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Food Landscapes

A landscape model for intensive farming

Cora Lawton LAND 8000, 2012

Acknowledgements

This research project would not have been possible without the support of many people. I would like to express my gratitude to my supervisor, Renee Davies who was abundantly helpful and offered invaluable assistance, support and guidance. I would also like to acknowledge my father Donald Lawton, Gary Swindale and Lindsay Winchester, whose knowledge and expertise into the Poultry Industry has been an invaluable asset for this study. I would also like to express my love and gratitude to my mother, Lorraine Lawton and father for their understanding & endless support, through the duration of my studies.

1.0 Introduction........................................................................ 5 2.0 Rationale ........................................................................... 9 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 Quadruple Bottom Line Research........................................27 Systems approaches . . ......................................................... 41 Case Studies . . .................................................................... 47 Research Findings Analysis.................................................61 Design Inter ventions.......................................................... 65

Contents

Site selection.....................................................................75 Design Model ................................................................... 83

10.0 Design Model Calculations................................................ 115 11.0 Quadruple Bottom Line Analysis........................................ 121 12.0 Design Model Principles.. .................................................. 125 13.0 Design Testing................................................................. 127 14.0 Design Model Testing Calculations.. ................................... 147 15.0 Reflection........................................................................ 149 16.0 Conclusion . . ..................................................................... 151 17.0 Future. . ............................................................................ 153 18.0 References . . ..................................................................... 155

Picture retrieved from: http://www.wallpapergate.com/wallpaper2706.html

1.0

Introduction

1.1 Abstract

With rising meat consumption worldwide, particularly in developing countries, there is a need to explore new approaches in designing farms to produce affordable meat within a framework of improved environmental sustainability. New Zealand has a strong agricultural history. As world leaders in research and development, agriculture shaped our nation structurally and socially and will continue to do so into the future. To facilitate the continued supply of affordable meat exploration of initiatives in design to support sustainable agriculture is required.

This is a research project that has used landscape design methodology to analyse and quantify existing intensive farming models for chicken meat production (broiler sheds) and explores potential design interventions that can contribute to improved quadruple bottom line outcomes in intensive farming practice in New Zealand. System approaches such as industrial ecology, cradle to cradle, permaculture and zero energy buildings were incorporated into a design model that reduces the intensive farming footprint concurrently improving the interconnections between the multiple inputs and outputs required for such farming practices, within the site, and broader environment.

Comparison of quantitative data on aspects such as water, energy, biodiversity and waste between the existing intensive farm model and the sustainable design model has shown that the inclusion of landscape architectural design methodology into an intensive farm development can improve sustainability in an economically viable way and contribute to a more appropriate approach to food production and land use.

1.2 Question

How can Landscape Design and systems approaches improve the overall sustainability of intensive farming in New Zealand?
- Highlighting the contribution landscape architecture can make to agro-economics -

1.3 Aim
To produce an intensive farming design model using existing broiler shed sites, that encapsulates the cradle to cradle, industrial ecology, permaculture and ZEBs (Zero Energy Building) principles and decreases the demands intensive farming has on nonrenewable resources to produce very little if no waste. This will ensure: The continuation of affordable meat production. Improve profitably for the farmers. Improve environmental conditions in and surrounding these farms. Improve the amenity. And positively effect the health of animal within intensive farms. site. This determined improvements could be made to the existing costs and ecology in and surrounding the site. project this then lead to:

Design Model Testing


The design model was then tested on another site in South Head, Auckland to demonstrate how it can successfully be adapted to different site conditions/parameters and still achieve the same outcomes.

Can and should landscape architectural design contribute to improved intensive farming practice? Can design inter ventions be quantified and improve economic, social, environmental and animal welfare impacts?
Which finally lead to my research question on the previous page.

1.5 Initial Questions

My initial research was based on the following questions:

Can ecological planning define and enhance locating of factor y farms? Can research and analysis of existing factor y farms and their issues provide oppor tunities for identification of environmental and ecological improvements? How can these oppor tunities drive design inter ventions to produce a factor y farm model that can improve health, ecological health, aesthetics and perceptions of factor y farming? And could this model be applied throughout New Zealand and the world to improve farming methods/techniques and the associated (generally negative) perceptions of factor y farming?
Through research and analysis in the first phase of my

1.4 Methodology
Research and analysis

My research project comprised of three stages: In depth research and analysis of the quadruple bottom line issues, systems approaches, case studies and existing broiler farming methods to develop criteria for a design model of intensive broiler farms.

Design Model
The development of the design model on an existing site in Christchurch utilising the best landscape architectural practice and technologies to create a factory farm which achieves the goal of improving the quadruple bottom line issues. This was then calculated, quantified and compared with the running costs of the sheds that already exist on the

2.0

Rationale

2.1 Issue

Intensive farming is a very controversial topic worldwide. They continue expand throughout the world and in New Zealand as the demand for affordable meat continues to grow. This expansion is due to the effectiveness they have in producing affordable meat for the world that ensures high protein and nutritious food is available at an affordable price, without intensive farms the less fortunate would be unable to eat meat. Although they are effective in producing affordable meat, they are highly debated as a lot of environmental and animal welfare issues accompany them. Animals grown in these farms are often confined to small spaces and never feel or experience the sun or natural environment. If these farms are not constructed, designed or maintained appropriately they can also have detrimental impacts on our environment that effect the health of the communities surrounding them. My father found a niche in agricultural buildings in the construction industry back in the 1980s and has spent over 30 years specialising in them. It was because of this they

have been a prominent feature of my life and I spent my childhood earning pocket money working with my father on these construction sites. New Zealand has a strong dependency on these farms economically and our presence within the world of factory farming is also prominent, in 2011 we produced 90 million chickens (NZ Herald, 2011) and in 2007 we produced 760,000 pigs (Statistics NZ, 2010), so it is imperative that changes be made to the designs of these farms. The main concern in the public eye is the welfare of the animals in these farms, the pollution they cause to our environment and the effects these farms have on the health of people living around them. Although there are many downsides to this farming technique I believe that the farms have one strong point; they are confined to smaller areas, unlike traditional sheep and cow farming in NZ. I have noticed however, that intensive farms are not being utilised to their full potential by providing ecological services (ecoservices) that could halt or reverse the effect intensive

farms have on our environment that will in turn improve the health of the surrounding ecology and society. Animal welfare also has a strong presence within my studies. Research has defined that eco-services can improve the environment within the sheds which improves the welfare and psychology of the animals within the sheds. In addition there are potentials to improve to efficiency of the farms themselves through design interventions that can assist in reducing energy costs (cooling for example). By incorporating eco-services into the project I have created multiple benefits for farmers/owners, animals, end purchasers of the product and the environment. Food supply, animal welfare, environment and human health are all inter-linked through factory farming and I believe that through Landscape Architecture approaches I have addressed and improved the issues of these farms in New Zealand that could potentially be used throughout the world.

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If you dig a fork into food you, dig a fork into the earth
(Jeavons, 2011)

2.2 Background History


2.2.1
Fifty thousand years ago the world began to change and larger animals started disappearing whilst smaller animal populations increased. This instigated a change within the way mankind gathered their food. Hunter gatherer communities began to disappear as farming emerged offering a solution to feed larger populations and allowing them to reside in one region, this was when farming urbanisation established. Farming villages started appearing around 9000-7000BCE in Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean with the domestication of grains and animals like pigs, sheep, cows and goats. (Tauger, 2010) Subsequently with the development of farming came the expansion of populations and to feed these growing populations. Farms quickly expanded so native forests were cleared to satisfy the growing populations, which had devastating effects on the environment. Farming has a strong presence in the history of the development of todays world, without farming we would not have been able to build cities. Although there are advantages of farming they are strongly accompanied by disadvantages that have caused a lot of todays environmental problems. These have explored in the beside table. (Tauger, 2010) Was the invention of farming the right choice? Without it we would have never had all of the bad things like patriarchy, inequality, war and famine, and as far as the planet is concerned farming has been a big loser. But without it we would have never had cities. Farming was conceived to make settlement possible and this lead to the creation of urbanity and development of new machinery and technologies that made farming easier but in turn it had massive impacts on the environment. Farming is here to stay in the near future and changes to farming methods need to be made to continue the supply of affordable food to urban regions. (Tauger, 2010)

Farming History

It controls the food supply declining starvation. Provided a food surplus that led to the creation of cities. Allowed specailisation of labour i.e. builders, plumbers, laywers, architects etc. Farming supported populaces not directly involved with food production. Increased food supply which enabled more children to survive. It can be practiced all over the world. Made art, science, technology, urban life and other accomplishments of civilization possible. Populations could survive temporary declines in foraging and hunting.

Advantages

Helped to spread disease, famine and malnutrition. The shift from foragers to farmers made the physical condition of humans deteriorate and made us more susceptible to disease. Farming made people dependent on their crops and domesticated animals. Caused a social division between societies. Farming led to slavery. Farming is physically hard work. Radically changed the environment. Wars over land.

Disadvantages

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2.2.2

After the second world war the pace of agriculture in developed counties picked up dramatically. Along with this new technologies were discovered like chemical sprays and equipment that allowed land concentration and reduced farm labour. (Tauger, 2010) The intensive farming style was introduced around this era (middle of the 20th century) when antibiotics were discovered. It was developed in U.S.A for poultry and eggs and offered an even more intensified farm. The farming style quickly caught on and spread through out the world and across agriculture sectors like pigs, turkeys, sheep and beef. (Tauger, 2010) This style of farming reduced animal movement improving the conversion efficiency of feed into an affordable meat product. It allowed close monitoring of animals and their feed, saving energy, but consequently the equipment and housing needed to be built and the feed transported long distances, making the process a energy intensive farming style. (Tauger, 2010) Factory farming also reduced labour and brought about capital investment. Now a majority of these farms throughout the world are owned by large cooperations that control the overall process of meat production from the feed through to the slaughtering. This has had a huge impact on smaller farms and farming communities though out the world. (Tauger, 2010) Presently intensive farming is concentrated on money and there is pressure to increase the productivity of them but in ways that are more environmentally sustainable. There are a lot of advantages and disadvantages (as seen in beside table) of intensive farming.

Intensive Farming

Reduction of animal movement reduces the effect large herds have on the environment. Saves labour. Allows close monitoring of feeding, weight gain and production. The efficient utilisation of feed saves energy. Cheap food production. They produce affordable meat. Produce huge volumes of food. They are efficient and have the ability to produce and distribute huge quantities of food Employment is created for surrounding communities Animal confinement leads to waste confinement to certain areas. Farm land size masses are smaller.

Advantages

Reduction of animal movement impacts on their health and welfare. Saves labour. Close confinement leads to diseases and the need for antibiotics that affects our health. They are more energy intensive i.e. they need constant power for lighting and cooling. Typically control all aspects of production (animal rearing, feeding, slaughtering, packaging and distribution). Vertical Integration. They produce less nutritious meat. Transport and distribution over vast distances. Force smaller farms out of business. No close connections with the surrounding communities. Concentration of animals leads to mass production of waste causing pollution to leak into lakes, soil, rivers and ground water putting communities at risk. Monoculture to feed the animals large areas of land are turned into crops that devastates the surrounding ecosystems.

