol sis needs hi(h te*'erat$re and lar(e ele#tri#it hi(h resistan#e to #orrosion 2arths resivoirs o+ ore are saved ener( o+ *inin( ore% trans'ortation% s*eltin( is (reater than re# #lin(

Recycling o& iron