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LECTURE 3

Cell membranes, cell j junctions ti and d cellular ll l interactions

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Cell Membranes
The role of the plasma membrane - encloses the cell, defines its boundaries and maintains differences between the cytosol and the extracellular environment. Other membranes in the cell - surround organelles (eg mitochondria, chloroplasts, nuclei), form ER and Golgi - control passage of materials among intracellular compartments
BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Cell membranes (contd)


Chemical composition of membranes (a) ( ) lipids p - most abundant lipids in membranes are phospholipids - amphipathic ie hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails - lipid bilayer is the basic structure of cell membranes, 7-8 nm thick (b) proteins - may be detected chemically and seen in electron micrographs using freeze-fracture techniques
BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

The phospholipid bilayer

Campbell 7.2

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Freeze fracturing membranes

Campbell 7.4

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Cell membranes (contd)


Models for membrane structure - 1930s (Davson and Danielli) - bilayer with layer of protein on each surface. - 1972 (Singer and Nicholson) - Fluid Mosaic model. The membrane is described as a mosaic of f protein t i molecules l l floating fl ti in i a phospholipid h h li id bilayer

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

The fluid mosaic model for membrane structure

Phospholipid bilayer

Hydrophobic regions of protein

Hydrophilic regions of protein

Campbell 7.3

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Cell membranes (contd)


Important features of the fluid mosaic model: - lipid bilayer is fluid; molecules are able to diffuse rapidly within their own monolayer but very rarely transfer spontaneously from one monolayer to the other - in eukaryotes, cholesterol molecules moderate y of the bilayer y the fluidity - the two halves of the bilayer are asymmetrical ie may contain different species of phospholipids. Glycolipids are found on the outer half of the bilayer
BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Movement of phospholipids in membranes

Lateral movement occurs 107 times per second.

Flip-flopping Flip flopping across the membrane is rare ( once per month).

Campbell 7.6

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Fluidity of membranes
Fluid Viscous

Unsaturated hydrocarbon tails

Saturated hydrocarbon tails

(a) Unsaturated versus saturated hydrocarbon tails

Campbell 7.8a

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Cholesterol in the membrane

(b) Cholesterol within the animal cell membrane

Cholesterol

Campbell 7.8b

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Cell membranes (contd)


- integral membrane proteins penetrate the hydrophobic core of the bilayer, peripheral membrane proteins are loosely bound to the surface - proteins float in the lipid bilayer and some may extend right through it - glycoproteins on the external surface often act as receptors - proteins can diffuse laterally in the bilayer (cell fusion expts)
BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Evidence for movement of membrane proteins

Campbell 7.7

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

The plasma membrane


Fibers of extracellular matrix (ECM)

Glycoprotein

Carbohydrate Glycolipid EXTRACELLULAR SIDE OF MEMBRANE

Cholesterol Microfilaments of cytoskeleton Peripheral proteins Integral protein CYTOPLASMIC SIDE OF MEMBRANE

Campbell 7.5

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Cell membranes (contd)


Membrane proteins perform many functions: intercellular junctions (gap junctions) transport (Na/K Atp'ase) cellular recognition (histocompatibility antigens) enzymes y (mitochondria) ( ) receptors (hormones) anchors (cytoskeleton)

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Functions of membrane proteins (1)


Signaling molecule Enzymes Receptor

ATP

Signal transduction

(a) Transport

(b) Enzymatic activity

(c) Signal transduction

Campbell 7.10

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Functions of membrane proteins (2)

Glycoprotein

(d) Cell-cell recognition (e) Intercellular joining (f) Attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM)
Campbell 7.10

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Functions of membrane proteins


a) Intercellular Junctions i) Desmosomes - provide structural strength (spot welds) ii) Tight junctions - water-tight seal iii) Gap junctions - communication channels, 6 subunits around a 2nm diameter hole. iv)Plasmodesmata - channels which traverse plant cell walls thereby directly connecting the cytoplasm of adjacent cells

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Tight junctions prevent fluid from moving across a layer of cells