Disadvantages

2.2.3

Social responses

History

Early days were hard for settlers, a lot of persistence and hard work was required to clear land. Families lived in the simplest dwellings and survived with an assembly of livestock, their main source of food was birds, wild pigs and could grow. They were very isolated and had little or no contact with other people 1800s Bushes cleared, timber used for milling 1823 The first Dairy farm established at the Waimate Mission Station

New Zealand Farming History

During the settling period the population tended to concentrate in the south where the land was not inhabited by mud and dense bush. As the years progressed the population moved north 1847 John Gebbie produced 1,088kg of cheese and 317kg of butter

Developing land meant developing districts through building roads, bridges, houses and eventually airports 1848 1850 onwards Sheep were breed for wool export but over population lead to a disposal problem

Dairy farm in Waikauaiti established to supply large volumes of dairy to Dunedin

Second half of the 19th century sheep wool became NZs most important export and large sheep stations were formed

1871

First co-operative dairy farm established on Otago Peninsula producing 5 tonnes of cheese in the first year

Refrigeration transformed NZ life and became a flagship for our future

1881

NZ Refrigerating company formed

Under the Soldier Settlement Act Crown and private land was brought and subdivided into farms. 9500 soldiers were eventually placed, but the scheme pushed up the value of land

1882

First successful export to Britain

1891

71 cheese factories and 3 creameries established

The two World Wars were accompanied by calls to produce all the meat we could for export to Britain

1919

Half of the cow now milked by machine

1950 Refrigeration, wars and aeroplanes have helped to turn NZ into one of the worlds leading meat exporters 1980s

All cow herds milked by machine

Picture retrieved from: http://www.constellations.co.nz /index.php?sec=3&ssec=12&r=780#780

Factory farming arrived in NZ

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New Zealand has a strong Agricultural history that has shaped our nation structurally and socially. Farming helped form New Zealand into the nation that it is today. (Cross, 1990) New Zealand Statistics state that agriculture production contributes to 48% of New Zealands export earnings, we have a population of approximately 8.5 million cattle, 30 million sheep and produce 90 million chickens and 760,000 pigs a year and 11% of our population works within the sector of agriculture. From these statistics you come to the realisation of how depended our nation is on agriculture production. New Zealand is also ranked within the top three countries with the highest levels of meat export per capita of population. (Cross, 1990) World War I and II impacted on New Zealand immensely, after the outbreak of the first world war New Zealand was contracted to supply all the meat we could produce for Britain. Once the war and contract had ended there was a surplus of 180,000 carcasses causing meat prices to plummet. This had a huge impact on our economy as many

new farmers (mainly returning soldiers who took up farming after the war) were forced to abandon their land. (Cross, 1990) After the second world war aerial topdressing doubled grass production, meaning we could provide more meat. Could this have lead to the depletion of our soils and waterways through leaching? According to the Selwyn District Council About 90% of New Zealand insects, 80% of trees, ferns and flowering plants, 25% of bird species, all 60 reptile species, four remaining frogs and two species of bat, are found nowhere else on earth. This is remarkable internationally; Britain in contrast has only two endemic species, one plant and one animal. Although we are very dependant on our agriculture sector, New Zealand has also become highly reliant on our tourism and filming industries for our pristine, unique, natural environment but if our farming methods continue to deplete our environment these economic sectors will be adversely effected.

Working with intensification to identify environmental and social gains at the same time as capturing economic efficiencies is more likely to support biodiversity than simply attempting to stem or reverse intensification (Moller et al, 2008)

2.2.4

Photo Essay

New Zealand

North Island

Images retrieved from Google Ear th, 2012

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2.2.5

Minimal if no vegetation. If vegetation does exist it typically consists of hedges that are not used to their full potential. They are generally situated within flat agricultural landscapes. LEVIN Tegel to Grower, South Head connections Road, NW Auckland They are not being utilised toCHICKENS their full potential provide ecological and habitats to improve biodiversity. Constructed 2001 Sheds 1 to 4, Sheds 4 to 8 constructed 2003 They are situated within exposed areas with little or no protection from the environment. Eco-services are not being utilised. They all comprise massive roof expanses that are not protected from environmental effects and weathering.

Photo Essay Conclusion

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2.3 Resource Management Act


The RMA (Resource Management Act) has set out a rules and regulations surrounding broiler shed sites and their activities these are: Sites must be selected carefully. Activities must be retained within their sites. Odours and dust must be retained within their sites. Waste management is the sole responsibility of the owner, but it can be a valuable by product of bird production as it can be applied to pasture or croplands according to guidelines for nutrient management. Waste is typically sold to other producers for land application or commercial composting facilities. Carcasses must be disposed of in a way that prevent environmental and health problems. Good waste management and disposal practices. Efficient Storage facilities for waste. Control of discharge to the air, including odour, dust and particles. Best practice is to avoid adverse environmental effects. It is vital that my intensive farming model fits within these guidelines set out by the RMA. Through a document I accessed online (Bowler, 2008) that was in breach of the RMA I discovered: Poultry consents account for 3.5% of Rural effluent discharge resource consents in New Zealand. It was estimated that in 2008 poultry waste accumulated to 190000 tonnes. Table 3 states the nutrient values of manures and composts. This document is vital to my research as it allowed me to calculate the projected waste New Zealand poultry farms produce a year and how much of each nutrient is produced. I believe the RMA could improve their regulations surrounding broiler shed sites to encompass the utilisation of eco-services to improve the biodiversity of New Zealand. As discussed further in this project I feel their regulations are to lenient and their objectives should be changed to improve the aesthetics and systems requirements of intensive farming.

Table 4 calculates the amount of complaints related to odour discharge within New Zealand.

Picture retrieved from: http://www.wallpapergate.com/wallpaper2706.html

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3.0

Quadruple Bottom Line Research

From my rationale investigations I was able to define four distinct aspects that need addressing in intensive farming these were: Environment Economic Animal Welfare Social

I defined these as the Quadruple Bottom Line issues and each aspect has been researched and analysed further to form the basis of improvements for my design model of existing intensive broiler shed sites.

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3.1 Environment
As stated in the New Zealand farming history, agriculture has adversely effected our environment and biodiversity. It is important that changes be made to agriculture and the development of factory farming to improve the environment in and surrounding sites. Landscape architects need to address the inter-relations within the landscape before farming exacerbates the devastation of waterways, loss of native flora and fauna and green house impacts. Our clean green image relies so much on our natural biological and ecological systems. It is important that the structures and layout of factory farms form a part of nature and no longer conflict with it. Through ecosystem services many of the environmental, social, animal and economic issues can be addressed that will not only have a positive effect on the biodiversity, but it will also benefit the community by improving the visual impacts of factory farming and will hopefully change peoples negative perceptions of this style of farming. Typical environmental problems caused by intensive farming: Pollution of water ways. Aerial pollution including unpleasant odours. Dust emissions. Noise. Release of chemicals. Encouragement of flies and other unwanted pests. Release of ammonia. dust; and attenuating storm water and shed washout runoff.

Health Benefits
It is through the visual benefits of trees and vegetation that psychological advantages arise. The mare presence of vegetation improves health in humans and animals by providing cooler and cleaner air whilst reducing noise levels. This consequently reduces the stress levels of humans and animals improving their mental health.

Economic Benefits
Trees and vegetation improve indoor and outdoor temperatures by allowing warm winter winds and sun to penetrate buildings whilst blocking hot summer winds and sun. They also influence the wind movement around sites (as shown in diagrams 3.1.2 and 3.1.3). The correct placement of trees and vegetation within a site can have huge economic benefits, not only on energy consumption but they also enhance property landscapes and make them more attractive increasing their value. According to Camargo Barrera the correct placement of trees and vegetation have the potential to save 0.7-40% on energy. During the summer they can reduce air conditioner consumption by 25-80% and in winter they save energy by protecting buildings from cold winds, reducing the need for energy to heat buildings.

They also play a vital role in storm water management by: Binding soil and preventing erosion. Up-taking pollutants through roots (phytoremediation). Reducing the amount of pollutants entering waterways through contaminant absorption. Preventing raindrop erosion. Reducing water quantity through water uptake. Providing a surface for micro organism contaminant processing. Aiding in slowing the water flow rate.

Conclusion
It was crucial for my design model to realise the full potential land, water and the environment together have for enriching the life and fabric of communities. The below table shows how trees, vegetation and foliage can benefit the health of surrounding communities (including animal), economics and environments and of factory farm
HEALTH BENEFITS Visual benefits Better air quality Noise reduction Aesthetic improvements and biodiversity attraction Reduction of air pollution and greenhouse gases Dense vegetation foliage provides as a noise barrier

Environmental Benefits
Trees and vegetation benefit the on site and surrounding environment immensely. They contribute to the biodiversity by: Providing food, nesting areas and habitats for fauna and invertebrates. Contributing to the vegetation patch network.

ECONOMIC BENEFITS

Reduction of energy consumption in buildings Proper ty value increases

Shading of buildings in summer and protection from cold winds in winter Vegetation enhances the proper ties landscape and reduces the energy consumption and cost throughout the year

3.1.1

Trees and vegetation form an integral function of the landscape and ecology, but they also have the capacity to positively improve the atmosphere, property values, ecology and aesthetics of intensive farming whilst controlling the indoor and outdoor temperatures, reducing air pollution and

Trees and Vegetation

Reduction of air pollution ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS

The photosynthesis process removes pollutants form the air The evapotranspiration process cools surrounding environments and vegetation shades sur faces. Trees, vegetation and foliage have the capacity to intercept slow and filter storm water

Heat reduction Storm water reduction

This table has been altered from Table 2, pg.88, Camargo Barrera, 2011)

3.1.2

Wind movement diagrams

Summer Breezes Captured

Wind flow diagram

Filtration of air flow through strategic plant placement

Winter Winds Deflected


Planting that reflects seasonal weather conditions

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3.1.3

Shade diagrams

Winter Sun

Summer Shade

Deciduous planting allows warm winter sun and winds to heat broiler sheds

Deciduous planting prevents hot summer sun and winds from heating broiler sheds

3.2 Economic
Currently the global food shortages have caused meat prices to double. The United Nations have stated that one in seven people go to bed hungry every night (that is approximately 1 billion people) making hunger the leading cause of death in the world. This means world meat consumption is destined to rise and with currently half of the meat produced being consumed by developing countries it is crucial that affordability is maintained. According to John Jeavons (2012), 216,000 babies net (birth less deaths) are born daily and to continue supplying this population with food using todays methods we need an additional 34,000 farmer acres a day meaning the globe only has 49 years left of farmable soil. Also 70-80% of water used by people is utilised in food production and in 2025 if we maintain our current farming methods in 2025 5 billion people will not have a sufficient amount of water available to them. This means that the world population growth is outpacing food production (Jeavons, 2012) and this could have a disastrous impact on societies as it could lead to food shortages and result in wars. New Zealand is far from exempt of this crisis, thousands of families obtain food grants and charity every year to feed their families. In 2006 when our economy was booming Work and Income supplied 12,000 food grants in Hamilton alone, and this was at a time when our economy was booming. (Collins, 2011) As stated above the demand for soil is growing vastly, there is now very little land left within the world for conversion to farming. According to Jeavons (2012) soil is now eight times the value of gasoline making it one of the most expensive commodities on earth. Not only is the price of soil increasing but existing farmland is also facing problems as the soil has been over worked and fertilised causing it to become toxic. We need soil to feed people, and this is why intensive farming is so vital to the continuation of food supply to the world. It condenses agricultural production to smaller areas allowing horticulture production to remain within soil. (Jeavons, 2012). In order to retain soil and grow grains etc that we need to feed the growing populations and animals, we desperately need to start growing soil. This is where Jeavons Biointensive farming method comes into play, it has the capacity to produce higher food yields at a realistic price. It also has the ability to produce 9 kilograms of soil per 500 grams of food produced. How? By producing a deep soil structure for quadruple nutrient cycling. Producing compost for microbe nutrition, soil water retention and soil antibiotic. Close plant spacing providing improved plant environments. Companion planting for pest minimisation Using easily accessible seeds. Utilising the whole system. It is of utmost importance that changes be made to our farming practices as Only through greater investment in sustainable agriculture a long-neglected area can nations ensure both food security and competitiveness on the international markets. (Brit, 2011) New Zealand could have the potential to double food production to supply affordable meat for our nation and the world, immensely improving our economics, but is it possible for us to do this without having detrimental effects on our pristine natural environment? It is not only the world economics that impact on intensive farming but also just the day to day running of an intensive farm influences the price of meat. According to figures received from a chicken farm in Christchurch it currently costs $21 per m 2 including GST to provide gas provide electricity clean chlorinate water spread shavings This farm and most broiler shed sites are fortunate in a way as they have the use of natural bores that supply water to their chickens. On average a 6 week old bird (the age reach before slaughter) consumes 7.5 litres of water. All the water collected from the washout of the sheds is directed into sumps in the ground and then sprayed over the fields within the site. This farm produces approximately 85,000 birds a year, so according to these figures the typical production of one chicken (excluding food) is 65 cents. It is important to maintain a understanding of these figures as they have been improved upon to provide a profitable design model for intensive farm owners that continues to provide affordable meat to the world and also has the ability to maintain or improve New Zealands export earnings.

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3.3 Animal Welfare

Animal welfare is a particularly controversial topic of intensive farms. In the initial stages of my research I had a choice between an intensive pig farm in Christchurch or broiler shed sites through out New Zealand. Half way through my research it became apparent that the pig shed was unavailable, so I continued my design model development with the broiler shed options. I had however already completed a considerable amount of research into both pig and chicken welfare that exposed the similarities between each species. I separated my research into typical chicken and pig behaviour categories (pages 34 and 35). To help me visualise and interpret my research into pig and chicken behaviour I produced diagrams (on pages 36 and 37) that pulled out important aspects in animal welfare within meat production. From this I discovered that both species have similar intensive farming welfare issues like: Physical instability caused by rapid growth and weight gain. Mortality rates.

Animal management. Overstocking, dehydration and frustration from food restrictions. Inadequate inspections and culling. Pre-slaughter stress and slaughter methods. Cannibalism. Handling methods. Ventilation and air temperatures. Lighting. Waste management. There is currently code of welfare for fully housed broiler chicken farms to follow (Animal Welfare, Broiler Chickens: Fully Housed, Code of Welfare 2003). This code applies to all persons responsible for the welfare of broiler chickens in controlled environment broiler production systems. It is intended to encourage all those responsible for its implementation to adopt the highest standard of husbandry, care and handling, to equal or exceed the minimum standards. (Animal Welfare Act, 2003) This is a complex code that ensures the correct treatment of the chickens from hatching through to slaughter. It

was written by a working group established by the Poultry Industry Association of New Zealand Inc. and has been reviewed by representatives of the industries, veterinarians, advisors, animal scientists, welfarists and members of the general public. (Animal Welfare Act, 2003) Tegel demands that all their growers follow this code. If farmers follow this code it eradicates most of the negative aspects of intensive farming in New Zealand, but there could still be improvements made to the welfare of the animals living within these environments by enhancing the environment surrounding them. New Zealand has a high standard of animal welfare and failure to follow animal codes results in large fines or incarceration and this is why we differ from other (particularly poorer) countries as we have protections in place for the animals and consumers can be ensured that by buying New Zealand meat, they are buying meat produced in a lawful, animal friendly manner.

Typical Pig Behaviour


Pigs live complex and emotional lives. They are traditionally forest dwellers and their excellent sense of smell allowed them to take full advantage of their environment by foraging and rooting for animal and plant matter. Pigs are highly social animals with females living in large groups whilst males tend to be more solitary or monopolise a group of females. Contrary to belief pigs like to bask in the sunshine and cool off in mud baths when it gets hot, they do not like living in muddy pens. Domestication of pigs occurred approximately 10,000 B.C in South East Asia. They were a common feature in early agricultural societies mainly because they are h ighly resistant, mature quickly, have large litters and they can sustain themselves on low quality feedstuffs. ( Grandin, 2011)

Recommended handling techniques


(as per Temple Grandin)

Frequent and visual and close human contact. Regular positive contact. Tactile, auditory and visual interactions. No pushing, hitting and slapping. Minimise pigs fear making them easier to handle. In fearful situations they will behave in a self protective manner by fleeing or fighting back. Allow them to adjust and familiarise themselves in unfamiliar environments. They can suffer from boredom so novel objects within their pens can offer entertainment. Minimise negative interactions. They are more difficult to handle in dark conditions.

Image retrieved from http://www.puttingfarmersfirst.ca /the-face-of-giving-pigs-in-tanzania-this-christmas/

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Typical Chicken Behaviour


Archaeological evidence suggests chickens were first domesticated around 5300BC in China from the red junglefowl ( Gallus gallus). They live in flocks of extended family members. Individual chickens dominate other birds within these flocks creating a pecking orders. These dominant individuals have priority over access to food and locations for nesting and separate the flocks into smaller groups during the day. They are smart creatures and can recognise up to 100 different chicken faces which is a necessity for the pecking order. Chickens are omnivores eating small seeds, herbs and leaves, grubs, insects and even small mammals like mice, and typically scratch and peck the soil to expose their food. They are also boisterous creatures using their calls to display power, locate themselves, mating and warn for predators. Although they are a flightless bird they still attempt to fly by running and flapping their wings to escape predators and explore their surroundings. They also use their wings, heads and necks to promote convective heat loss. They have panoramic vision of 300 degrees and full spectrum colour vision. Domesticated chickens are typically less active than their wild ancestors, they have fewer social interactions, are less likely to explore for

food and are less aggressive towards predators (including humans). They generally have a short lifespan of 5-7 years. (Grandin, 2007)

Recommended handling techniques

(as per Temple Grandin)

They are typically calmer and less affected if they are handled in the dark. To prevent dislocation of hips or any other injuries it is best to catch the bird with two legs and maintain them in a upright position. Environmental enrichment provides extra stimulation in their home environment, which may effect their expectations on environmental complexity and enhance their ability to adapt. This is why birds in outdoor environments and low stock densities are generally less fearful. Appropriate environmental enrichments during housing may better enable birds to cope with stressors that they face during catching, transportation and pre-slaughter handling. Regular handling before catching can reduce fear. Lighting should be increased to encourage movement. Inspections at an early age reduces fear and stress response. Stock people should walk within three metres of each bird daily.

Image retrieved from http://rationaldiscover yblog.com/post /26930208435/problem-solved-the-chicken-came-first

3.3.1

Behavioural chart
Jungle Dwellers Insects, seeds, plants, small mamals Scratch and peck

Run and flap wings as defence

Boisterious

Pecking order

Recognition skills

Sunshine

Bathe

Explore

Aggresive if threatened

Flap wings to promote heat loss

Flocks of extended families

Panoramic, colour vision

Chicken Chicken

Environment

Omnivores

Emotion

Social

Intelligent

Sunshine

Bathe

Explore

Aggresive if threatened Highly adaptable Foraging and rooting

Large family groups Excellent sense of smell

Panoramic, colour vision

Pig

Forest Dwellers

Animal and plant matter

Solitary dominant male

Recognition skills

37

3.3.2

Welfare issues for factory grown animals

Growth rate What are they being feed? Mortality rate

Stock densities

Air Temperatures Boredom

Chicken
Handling

Hunger

Environment

Emotions

Health

Handling What are they being feed? Mortality rate Growth rate Pen sizes Air Temperatures

Pig
Boredom

3.3.3

Pig Handling

Regular visual contact Novel objects Lite environment Regular movement Familiar surroundings/environment Positive human-pig interactions

Happy, content pig Easy handling Healthier human-pig interactions Productive working environment

Improved

Growth Reproduction Meat quality Pig welfare

Hitting, slapping, pushing an yelling = Negative interactions Dark environment Constant containment Unfamiliar surroundings Positive human-pig interactions

Fearful, unhappy pig Inadequate human-pig interactions Hard handling

Stressful working environment

Growth Reproduction Meat quality Welfare

Poor

39

3.3.4

Chicken Handling

Encouragement of exploring and walking Naturally lite environment Positive human-bird interactions Daily inspections and human contact Pecking and scratching opportunities Pecking orders

Happy, healthy chicken

Healthy bird and work environment

Productive working environment

Improved

Growth Meat quality Bird welfare

No opportunities to explore and walk. Dark environments Negative human-bird interactions Irregular inspections and human contact No pecking and scratching opportunities No opportunities for pecking orders

Unhappy, unhealthy chicken

Unhealthy bird and work environment

Unproductive working environment

Growth Meat quality Bird welfare

Poor

3.4 Social
Intensive farming impacts on the social welfare of communities surrounding their sites and the world population. These impacts are not all related to the environmental and health impacts these farms have of the surrounding communities, but also the mental welfare perceptions and monopolies surrounding intensive farming. One positive strong argument encompassing intensive farming is their ability to continue supply of affordable meat to the world. But accompanying this positive is the generally negative perceptions society has on the industry, particularly surrounding animal welfare and the quality of the meat supplied by these farms. Not only is it the quality of the meat that impacts on our health, but these farms also the impact on the health of the environment, especially on the communities surrounding them. They create copious amounts of pollution and their visual representation brings about negative responses. In response to this they are commonly hidden through vegetation and the methods of meat production are often concealed, which causes more stress for society as they are unsure of what is going into their meat and how the animals are being treated. This also impacts on the owners and employees who work within the farms and industry. They have stress pressures from the outside world and also have to work within manufactured environments. Animal handling can also be a stressful task, this accompanied with the manufactured environment can have harmful effects on workers health. Another downside towards intensive farming are the companies that monopolise or control the market. According to the Tegal (2012) website they are New Zealands market-leading, fully integrated poultry producer. The company is involved in the breeding, hatching, processing, marketing and distribution of poultry products across both the North and South Islands. Also their operations include four major processing facilities, smaller value-added processing plants, feed mills and breeding & hatching facilities. In all, Tegel employs around 1,700 people. Another two companies that are also major chicken producers within New Zealand are Ingham and Brinks, but their websites did not allude to how their companies are run or which aspects of chicken farming they control. Currently within New Zealand, Tegal, Ingham and Brinks (the major chicken producers in New Zealand) lease the sheds off the farmers, so it like a commercial area within rural regions. They also pay farmers remuneration for managing the farm. This is why saving on energy consumption and costs is so vital for the farmers as it provides them with opportunities to improve their profitability through ecosystem services and increase their property values through aesthetics. Society is also concerned for the fairness to the farmers who produce the chickens and employees of the industry. This shows the impacts society has on the employees as the less money farms and incorporations make the less money an employee is paid. Monopolies also set the price in which the chickens are supplied to the market and then on top of that you have the supermarkets putting their mark up on the meat as the farmers are unable to sell directly to the public. Mass meat production continues the supply of affordable meat and I believe if farms were to become privatised it could have a damaging effect of the price of meat and cause an undesired price increase to the public. I guess this leaves the question are the monopolies a good or bad aspect of intensive farming? And I presume that this is one major concerns for society when it come to intensive farming. Another demand from society is free range chickens. Currently the price difference is for free range is NZD$5$10 more per kg. That may not be much of an increase for wealthier families, but it would impact hugely on the less fortunate who already struggle to feed their families. Consumer demands set the market for meat and if we all started consuming free range chickens it would decrease the production of intensively farmed animals, which could in turn increase the price of chicken. From this it is clear that social issues have huge impacts on intensive farming and to their continuation of affordable meat supply to the world.

41

4.0

Systems approaches

Through my quadruple bottom line research investigations I was able define systems approaches that could dramatically improve the negative aspects of intensive farming. These include: Cradle to cradle which imitates natures highly effective system of nutrient flow and absorption in which the concept of waste does not exist. Industrial ecology that utilises waste from outside industries as resource in another industry, creating an overall closed circle. Permaculture an approach that aims to design human settlements and agricultural systems that mimic the relationships found within natural ecologies. Z.E.Bs (Zero Energy Buildings) which utilise natural resources to heat, cool and power buildings. These systems approaches were applied to my design model to minimise their impacts on the environment, reduce their use of nonrenewable resources and minimise the waste they produce.