Tight junction

TEM

0.5 m

Tight junction Intermediate filaments Desmosome

Intercellular junctions in animal cells


TEM 1 m

Gap junction

Ions or small molecules

Plasma membranes of adjacent cells

Extracellular matrix

TEM 0.1 m

Space between cells

Campbell 6.32

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Gap junction

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Plasmodesmata form channels through the cell walls of plants


Cell walls Interior of cell

Interior of cell 0.5 m Plasmodesmata Plasma membranes

Campbell 6.31

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Functions of membrane proteins (contd)


b) Membrane Transport - membranes are selectively permeable. Hydrophobic molecules (hydrocarbons, (hydrocarbons O2) and small, uncharged polar molecules (CO2) can pass rapidly through the cell membrane but it is relatively impermeable to large, uncharged polar molecules (glucose) and ions (H+, Na+, K+, Cl-) - water moves to equalise concentrations of solutes on each side of the membrane (osmosis) - compounds can cross the membrane by moving through the bilayer, through a protein or by endo/exocytosis.
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Passive and active transport

Campbell 7.19

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Functions of membrane proteins (contd)


b) Membrane Transport (contd) (i) diffusion - represents a movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration (requires a favourable gradient to be maintained)

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Functions of membrane proteins (contd)


b) Membrane Transport (contd) (ii) facilitated diffusion and active transport via transport proteins Transport proteins: - provide great selectivity - remain unchanged - are recycled after each assisted entry and/or exit

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Functions of membrane proteins (contd)


(ii) facilitated diffusion and active transport (contd) in facilitated diffusion no energy is expended eg entry of glucose into an animal cell. Glucose is rapidly broken down when it enters the cell so a steep concentration gradient is maintained but rate of entry is limited by the number of specific glucose-transporting glucose transporting molecules in the membrane water is also now known to diffuse through a channel protein (aquaporin) rather than the lipid bilayer itself
BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Two models for facilitated diffusion

Campbell 7.17

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Functions of membrane proteins (contd)


(ii) facilitated diffusion and active transport (contd) - for active transport, p , energy gy is required q in the form usually of ATP eg the sodium / potassium pump. This allows cells to maintain a low internal concentration of Na and high K. - three Na pumped out for every two K in and the protein responsible is known as the Na / K stimulated ATPase (consumes 30% of the ATP supply of a resting cell)

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Active transport by the Na/K pump


EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Na Na [Na] high [K] low Na Na Na CYTOPLASM Na [Na] low [K] high P ATP Na Na Na

ADP

K K K

P Pi

Campbell 7.18

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Functions of membrane proteins (contd)


b) Membrane Transport (contd) (iii) Exo- and endocytosis - exocytosis is associated with secretion - involves fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane eg vesicles from Golgi - endocytosis is associated with entry of macromolecules and particulate matter - achieved by phagocytosis, pinocytosis or receptor-mediated endocytosis

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Phagocytosis
Pseudopodium of amoeba

EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Solutes


Pseudopodium

Bacterium Food vacuole

1 m

Phagocytosis
Food or other particle

An amoeba engulfing a bacterium via phagocytosis (TEM).

Food vacuole

CYTOPLASM

Campbell 7.22

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Pinocytosis

0.5 m

Plasma membrane

Pinocytosis vesicles forming in a cell lining a small blood vessel (TEM).

Pinocytosis

Vesicle

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BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Receptor-mediated endocytosis
Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

Plasma membrane

Coat proteins

Receptor Ligand Coat proteins

0.25 5 m

Coated pit Coated vesicle

Top: A coated pit. Bottom: A coated vesicle forming during receptor-mediated endocytosis (TEMs).

Campbell 7.22

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

Past question
What Wh t kinds ki d of f molecules l l pass through th h a cell ll membrane most easily? 1. 2. 3. 4 4. 5. ionic small and hydrophobic large and hydrophobic monosaccharides such as glucose large and polar

BIOSCI 101: Cellular and Molecular Biology

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