43

4.1 Cradle to Cradle


This systems approach aims to harness and maximize local natural energy flows (p31, McDonough, 2002). Our typical approach to design and development overwhelm and ignore natural and cultural (or animal welfare) diversity, that results in environments with less variety making them homogenous. To prevent anymore unnecessary harm to our natural environments considerations need to be taken into our typical building process that scrapes away the ground to reveal a bed undisturbed soil, removes trees and vegetation that destroys habitats for natural fauna and then erects modular homes or buildings with little or no regard to the environment around it. Typically (as stated in 3.1 Environment) designers rarely take into consideration the ways sun might produce heat for the house or how trees could provide protection from wind, heat and cold and how soil and water health can be preserved now and for the future (p33, McDonough, 2002). Conventional agriculture systems also seem to work within these typical guidelines. They typically create monocultural landscapes that benefit only one species and deplete soils of nutrients and saturate them with chemicals. It is because of this people generally dont want to live near them because of chemical runoff, smell and other effects of farming. It is also through cultivation of one species that we have drastically reduced the rich network of services causing side effects in which the entire complex ecosystems are replaced with relatively un-complex man made ones. (McDonough, 2002) Todays intensive farming infrastructure is generally designed to chase the economic growth at the expense of human and ecological health, cultural and natural richness, and even enjoyment and delight. (McDonough, 2002) Although intensive farming has increased to feed more children, more children go to bed hungry and they are exposed to more substances that lead to genetic mutations, cancer, asthma, allergies, and other complications that industrial contamination and waste cause through poor design. (McDonough, 2002) According to McDonough and Braungart (2012) efficient agriculture can deplete local landscapes and wildlife. They contrasted two regions East Germany with West Germany. Traditionally, the amount of wheat produced in eastern Germany was only half that of western Germany, because the agricultural industry in the west is utilises more modern and efficient ways of producing wheat. It was thought that the eastern regions inefficient and more old-fashioned agriculture is better for the environmental health as it has larger wetland areas that have not been drained and overtaken by monocultural crops, and they contain more rare species, compared with the more developed western lands. These wild marshes and wetland areas provide vital habitats for breeding, nutrient cycling, and water absorption and purification. This study shows how important and more beneficial it is to create farming models that consider environmental effects. This has been applied to my design model of an intensive farm. By providing abundant daylight within daylight hours I have diminished the need for fluorescent light, which becomes a perk for animals, employees and has the capacity to lure potential employees and thus has a positive effect with economics and aesthetics of intensive farming. An example of this model in which life is centred around the community and environment would be the Herman Miller complex designed by McDonough and Braungart. It took 10% more money to build than a typical industrial complex would have cost but it is built in a way that replenishes, restores and nourishes the on site and surrounding environments. We need to start imitating natures highly effective cradle to cradle system of nutrient flow and metabolism in which very concept of waste does not exist. (McDonough, 2002) By utilising the cradle to cradle systems approach my design model has produced an intensive farm that enriches the local species, and invites them into my cultivated site and gains profits and pleasures from the diversity of natural energy flows. My design model also engages with an abundance of diverse materials, options and responses for creative and elegant landscape solutions. Another important aspect of my design model is how it respects diversity and engages with the local material and energy flows, and quadruple bottom line issues, instead of viewing itself as autonomous entity that is unconnected to the landscape surrounding it.

We need to start producing buildings like trees and cities like a forests.
(McDonough, 2002)

4.2 Zero Energy Buildings


According to Torcellini, Deru & Crawley (2006) A zero energy building (ZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs through efficiency gains such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable technologies. The zero energy building concept is to construct buildings that can meet all of their energy requirements from low cost, locally available, non polluting, renewable sources. This means a ZEB generates enough energy on site to equal or exceed its annual energy use (Torcellini et al, 2006) . This concept also tries to Minimize overall environmental impact by encouraging energy-efficient building designs and reducing transportation and conversion losses. (Torcellini et al, 2006) There are four kinds of Z.E.Bs they are as follows: Net Zero Site Energy: A site Z.E.B produces at least as much energy as it uses in a year, when accounted for at the site. (Torcellini et al, 2006) Net Zero Source Energy: A source Z.E.B produces at least as much energy as it uses in a year, when accounted for at the source. Source energy refers to the primary energy used to generate and deliver the energy to the site. To calculate a buildings total source energy, imported and exported energy is multiplied by the appropriate site-to-source conversion multipliers. (Torcellini et al, 2006) Net Zero Energy Costs: In a cost Z.E.B, the amount of money the utility pays the building owner for the energy the building exports to the grid is at least equal to the amount the owner pays the utility for the energy services and energy used over the year. (Torcellini et al, 2006) Net Zero Energy Emissions: A net-zero emissions building produces at least as much emissions-free renewable energy as it uses from emissions-producing energy sources. (Torcellini et al, 2006) Energy costs in New Zealand continue to increase and on average there has been an increase of 12% this year (. If we continue to construct buildings that are energy demanding, this will increase the demand for supply which will result in more power stations and ongoing maintenance and the continuance of upgrades to the national grid. By designing broiler sheds to be more energy efficient the farms can reduce the energy costs by moving towards on-site or locally generated power. This is why my design model will utilise a Net Zero Energy Cost Z.E.B New Zealand is unique in a way as most of our electricity is provided by renewable resouces like hydro power. However our systems are often put on warnings when the levels of our lakes are low, meaning fossil fuels are depended on to pick up the slack. On-site solar generation can reduce the dependance these farms have on our power systems and even have the ability to store energy incase of power cuts, that have huge impacts on the chickens welfare within the sheds. (Brazier, 2012) It is possible to design a zero energy broiler shed, but as I am not an Engineer or Architect I am limited to the landscape, but this in itself provides a lot of potentials like eco-services that can benefit the buildings, chicken welfare and energy consumption of these farms. This method of design also has the ability to create an indoor environment that is warm and dry and eliminate health risks without the need for heating.

Image retrieved from http://www.utengineers.com/index.php?p=1_5_ Zero-Energy-Building

45

4.3 Permaculture

Permaculture provides us a way to design our lives and environment using ethic as a starting point. The word is derived from Permanent and Agriculture and the understandings came out of the ecology movement in the 1960s when the generation was dissatisfied with the direction peoples lives and environment were taking. Bill Mollison and David Holmgren wrote down things they saw happening in natural forests. Although forests never remained the same, they had lasted thousands of years and stayed. The things that they saw happening quickly became the foundations for Permaculture. (Baxter, 2008) Their findings of the natural forests included: Ever changing ecosystems. The natural ecosystems were made up of thousands or millions of elements. Every element, plant, tree, animal, insect, trees etc are doing many things within the ecosystem and diversity is essential for continued survival. Every element is supported by other elements. Within every ecosystem there is zone patterns (areas that different elements have adapted too). These systems can survive and change without external help. There is no pollution and they have Zero Waste. According to Kay Baxter (2008) there are five zones within a Permaculture Design.

Zone 1: Is the most productive area and needs to be visited everyday. This is the most intensively gardened area and the whole and will be raised beds with mulch and irrigation. According to John Jeavons if you are an average gardener you will need 100m 2 of bio-intensive raised beds to feed one person for a year. Zone 2: This is the area that can be visited less regularly and often consists of fruit trees. Generally the planting in this zone can survive without constant attention. Zone 3: Generally contains crops or less attentive horticulture practices. Zone 4: Forage farming. Zone 5: The completely wild area where no human intervention should take place. Typically all broiler farms are located within the rural districts and although they are a form of income for the owners, the properties are mainly utilised as lifestyle blocks. From my analysis of broiler shed farms over the years I have observed that most if not all farms have livestock (sheep and cows), horses, goats and I have also seen pigs on these sites. As the broiler sheds are automated and not to time consuming, this provides an opportunity for permaculture and could allow the property owners to become more self sufficient and the land holding as a whole to become more environmentally sustainable, whilst allowing the owners to continue obtaining an income.
Images retrieved from http://exodusbrand.com/2012/03/14/permaculture-farm-in-wales-zoning-101/

4.4 Industrial Ecology


Industrial Ecology attempts to provide a new conceptual framework to understanding the impacts industrial systems have on the natural environment. It aims to implement strategies that reduce the environmental impacts of products and processes associated with industrial systems and it has the ultimate goal of sustainable development. (Garner et al, 1995) It studies the physical, chemical and biological interactions and interrelationships within and between industrial and ecological systems. It also involves identifying and implementing industrial systems that emulate ecological systems. (Garner et al, 1995) The impacts industrial regions have on the environment are systematic so they require a systems approach that continues to connect industrial practices, human activities, environmental and ecological processes. The systems approach also provides a holistic view of environmental problems, identifying and exposing problems that need to be solved. (Garner et al, 1995) Beside is a table I have compiled based on Table 1 from Garner et al, that depicts the organisational hierarchies of my design model site in Christchurch. The overall goal of industrial ecology is to stop the lineal nature of their systems that use raw materials, products, by-products that produce waste. We need to look at ways of reusing these waste products so industrial systems can integrate with other industrial systems that optimise the use of waste and by products from other systems, leaving zero waste.

Political Entities
UNEP (United Nations Environmental Programme)

Social Organisations Industrial Organisation


World population ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) Trade associations Corporations (Tegal, Ingham, Brinks) Divisions Product development (food, breeding) Individual farm owners

Global human material and energy flows Sectors (transportation, healthcare) Cooperations/institutions Product systems Life cycle stages/units

Industrial System

Ecological System
Ecosphere

New Zealand Government Environment of Canterbury Waimakariri Council Individual voter

Cultures Communities Product systems Households Individuals/Consumer

Biosphere Biogeographical region Biome landscape Ecosystem Organism

47

5.0

Case Studies

5.1 The Ford Factory,


Rouge River, Dearborn, Michigan, USA cleanse, and convey storm water across the site. Utilising phytoremediation to cleanse polluted soils. Skylights reduce the use of artificial lights. The design applies landscape based infrastructure to provide a cleaner and healthier working environment for employees. The linearity and scale of the site help to shape an industrial strength landscape that knits buildings and site together in a tightly woven fabric. The design team consists of professionals like chemists, toxicologists, biologists, landscape architects and engineers that set goals and strategically measured processes of the site including social, economical, and ecological that then informed standards to measure air, habitat, community, energy use, employee relations, architecture, and, not least of all, production. It is also interesting how they measure the health of the site in respect to living things, like how many worms are on site (per cube of soil), the diversity of birds and insects on the land, the aquatic species in near by river and the attractiveness of the site to local residents.

Area:
600 Acres

Completed:
2000

Designers:
William McDonough + Partners Nelson Bryd Woltz D.I.R.T Studio Landscape Planning Partners

Strengths:
A 10 acre green roof that saves the company millions of dollars a year. Water can be purified on site before entering the Rouge River instead of being removed and treated off site. The vegetation cools the buildings in summer by absorbing the solar energy (via photosynthesis) and insulates them in winter, and absorbs airborne toxins around the site. It is predicted that the green roof will last twice as long as a conventional industrial roof. The iconic green roof also helped transform the green roof industry of America. The green roof is accompanied with wet meadow gardens, porus paving, hedgerows and bio-swales that attenuate,

Weaknesses
Although they have gone to great lengths to revitalise the environment on and surrounding the site, Fords SUVs and oversized vehicles still have a substantial impact on the environment making their green efforts limited to the site grounds and facilities.

49

Images retrieved fromhttp://www.mcdonoughpar tners.com/projects/view/ford_rouge_center_landscape_master_plan

5.2 Nicks Head Station


Poverty Bay, North Island, New Zealand The design addressed multiple agendas similar to mine by celebrating the Maori cultural landscape and restoring ecologies and habitats for endangered species that integrate with an active, working and profitable agricultural operation. Thomas Woltz successfully awoke the owners of Nicks Head Station to their impact their daily lives and running of the farm was having on the environment. The design team consisted of many people from various professions including ecologists, biologists, landscape architects and the owners of the property.

Area:
3,000 Acres

Completed:
2010 - ongoing

Designers:
Nelson Bryd Woltz

Strengths:
Combines the restoration of wildlife structures with sustainable agriculture and livestock. Combines ethics and the pleasures of aesthetics (Meyer, 2010). It restored a once vibrant tidal, coastal wetland that was drained by previous owners for grazing. Design interventions and changing management practices were motivated by desires to develop ecological conservation projects that are interwoven with agricultural uses to enhance biodiversity within agricultural landscapes. The design created a complex mosiac of gardens groves, croplands, pastures, upland forests, lowland marshes, productive fields and wildlife corridors that create a heterogenic landscape that provides an array of habitats.

Weaknesses
Although they successfully address all the typical aspects of an agricultural farm, information fails analyse how the design has addressed the welfare of the animals. Another area where there was an absence of information was how the farm is now managed. Have they been able to utilise ecosystem services to improve the welfare for the farmed animals, employees and owners of the site?

51

Images retrieved from http://www.nbwla.com/por tfolio/con_ag/con_ag.htm

5.3 Zero Energy House


Pt. Chev, Auckland, North Island, New Zealand

Weaknesses
To construct the New Zealands first Zero Energy home a lot of analysis and research went into the design with it taking three years to just design the house. If it takes 3 years to finalise a Z.E.B house how long would it take to finalise a Zero Energy intensive farm? Although the projected energy costs have yet to be calculated to see if it really is a zero energy building, little study and research has been put into the significance of eco-system services could provide to the property (apart from the solar energy and the green roof). More research could have been applied to the green roof and how it could have been utilised to maintain an average temperature around solar panels to maximise the energy uptake.

Area:
411m 2

Completed:
July 2009 - ongoing

Designers:
Shay Brazier, Jo Woods, A Studio Architects.

Strengths:
The site was carefully selected to maximise solar energy not only for power but also for heating in the house to prevent the need for heating systems within the building. The north facing roof of the house is constructed with photo voltaic panels that will generate enough power to power appliances, lights and hot water cylinder. The house aims to be healthy, comfortable, and pleasant to live in with minimal impact on the surrounding environment during and after construction and throughout its functioning life. The building envelope is constructed in a way that allows higher insulation levels. The cladding is also constructed with untreated timber (Macrocarpapa). The windows are all double glazed and there will be a small green roof.

Graph retrieved from http://www.zeroenergyhoue.co.nz

53

Images retrieved from http://www.zeroenergyhoue.co.nz

5.4 Kulundborg
Kulundborg, 120km west of Copenhagen, Denmark. It keeps the geographical distance between the enterprises remains small. All of the members of the symbiosis focus on the large, continues waste streams to maintain supply demand to other members. The main driver for this system back when it was established was to reduce the costs by seeking incomeproducing applications for unwanted products. This then started to expose the environmental benefits this system creates i.e. no waste.

Area:
N/A as it combines many industrial sites.

Completed:
1972 ongoing.

Designers:
Managers between a few enterprises in the region in 1972.

Strengths:
In 1961 Stratoil began the movement by laying water pipes to Lake Tisso to access water for their refinery. As stated above the movement started when Stratoil entered into an agreement with Gypoc. Stratoil supplied Gypoc with excess gas from their production to dry their plasterboards in their ovens. In 1973 Dong Energy also connected to the Statoil waterpipe. This movement has continued to grow into a mass web of enterprises that use waste produced from other companies to produce their products. This symbiosis has now grown into a local collaboration where private and public enterprises buy and sell residual products.

Image retrieved from http://www.lampindex.com/2011/10/the-kalundborg-symbiosis/

Kalundborg Symbiosis
Diagram 1961-2010
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Surface Water Gas Surface Water Biomass/NovoGro Fly Ash Heat Heat Steam Steam Surface Water Cooling Water Yeast Slurry Sulfur Fertilizer Tech. Water Gas Gypsum Waste Water Drain Water Sludge Fly Ash Deionized Water Water Waste Sea Water Steam Condensate Straw Bioethanol Lignin C5/C6 sugars 1961 1972 1973 1976 1979 1980/89 1981 1982 1982 1987 1987 1989 1990/2001 1991 1992 1993 1995 1995 1998 1999 2002 2004 2004 2007 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010

1961-1979
Tiss

55
Kalundborg Forsyning
1 3

Statoil

Gyproc
2

DONG Energy

Novo Nordisk Cement Industry


5

Pig Farms
4

1980-1989
Tiss

Kalundborg Forsyning
Statoil
1

Gyproc
2

3 11 9

7 10

DONG Energy

Novo Nordisk
8

Cement Industry

Fish Farms
6

Pig Farms
4

1990-1999
Tiss Waste Water Treatment

Kalundborg Forsyning
Statoil
1 19 17 3 13 15 11 9 7 10

Fertilizer Industry

Gyproc

2 16

18

14

DONG Energy

RGS 90

Nickel Industry
8

Novo Nordisk

Cement industry
5

20

Fish Farms

Pig Farms
12 4

2000-2010
Farms Inbicon Tiss
27

Waste Water Treatment

Kalundborg Forsyning
29 30

Statoil
28 13 9 21 24

1 19 25 3 7 26 17

Fertilizer Industry

Purification Plant
10

Kara / Noveren

Gyproc

2 16

18

14

15

11

DONG Energy

RGS 90
22

Nickel Industry
8

Novo Nordisk Novozymes

Cement Industry
23 5

20

Fish Farms

Pig Farms
12 4

Images retrieved from http://www.symbiosis.dk

5.5 Greening Waipara


Waipara Valley, North Canterbury, New Zealand Allows wine to be grown in a sustainable way. New movement that is leading the world of viticulture. Creates a Point of Difference by providing for the environment and not polluting it. The movement is driven by research that assesses how fast plants grow, what insects and diseases they get attacked by and the survival rate of each species. Nectar is also collected to analyse the abundance of sugars that determines how useful each plant is in helping with biological control agents like lady birds. Insect distribution is continually measured to see how far each species will travel to control pests. By engineering this landscape with natures services, Waipara has become attractive, adding value to its natural heritage and the publics eye. It exposes the importance landscape value has on the public. Landscapes are valued by their monetary value, but this movement aims to explore the real value of amenity for the public in alliance with natures services. How much is this landscape really worth? What is the real cost of it (environmentally, economically and socially) to the region? And should it be used as a model for the policy makers (council/government) of New Zealand. The movement has exposed the willingness the general public in Waipara have to improving our environment, whilst still earning a living.

Area:
1500 hectares, 80 vineyards.

Completed:
September 2005.

Designers:
Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University.

Strengths:
The movement conserves the remaining undisturbed habitats of the region and introduces additional biodiversity in both native and non-native plant species. Contributes natures services to the vine yards like biological control of pests, pollination improved soil condition, conservation and eco-tourism. Natures services add economic value to the vineyards and farms whilst reducing their reliance on herbicides and pesticides. Natures services improve wine production. Encourages the growth of native flora and fauna. Vastly improves the resource value of the landscape. Minimises pollution to streams.

57
Native undervine plants show promising results
Research has identied three species of native plant that are likely to be effective for undervine planting in Waipara and other areas. Bidibid (Acaena inermis purpurea), shore cotula (Leptinella dioica) and creeping pohuehue (Muehlenbeckia axillaris) have all demonstrated good survival and growth rates. After two years of research, the three most successful plants Formed a dense and spreading cover beneath the vines; eventually this will reduce the need for herbicide applications
Jean Tompkins Omihi Primary School students plant stage one of their new biodiversity trail on the school grounds.

Building biodiversity back into the wine experience


The project
The Waipara Valley in North Canterbury is New Zealands fastestgrowing wine region, with around 80 vineyards covering 1500 hectares. Greening Waipara is a world-leading, research driven project that aims to restore functional biodiversity to agricultural ecosystems by way of ecological engineering making them more sustainable, protable and marketable. The project is based at the BioThe native Hells Bells (Anaphalioides Protection Research Centre, bellidioides) growing beneath the Lincoln University and vines at The Mud House vineyard, since it began in September Waipara. 2005, 52 Waipara Valley properties have joined the project and over 25,000 native trees, shrubs and groundcovers have been planted.

Increased the diversity and abundance of benecial insects and spiders Were unlikely to enhance pest leafroller populations in vineyards Enhanced the lifespan of key parasitic wasps which kill leafrollers: bidibid and creeping pohuehue were the best in this respect Increased soil moisture levels Reduced runoff and improved soil aggregation and porosity

Contacts

Conclusions and considerations


Establishing native groundcovers within a vineyard can provide a multitude of ecological and economic benets. However, it requires a signicant investment of time and capital. Native plants can be costly and effective weed control is essential in the rst couple of years a commercially-available seed supply would make a big difference. Contact: jean-marie.tompkins@lincolnuni.ac.nz Bio-Protection Research Centre

Bio-Protection Research Centre Prof. Steve Wratten PO Box 84 Lincoln University 7647 Ph: (03) 321 8221 Email: steve.wratten@lincoln.ac.nz Anna-Marie Barnes Research Assistant Ph: (03) 321 8452 Email: anna-marie.barnes@lincoln.ac.nz Hurunui District Council, Dale McEntee Biodiversity Ambassador PO Box 13, Amberley 7441, North Canterbury New Zealand Ph: 027 733 2109 dale.mcentee@hurunui.govt.nz Weblinks: www.bioprotection.org.nz/greening-waipara http://ecovalue.uvm.edu/newzealand/ http://www.waiparawine.co.nz/research/greening_waipara www.lincoln.ac.nz/story13772.html www.lincoln.ac.nz/story_images/1028_NewsUpdate

The need for change


Agriculture, including viticulture, damages biodiversity and has caused major declines in New Zealands native plant and animal populations. By conserving our remaining undisturbed habitats and introducing additional biodiversity in the form of both native and non-native species, the services that nature provides for free to the arable, pastoral and horticultural sectors can be enhanced. Natures services include biological control of pests, pollination, improved soil quality, conservation and eco-tourism. These services add value to vineyards and farms while reducing reliance on herbicides and pesticides.

Image retrieved from http://bioprotection.org.nz /symbiosis/

5.6 Pig City


A study commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture in the Netherlands It calculated all of the space, energy and food required to produce the final meat product. Considering the overall requirements in meat production.

Area:
It was a study that comprised of 76 towers which were 622 metres high measuring 87x87m

Weaknesses:
The study addresses all of the stages it requires to produce the meat product, however I feel it unrealistic. It would require a lot of money and it could not be implemented within New Zealand. There were a couple of aspects of this model which are too impractical, like constructing a glass dome over the meat production. It is something that may be achievable in the far future, but my design model aims to provide a solution for todays problems that can be easily implemented.

Completed:
2000.

Designers:
MVRDV

Strengths:
It combines organic farming with concentration of production activities. By compacting the production methods it avoids the need for transportation and distribution. The model successfully utilises most of its waste and what cant be utilised is a valuable asset for other industries. It successfully addresses the animal welfare and economic issues. It addressed the issue of food and energy supply the pigs would require in order to produce the final meat product. Because of this it demonstrated to the public how important it is to condense animal meat production in order to minimise the amount of land required to farm these animals.

59

Images retrieved from http://www.mvrdv.nl/#/projects/181pigcity

5.7 Asphof Hen Unit


Rothenfluh, Switzerland their productivity through greater egg laying capacity. It calculates the extra cost for this living roof to be US$8m 2. The living roof allowed integration with the surrounding environment by utilising planting materials that occurred naturally within the site, blending the shed in with the surroundings.

Area:
1000m 2

Completed:
2002

Designers:
Mangold Wood Construction, Hochschule Wadenswil, Matthias Eglin

Strengths:
Extensive green roof (living roof) appears on 2 levels of a chicken coop that houses 2000 chickens. The living roof provides temperature and ventilation control for the bio hen unit. Specific plants atop the hen coop results in happier hens. This extensive living roof was successfully constructed on load bearing limitations of 100kg per m 2. It reduces the temperature by 7 degrees within the sheds in summer. In winter improved heat insulation helps ventilate the building. The quality of life for the hens has improved, increasing
Images retrieved fromhttp://www.greenroofs.com/blog/2010/04/17/gpw-asphof-hen-unit /

61

6.0

Research Findings Analysis

From my research and analysis in intensive farming I exposed issues that my design model needed to address. These were: Health Handling Stock densities Air temperatures Transportation Building footprints Biodiversity Pollution Waste management Gas emissions Profit

as stated earlier within my research, this is why it is so important to provide a design model that improves the shed environments for animals.

Pollution
Is a major negative aspect of intensive farming and by improving other issues within sites and will improve or even halt the pollution created by intensive farms.

Stock Densities
As stated within handling this is also another controversial topic for intensive farming. My design model will improve the environment for animals living within high densities.

Waste Management
As with pollution this is another major key negative aspect of intensive farming. Presently the broiler sheds waste within New Zealand is handled in a way that provides further income for the farmers. They generally on sell their waste to farmers to spread on their fields for nutrients, but does this cause more pollution for our water ways?

Air Temperatures
Outside temperatures have a significant effects on the temperatures within the sheds. By improving external air temperatures you can influence indoor temperatures.

Transpor tation
Although intensive farms offer solutions for land sizes, foodstuffs and products are often transported over longer distances.

Gas Emissions
These are side effects of having large populations of animal within small areas. Chickens create high amounts of ammonia.

These all have unique characteristics that present opportunities for design interventions to halt or even prevent the negative aspects of intensive farming. They are as follows:

Health
Relates to a lot of issues within intensive farming like the health of the animals, biodiversity, surrounding communities and the world in general as it is vital to keep producing an affordable meat product.

Size
The size of the farm is a positive aspect en light of the environment, but it can have detrimental effects on animal welfare and the biodiversity by producing large amounts of pollution through waste and gas emissions.

Profit
It is important that intensive farms provide a desirable profit for farm owners that will have a positive effect on employees wages. This however needs to be balanced as to much profit could effect the price of meat. To help further understanding of these issues and there influences on my research analysis I created a table (beside) that informs how each of these issues influence my research analysis areas.

Handling
Animal handling is a very controversial topic in relation to intensive farming. There are so many negative responses to intensive farming regarding the welfare of animals

Biodiversity
By improving the biodiversity within intensive farm sites you can improve regional ecological connections and provide heterogenic landscapes that supply an array of habitats.

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6.1 Research Findings Table

Issues
Health Handling Stock densities Transportation Size Biodiversity Pollution Waste management Gas emissions Profit

Environment
Positive Negative

Quadruple Bottom Line Analysis


Economics Social
Positive Negative Positive Negative

Animal Welfare
Positive Negative

Air temperatures

This table was produced to provide an in-depth analysis of how my research impacts on the main issues of intensive farming. As stated in the table these were; Health; Handling; Stock Densities; Air Temperature; Transportation; Size; Biodiversity: Pollution; Waste management; Gas Emissions and Profit.

Along the top I have positioned the quadruple bottom line issues along with positive and negative. The coloured boxes indicate whether the issue has a positive of negative impact on the quadruple bottom line issues and this was utilised for my design model to determine design interventions that could mitigate the negative issues of

intensive farming. All of these issues are intricately interconnected and by improving one issue of intensive farming you can improve or influence another, achieving a sustainable intensive farm model that addresses all of the quadruple bottom line issues.

The completion of this table allowed me to devise landscape design interventions that will be utilised in the design model to mitigate most, if not all negative aspects of intensive farming. These include: Livings roofs Swales/rain gardens/wetlands Vegetation Amenity Structural layout Micro-climates Eco-services

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7.0

Design Interventions

7.1 Design Intervention Table

Issues
Health Handling Stock densities Transportation Size Biodiversity Pollution Waste management Gas emissions Profit

Living roofs

Design Intervention Opportunities to address Quadruple Bottom Line Issues


Swales/rain gardens/wetlands Vegetation Amenity Structural layout

Micro-climates Eco-services

Air temperatures

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7.2 Living Roofs

Intensive farming sites produce massive areas of roof expanse that provide opportunities for energy production and living roofs. Living roofs have a range of functions (as shown in the Asphof Hen Unit and Ford Factory case studies) including enhancement of ecological connections, temperature control inside and outside of buildings, and storm water control. They improve the water quality by reducing particles and pollution and retain water by way of storage or slow release, and reduce the water quantity through evaporation and plant uptake. This also minimises and delays the storm water run off which results in less stress on storm water systems in peak flow periods. Living roofs in intensive farming situations will potentially improve the air quality and smell as plants can capture air dust particles, air pollutants and filter noxious gasses. The roofs also provide opportunities to increase amenity and green space on these farm sites whilst effectively insulating the buildings reducing the amount of energy required to moderate the temperatures within the sheds. According to research a living roof has the potential to reduce the daily demand for air conditioning in summer by 75%. As stated in they Ford Factory Case Study (section 5.1)

they also have the potential to reduce waste and cost by prolonging the life of roofs. Along with all the energy and water saving aspects associated with living roofs they also increase biodiversity through an increase of vegetation and habitat. Solar panels are another system that can reduce the amount of energy these farms draw from the grid, that reduces the demand these farms have on our power systems (as seen in Zero Energy Building Section 4.2). The installation of solar panels onto the roofs could potentially provide enough energy for the farms and even supply extra power to the grid. Both living roofs and solar panels have huge potentials for an intensive farming site, but in combination they become even more effective at producing and conserving energy. The performance of solar panels is highly dependent on the temperature of the panels and their surrounding air temperature. The general rule of thumb with solar panels is the warmer the solar panel, the lesser the performance. As a result of solar radiation they can heat up considerably. This can be even more impaired with hot roof surfaces. However, my design models combines living roofs with solar panels that perform better through the cooling effect caused by evaporation at plant level, reducing the air temperature improving solar panel uptake. (As seen in beside diagram). (Breuning, 2012)

Diagram from Breuning 2012

7.3 Swales/rain gardens

Swales are channels containing low lying mown grass (100150mm) that has a combined effect removing contaminants through infiltration, filtration and absorption whilst reducing the water velocity. This improves the quality and reduces the speed of water entering other storm water devices, water ways and eventually harbours. The contaminant removal depends on the time water is present through the swale and the height of the water in comparison to the grass. They are a simple but effective way improving water quality reducing water quantity and add amenity to farming environments. They are currently utilised within broiler shed sites instead of gutters over the vast roof lengths. The water off the roof flows into the swales and is directed into sumps or collection ponds. Rain gardens are another form of storm water device that are planted to remove sedimentation and contaminants through infiltration and storage. They remove particles of larger sizes and also have the capacity to store water an

remove smaller particles that fail to be removed in other devices like swales. Not only do rain gardens remove pollutants they also slow down the velocity of water before it flows into surrounding pipes, drains, streams and harbours. As rain gardens have more potential for up taking of pollutants they have been utilised within the design model to filtrate the water collected from the washout of the sheds between batches of chickens. Vegetation is another element within both of these devices that aids in the removal of sedimentation and contaminants and reduction of water velocity through root uptake and transpiration. Not only will these devices help with the control of water across the site they will also provide more biodiversity within my site with the correct selection of plant species.
Example of the Paul Mathews rain garden retrieved from: www.streamcare.org.nz

Example of a swale retrieved from: www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz /EN/.../swaleconstructionguide.pdf

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7.4 Vegetation

Vegetation has a huge role in increasing biodiversity and amenity. It also improves ecological connections throughout the region of which intensive farms are situated. Ecological functions the plants introduce to the area and farms is of the greatest importance for farming sites and their regions. As stated in section 5.2 Vegetation offers a lot of Environmental benefits. This is why plants are so important to the success of storm water devices as they provide a range of elements that improve ecological functions of the site and surrounding environments. Plant species selection also needs to be considered. In order to bring biodiversity back into the region, plants need to be selected from the ecological districts in which is sites are located. To ensure New Zealands biodiversity is improved within my design model sites and surrounding regions, I have utilised plant species that entice pollinators onto my site. Pollinator numbers throughout the world have been decreasing immensely through loss habitat, disease impacts of introduced species on pollinations systems and

the use of pesticides. By ensuring my plant selection entice pollinators into my design model sites I am ensuring the increase of native insect and animal species (like birds) throughout my site and ensuring the survival of native plant species through pollination. Our survival depends pollination and pollinators as they are both producers at the bottom end of the complex food chain within ecosystems and with out them we would not be able to sustain life. In order to help me with selection of my plant species I created the following selection criteria for my design models: Toleration of site conditions (including rain gardens, swales, living roofs and wetlands). Introduce invertebrates and insects onto the site. Selected from the ecological district of the site. Create shade for the sheds. Add to the landscape ecology. Provide habitats. Deciduous trees to provide protection for sheds from hot conditions in summer, but allow capture of warm winter winds and sun. Enhance the amenity of the sites.

Image retrieved from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia /commons/0/0f/Rain_forest_NZ.JPG

7.5 Amenity
Enhancing the amenity of existing intensive farms can improve the value to the property, biodiversity, aesthetics, provide a feeling of structure and cues to care for the public and reduce the running expenses. Ecological enhancement of farms is a highly debated topic as ecological quality tends to look messy (Nassauer, 1995). As these farms are also located in the rural districts of New Zealand it also poses a problem for how the farmers read the agricultural landscape for signs of skilled farming (Burton, 2012). The typical intensive farm also poses a problem for the public as they generally do no like their aesthetics. The most preferred landscapes are those that are not entirely natural, but have a strong natural component to them and show variation and form (Burton, 2012). This illuded the importance of traditional farming landscape aesthetics as they are the most preferred landscape throughout New Zealand. My design model strives to achieve an equilibrium that maintains the preferred aesthetic, whilst enhancing the environment on site and around the region. This has been successfully achieved in previous landscape projects as stated in the Greening Waipara case study (section 5.5) that creates a point of difference by providing for the environment whilst valuing the landscape through amenity for the public in alliance with natures services. It is models like these and my design model that can be utilised to change the publics generally negative perception of farming as a whole.

7.5.1

At present there are no guidelines as to what colours the roofs and walls should be on broiler sheds. As seen in section 2.2.4 of this study the dominant colour of the sheds is forest green. This helps to disguise the sheds by blending them into the environment, but it is possible to achieve this by aesthetically enhancing the landscape surrounding the sheds. Studies have been undertaken into how the colour of the buildings and their roofs can dramatically reduce the heating of buildings in summer. White roofs and walls are the most cost effective way of reducing global warming by mimicking the polar icecaps and the way that they reflect sunlight back into space to cool the planet. Dark roofs capture and absorb the sunlight and convert it into heat preventing it from passing into the atmosphere (as seen in the beside diagram). Because of this white roofs also effectively reduce the temperature within the buildings. (Montanjees, 2012) Roughly 75% of all New Zealand commercial roofs are white or off white, for some this was a conscious decision to reduce energy cost but for most it was just because the white is the cheapest colour option. (Montanjees, 2012) A study completed by researchers at the Heat Island Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California in 2009 discovered that 100m 2 of white roofs (the size of a small house with no garage) produces enough annual global cooling to cancel the warming of 10 tonne of CO 2 emissions. (Montanjees, 2012)

White Roofs

Image from Montanjees, 2012

In NZ the intensity of sunlight in mid summer is approx 100 watts per square metre on average and with a typical house roof being 140m 2, each roof get 140,000W. Research shows that flat white roofs reflect 55% of light with 80% of this passing back through the atmosphere. By applying these figures a single residential roof in NZ has the potential to cancel to cancel roughly 14 tonne of C0 2 emissions which is roughly the output of one car per year. (Montanjees, 2012) These figures show the potentials white roofs and walls have on the vast expanse of broiler sheds and they also confirm the impacts the forest green colours are having on our environment, this is why they have been utilised in my design model. (Montanjees, 2012)

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7.6 Infrastructure
Currently infrastructure used within broiler shed sites exists of drives for trucks and vehicles, silos, broiler sheds, employee amenity rooms, gas for heating, power, generators, swales and collection ponds. Improving the layout and function of the infrastructure within intensive farming sites, improves the value, amenity and functionality of the site. Simple aspects like layout and colour (as stated in 7.5.1) of the sheds that maximise natural energy flows like air flows, sun and shade (as stated in 3.1). collected from the living roofs. This will then irrigate the plants during their establishment periods in the drier months.
PYROT
Innovative wood boiler with rotation combustion, 90 to 480 kW. For wood fuels with a maximum water content of 35%.

7.6.3

As stated in section 7.2 solar panels have the ability to reduce the amount of energy these farms draw from the grid, reducing the demand these farms have on our power systems. They will be placed on top of the broiler sheds in conjunction with living roofs to maximise solar energy catchment. Currently the main source of energy used for heating the broiler sheds in LPG. This is a nonrenewable resource, so it is essential to change the current heating systems. I have proposed biomass heating as it utilises woodchips, a renewable organic matter which also doubles as waste from another industry (timber). Although this method emits carbon dioxide when producing heat it is classed as a carbon neutral fuel, because of the carbon cycle. Whilst the trees are growing they are absorbing the carbon dioxide and releasing it back into the atmosphere when they are burnt. The initial outlay for a biomass heater is greater than gas, but huge savings are made on the fuel costs. Beside is an example of a biomass boiler example retrieved from Spark Energy. This is a New Zealand company that helped me with my calculations (see 10.3) biomass heating can provide for my design model.
7

Solar Panels

Wood boilers with state-of-the-art technology With its patented rotation combustion, the Pyrot boiler is a state-of-the-art wood combustion system. A charging auger continuously guides the wood fuel onto a moving grate on which the fuel gasication takes place (with a carefully regulated primary air supply). The combustible gases then rise up into the rotation combustion chamber, where they are mixed with secondary air using a rotary fan. This ensures complete combustion. Clean and efcient combustion The advanced combustion technology in the Pyrot achieves similar emissions ratings as those of an advanced gas combustion system and keeps the release of CO, NOx and dust particles to a minimum.

Furthermore, unlike oil and gas, wood is a CO 2 neutral renewable source of energy. When operated together with our digital, modulating output control, the Pyrot boiler achieves an efciency level of up to 92%. Containerised mobile heating centre (silo as a pellet store) The Pyrot wood boiler can be available as a ready-to-use solution in a container for uses where there are no boiler enclosures available or where the on-site construction costs have to be reduced to a minimum. This ready-touse solution incorporates the pre-assembled boiler inside a special container (see page 5) and all ancillary devices. Individual container solutions can be specially adapted to meet your needs.

7.6.1

Typical drive ways on broiler shed sites consist of impermeable concrete around the entrances to the broiler sheds, whilst the remainder of the drive ways are constructed with lose, compacted metal. It is important to maintain access around all of the sheds for maintenance purposes. As one of my design models is located within Christchurch where the soil is friable, it provided the ideal conditions to utilise permeable asphalt. It is important to retain the hard surfaces at the entrance and exits of each shed as heavy trucks utilise them often to deliver wood shavings, chickens and remove waste and grown chickens. As bores are located within my sites there is no need to capture water for the chickens. However my design models require a lot of plants and are located in Auckland and Christchurch, which consistently have hot, dry summers. This is why rain water collection tanks will be utilised as they provide storage for the remainder of the water

Permeable Drive Ways

7.6.4

Biomass Heating

12

10 9

11

7.6.2

Rain Tanks

1 2 3 4 5 6

Charging auger (with light barrier) Moving grate Primary air buttery valve Flue gas return feed Ignition fan Ash removal Secondary air buttery valve with rotary fan Rotation combustion chamber Dual heat exchanger Safety heat exchanger Pneumatic pipe cleaning Induced draught fan

5 3

8 9 10

11 12

Diagram retrieved from http://www.sparkenergy.co.nz

7.7 Micro-climates
Micro-climates are defined as the climatic environment of a very local area, i.e. north or south facing slopes of certain areas within a garden or landscape that differ in temperatures from other areas. They contain atmospheric factors that differ from the macro-climate because of uneven terrain or plant cover. Within one macro-climate there is usually a whole series of micro-climates, some that may differ dramatically and be ecologically important. My design model maximises micro-climates by diverting the suns energy in summer by planting deciduous trees to create shade (as seen in section 3.1.3). The same trees will divert the hot wind energy in summer, but let it penetrate the buildings in winter. Strategic planting throughout my design model sites will also protect and divert wind into the right places (as seen in section 3). Mico-climates also have the ability to prevent frosts, by planting hedges in the right spots. This will deflect the air around them, and on my design model site in Christchurch (as it is flat) the frost is likely to settle where there is no planting. Concrete and asphalt also produces mico-climates as vegetation planted on their edges experience warmer climates from the thermal mass created by them in summer. By creating micro-climates and seasonal micro-climeates outside of the sheds through multilayered gardens, living roofs, rain gardens, wet land and strategic planting my design model will improve the living environments for the chickens within the sheds. (Croker, 1956)

Summer micro-climate
N

Summer Shade

Winter micro-climate
N

Winter Sun

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7.8 Eco-services

Eco-services are defined as tangible and intangible benefits that are obtained from ecosystems to provide goods or services for mankind. By utilising eco-services in my design models I have created benefits for the environment like habitats, increase in species, carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, pollination and microbiological processes that begin food networks. (Misni, 2010) My design model challenges existing broiler shed sites by utilising eco-services to improve the profitability of the farm and value site. Micro-climates, swales and rain gardens, vegetation and living are all forms of eco-services as they benefit the environment whilst benefitting the broiler sheds. The economical benefits of vegetation can be seen in the beside table retrieved from Misni, 2010. As an eco-service they can improve the temperatures outdoors influencing the temperatures indoors as shown in diagrams in section 5.2. During the summer they have the potential to reduce the air conditioner consumption by 25-80% and can protect buildings from wind in winter. (Misni, 2010)

Saving a house a year


No. 1. 2. 3. Location Sacramento Phoenix Lake Charles Total saving a house per year 10% increase trees 261 kWh 725 kWh 412 kWh 24% 12% 12% 25% increase trees 603 kWh 1766 kWh 1071 kWh 57% 17% 23%

US$4090

US$100250
Table retrieved from Misni 2010

(Adapted from Huang et al. 1987)


26

Picture retrieved from: http://www.wallpapergate.com/wallpaper2706.html

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8.0

Site selection

[
From my preliminary research questions I felt it was important to utilise ecological planning to define the location of intensive farms. But through GIS analysis of the sites available for this study in Christchurch it became apparent that there is a huge absence of ecological connections within this region. This was an important stage of my research and analysis as this was when I reformed my strategy to utilise the available sites to enhance the on site and surrounding biodiversity and ecological connections. At this stage I also reformed my research question to can and should landscape architectural design contribute to improved intensive farming practice? Which then lead me into the process of designing a model for intensive farming.

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Images retrieved from Google Ear th, 2012

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8.1 GIS Analysis


Legend

nz-rivers-and-streams-cen nz-road-centrelines-topo-

new-zealand-land-use-mapLUC_NAME
Natural Forest Planted Forest - Pre-1990 Post 1989 Forest Wetland - Open water Wetland - Vegetated non forest Site Locations

1:150,000

8.2 Possible study sites


Springston Rolleston Road, Springston, Canterbury

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Images retrieved from Google Ear th, 2012

79

Robinson Road, Rollerston, Canterbury

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Images retrieved from Google Ear th, 2012

North Eyre Road, Canterbury

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Images retrieved from Google Ear th, 2012

81

Lily Road, Fernside, Cantebury

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Images retrieved from Google Ear th, 2012

8.3 Selected site


Mandeville Road, Canterbury

Contours Site

I selected this site during my visit to the region in July. It is an existing intensive farm that has been redesigned and is currently being reconstructed due to the damage it received in the February 2010 earthquakes. This site was selected as it was easily accessible, it had a point of difference as the site contained 2 dwellings and it was also one of the bigger farms on a large section.

Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Images retrieved from Google Ear th, 2012

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9.0

Design Model

9.1 Stage 1: Region Analysis


9.1.1
According to the Waimakariri district plan my site is zoned Rural. It also has power lines running through the site which was taken into consideration when designing. Main objectives as per chapter 14 that impacts on my design model development is to: Maintain and enhance both rural production and the rural character of the Rural Zones, which is characterised by: the dominant effect of paddocks, trees, natural features, and agricultural, pastoral or horticultural activities; separation between dwellinghouses to maintain privacy and a sense of openness; a dwellinghouse clustered with ancillary buildings and structures on the same site; farm buildings and structures close to lot boundaries including roads; generally quiet but with some significant intermittent and/or seasonal noise from farming activities; clean air but with some significant short term and/or seasonal smells associated with farming activities The district plan also eludes to the controversy surrounding intensive farming and as stated in rule 14.1.1.4.5: Council on an annual basis around 30 June will publicly advertise for all persons undertaking an intensive farming operation and/ or the spreading of liquid farm effluent to register their operation with the Council for the purposes of administering and Council may require those persons spreading effluent to provide a record of the spreading undertaken including the location and frequency during the previous year.

District Plan

Site

9.1.2

GIS Analysis

85 [

Site Land Parcels Afforestation Afforestation Built-up Area Deciduous Hardwoods Forest Harvested Gorse and Broom Grey Scrub Herbaceous Freshwater Vegetation High Producing Exotic Grassland Low Producing Grassland Major Shelterbelts Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Pine Forest - Open Canopy River River and Lakeshore Gravel and Rock

Site
0 0.5 1 2 3 4 Kilometers

0.5

4 Kilometers

Short-rotation Cropland Vineyard

Land Parcels Rivers and Streams

Site Soil Land Parcels

NZSC Class Gley Pleaty Orthic Gley Typic Orthic Pallic Mottled Immature Pallic Typic Immature Recent Fluvial Recent Typic Fluvial Recent Weathered Fluvial Site
0 0.5 1 2 3 4 Kilometers

Recent Weathered Orthic


0 0.5 1 2 3 4 Kilometers

Land Parcels Shelterbelts

Raw Fluid Grey Rive

[
Site Shelterbelts Vegetation Deciduous Hardwoods Forest Harvested Gorse and Broom Grey Scrub Herbaceous Freshwater Vegetation Major Shelterbelts Other Exotic Forest Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Pine Forest - Open Canopy Rivers and Streams Soil NZSC Class Gley Pleaty Orthic Gley Typic Orthic Pallic Mottled Immature Pallic Typic Immature Recent Fluvial Recent Typic Fluvial Recent Weathered Fluvial Recent Weathered Orthic

Poor ecological connections Friable soils Hydrology prominent, but not located within my site Native vegetation almost nonexistent the majority of the plant species are exotic Topography flat

0.5

4 Kilometers

Raw Fluid Grey Rive

87

9.2 Sage 2: Existing Plan Analysis

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Disorganised and sporadic layout Sheds standout instead of blending in with the surroundings Sheds take up a majority of the site, making them the dominant feature

9.2.1

The metabolism of the existing design is extremely depended on outside resources and site interconnections are absent.

Metabolism of the existing design

Power is drawn from the grid to power and cool, ventilate (with wall fans) the sheds and LPG is brought onto the site to heat the sheds. The farm is able to obtain water from the bore to provide water for the chickens and clean the sheds. The waste water from the sheds is collected in sumps and then sprayed onto the fields within the site. There is no rain water collection facilities on the site, all water from the roofs is diverted into swales on the ground below the shed roofs. As the soil within the site is friable there is no need for collecting the water in ponds as it disperses quickly into the ground. There are two good aspects of this site and that is the use of woodchips (a by product from local timber mills) and collection of waste from chickens excretions that is distributed on horticultural and agricultural fields within the region, so there is a small amount of industrial ecology being utilised within and out of the site. It also shows that there is no utilisation of eco-services within the site. Food for the chickens is another large input. As I have limited my studies to the site problems I have been unable to address the feed issue, but as stated in section 3.2 by intensifying agricultural production, more land becomes available for horticulture and if chicken food is produced in a bio-intensive manner, it should prevent any further detrimental effects to our environment. Meat is the major output of this site and this should remain the same.

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9.3 Stage 3: Natural Energy Analysis


9.3.1 Sun Analysis

Morning Sun

Lunch Sun

Af ternoon Sun

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Jan

April

July

Oct

9.3.2

Wind Analysis

Beside are some diagrams obtained from windfinder. org. These show the dominant wind directions collected from the Christchurch Airport. From these diagrams I determined the dominant wind directions in spring and summer were ENE and in autumn and winter there seemed to be a mixture of ENE and SSW, but overall the SSW was more dominant. From these diagrams I produced wind diagrams that show how the dominant winds disperse over my study site.

Feb

May

Aug

Nov

March

June

Sep

Dec

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9.3.3

Warm winds

Wind analysis diagrams

Cold winds

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Spring

Autumn

9.3.4

Stage 5: Shade Analysis

I completed this analysis to determine if the existing vegetation on my site could benefit my design model. The existing plants consist mainly of macrocarpa hedging and eucalyptus trees planted in a group. Overall the plants didnt provide much protection form natural elements, but I will maintain the macrocarpa hedging, to retain the existing biodiversity within the site, until my design model plants establish.

Summer

Winter

93

9.4 Stage 4: Natural Energy Maximisation Diagram

This diagram was generated to identif y possible layout orientations the sheds. It was created by placing the wind and sun directions that need to be captured to ma ximise natural energy flows for the sheds. Each aspect (sun, cold wind and warm wind) were placed on a 360 degree circle that identified the orientation direction for the sheds that would ma ximise all of these natural resources, which should significantly reduce the running costs of the sheds.

9.4.1

Diagram projected over the site

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops

This circle was then projected over the site to determine the layout direction for the sheds.

Other Exotic Forest

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

95

9.5 Stage 5: Shed Locations

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Layout direction of sheds that ma ximises natural energies, as seen here. But this layout of the sheds still dominated the site, so utilisation of plants were required to protect the sheds provide a more appropriate design model.

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Sheds were relocated, but still ma ximise the catchment of natural energies through strategic plant placement.

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[

9.6 Stage 6: Tracking Curves

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Trucks regularly visit the site to deliver chickens, food and utilities, so there must be enough room for them to manoeuvre around the sheds

9.7 Stage 7: Zoning


9.7.1 Income

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Through natural energy catchment analysis the site was divided into zones. This one being the profitable zone as it is where the broiler sheds are located.

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[

9.7.2

Living

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

The next impor tant allowance was the living areas. As these farms are commonly utilised as lifestyle blocks the site needed to provide a good amount of living areas for the residents

9.7.3

Biodiversity/Eco-services

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

The site was then divided into biodiversity zones that have been strategically located to provide eco-ser vices for the broiler sheds, and permaculture zones. These were divided even fur ther into rain gardens, deciduous planting and native planting.

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

101
[

9.7.4

Permaculture

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

The remainder of the site then became permaculture zones, allowing the residents and the land holding as a whole to become more environmentally sustainable. Areas were divided fur ther into livestock paddocks, intensive hor ticulture areas and orchards.

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

9.8 Stage 8: Layout Foundations


Stage 1 Stage 2

Structural foundations were then laid out around the sheds. These included the access routes for the trucks and other vehicles visiting the site, access areas around the sheds for maintenance and clear zones to prevent the fans being obstructed with debris.

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest LCDB

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Story

1:2000

Story

9.9 Stage 9: Design Model 1


12 .50 0

[
15 .00 0

103

7.5 00 7.6 00

Key
Mixture of deciduous specimen trees with under planting of natives

Native planting Permeable asphalt Rain gardens

16 .00 0 15 .50 0

10 .00 0 10 .00 0

13 .14 1 14 .00 0

10 rain water collection tanks Buried 1. 50 0

Permeable metal drive Broiler sheds/Living roofs Deciduous planting

10 .0 10 00 .00 0

16 .0 15 00 .50 0

Biomass boiler

Orchards Livestock paddocks


51 power supplier (Diesel generator) Back up .8 00

7.5 0 7.6 0 00

Recreation areas Dwellings Intensive horticulture (vege gardens)

ac

ce

ss

Tru ck

Sil

os
84

.00

Sil

os

Amenity room

Sil

os

15

.00

M A
Sil

os

D EV IL LE R O A D , W A IM

Native vegetation to increase biodiversity

Rain gardens to collect wash out from sheds

Site Land Parcels Rivers and Streams

0.5

4 Kilometers

15

.00

A K A R IR I,

10

1.5

00

C A N TE R B
Re sid

Livestock fence
en ts ac ce

Zoning Key
Biodiversity/Eco-services Living areas

51

ss

.80

to

br oil

Intensive Farm Design Model Christchurch


SCALE: 1:500 @ A0
5m 10m 20m 0m 30m

U R Y
84 .00 0 15 .00 0

er

sh

ed

Permaculture Intensive farm

Existing trees

Zoning Plan
SCALE: 1:2000 @ A0

9.10

Summer A-A

9.10.1 Summer Cross Section

Native planting

Scale: 1:200

Permeable metal drive

White walls deflect sunlight

Stage 10: Cross Sections A-A and Details

Skylights and living roof (see skylight detail)

Living roof see details

Broiler shed

Cross Sections

Shed wash out Silo Metal filtration layer Deciduous trees deflect summer sun and winds Rain Garden to capture shed washout

Food

A landscape model for intensive

Landsca

105

Solar panel/living roof detail


Please note iron roof needs to be painted with water proofing protection

Scale: 1:20

1600x900mm Solar Panel

ZinCo Solar base Planting Light weight, locally sourced substrate max 20% organic Deciduous trees deflect summer sun and winds Geotextile Drainage layer Roof structure to tolerate weight of living roof

Soil Sand filtration layer

Scale: 1:200@ A 2 Please note all details to scale on A 2

Winter A-A

Scale: 1:200

Skylight detail
Please note iron roof needs to be painted with water proofing protection

Scale: 1:20

9.10.2 Winter Cross Section


Solatube 750DS-OC (530mm) Solamaster Daylighting system Planting Light weight, locally sourced substrate max 20% organic Geotextile Drainage layer Roof structure to tolerate weight of living roof Friable soils provides ideal conditions for permeable services

Deciduous trees allows warm winter winds and suns to heat sheds

Skylights and living roof (see skylight detail)

Shed wash out

Metal filtration layer Soil

Rain Garden to capture shed washout

Food

A landscape model for intensive fa

Landscap

107

Gutter detail Scale: 1:20

Please note iron roof needs to be painted with water proofing protection

Perforated metal plate bracket Planting Light weight, locally sourced substrate max 20% organic Geotextile Drainage layer Pebble or pumice drainage edge 300mm wide commercial gutter Leafguard

Sand filtration layer

Deciduous trees allows warm winter winds and suns to heat sheds

Living roof in combination with Solar panels to maximise catchment of solar energy (see solar panel/living roof detail)

White walls deflect sunlight

Living roof

Scale: 1:200@ A 2 Please note all details to scale on A 2

9.11

Stage 11: Perspective

109

9.12

Stage 12: Design Model 1 Achievements

Rain gardens between the sheds will collect and filter water from washout of the sheds. Combination of living roofs and solar panels ma ximise catchment of the suns energy for power. Water will be collected from living roofs to irrigate plants in the warmer months. Permeable asphalt will be located at the ends of sheds for access for heav y vehicles when removing or delivering wood chips and birds. The remainder of the drives are to be constructed with compacted lose metal. Sk ylights within living roofs will provide natural lighting for the chickens. Deciduous planting protects the broiler sheds, the orchard, the house and livestock from the hot summer sun and winds whilst letting the warm winds and sun through in winter. Intensive hor ticulture is placed within close proximity of both dwellings. Livestock and orchard areas were also located within close proximity of dwellings. Easy access for larger vehicles is provided throughout the site. An alternative entrance for the trucks reduces interruptions for the residents. LPG heating will be replaced with Biomass heating facilities. Vegetation increases the amenity value of the site whilst improving the biodiversity within the site and region.

9.13
Spring

Stage 13: Planting Analysis (Shade)


Summer

111

Shade analysis was completed to determine the height the deciduous trees need to be in order to protect the sheds on the nor thern boundar y. The height was calculated at a minimum of 10m. The trees should not exceed this height, as they will then star t to impact on the solar panels by creating shade. This will then prevent catchment of the suns energy. As New Zealands native deciduous trees dont suit these requirements and the site conditions, exotic deciduous species will need to be selected. To prevent the mono-cultural farm landscapes, I have purposely chosen deciduous plant species that are not commonly used in the Canterbur y Plains farming regions. If other intensive farms in this region were to utilise this same model, it is impor tant that the same deciduous plant species (or all plant species selected for this design model) are not repeated on mass. This will continue to create monocultural landscapes and the aim of this design is to create heterogenous landscapes that increase biodiversity. The plant selection of these deciduous plants will also need to follow the guidelines as stated in 7.4 to improve the biodiversity of the region. In par ticular enticing native insects and inver tebrates onto the site.
Image retrieved from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia /commons/0/0f/Rain_forest_NZ.JPG

9.14

Stage 14: Planting Plan


Deciduous planting (northern boundary)
Key Botanical Name Coprosma rubra Hebe salicifolia Myrsine divaricata Cortaderia richardii Plagianthus reguis Phormium tenax Sophora microphylla Corylus colurna Podocarpus totara Nyssa sylvatica Common Name red stemmed coprosma koromiko weeping mapou toetoe ribbonwood flax kowhai Turkish hazelnut totara tupelo

[
Hardy Drought Food F,I,L I F,I F,I N,L F,I F F,N,I F,N Height 3m 3m 2m 3m 6m 2m 8m 12m 8m 12m Spread 1m 2m 2m 2m 2m 2m 5m 10m 4m 8m Deciduous Number 90 243 33 29 139 82 69 15 4 28 Colourful leaf display through autumn and Contours spring
Site

Notes

LCDB

Nector I Insects Major Shelterbelts L Lizards Manuka and or Kanuka H Habitats Orchard and Other Perennial Crops F Food
Other Exotic Forest Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Land Parcels N

Rivers and Streams Key

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Rain garden planting


Botanical Name Anemanthele lessoniana Coprosma propinqua Coprosma virescens Cordyline australis Cortaderia richardii Libertia ixiodes Phormium tenax Plagianthus regius Sophora microphylla Common Name bamboo grass, wind grass mikimiki, mingimingi pale green coprosma cabbage tree toetoe NZ iris, mikoikoi flax ribbonwood kowhai
1

Hardy

Drought

Wet

Ecological district

Biodiversity H F,I,L,H F,L,H F,N,I,H H I,H N,L,H F,I,H F,I

Height 0.800m 3m 3m 4m 3m 0.400m 2m 6m 8m

Spread 1m 1m 2m 2m 2m 0.400m 2m 2m 5m

Deciduous

Notes

/2

Plant on southern side of rain gardens to prevent hot summer winds and sun from penetrating sheds Plant on southern side of rain gardens to prevent hot summer winds and sun from penetrating sheds

Living roof planting


Botanical Name Anaphalioides bellidioides Acaena novae-zealandiae Libertia ixioides Muehlenbeckia complexa Pachystegia insignis Raoulia hookerii Sedum acre Sedum spathulifolium

Common Name

Hardy

Drought
1

Wet

hells bells bidibidi, piripiri NZ iris pohuehue Marlborough rock daisy scrubweed golden carpet

Ecological district

Biodiversity I H I,H H,F,L I,H,N H I,N,B I

Height 0.150m 0.150m 0.400m 1m 0.300m 0.100m 0.150m 0.150m

Spread 1m 1m 0.400 1m 0.500m 0.250m 0.400m 0.400

Deciduous

Notes Full sun/part shade Full sun Part shade Full sun/part shade Full sun Full sun Full sun/part shade Full sun/part shade

/2

semi

Native Planting

Plant species to be selected from the kaihikatea, totara ecological district and selected for attributes that entice invertibrates and insects onto the site like: Podocarpus totara, totara Dracrycarpus dacrydioiodes, kaihikatea Carpodetus serratus, putaputawheta Cordyline australis, cabbage tree Griselinia littoralis, kapuka Leptocarpus scoparium, manuka Pseudopanax crassifolius, lancewood Coprosma rubra, red-stemmed coprosma Coprosma propinqua, mikimiki Myrsine divaricata, weeping mapou Phormium tenax, flax Pratia angulata, panakeneke Fuchsia excorticata, kotukotu, tree fuchsia

Deciduous planting

Replicates Deciduous planting species on nothern boundary

Scale: 1:1500@ A 2

Existing vegetation

113
[

All plants have been selected based on the attributes as stated in section 7.4. Most of the plant species have been selected from the ecological district kahikatea or totara in which the site is located as defined by the Indigenous Ecosystems of Otautahi Christchurch. This design model contributes almost 3 hectares of native vegetation to the region. If other intensive farms within the surrounding region of my site were to utilise this model it would contribute 31 hectares. This would immensely improve the landscape ecology of this devastated landscape (as shown in the beside GIS maps) This GIS exploration has exposed one of the potentials of intensive farms. It condenses the meat production allowing more land to be returned to nature, which will immensely improve biodiversity.
0 0.475 0.95 1.9 2.85 3.8 Kilometers

Site Vegetation Deciduous Hardwoods Forest Harvested Gorse and Broom Grey Scrub Herbaceous Freshwater Vegetation Major Shelterbelts Other Exotic Forest Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Pine Forest - Open Canopy

Proposed vegetation

Proposed Vegetation Site Vegetation Deciduous Hardwoods Forest Harvested Gorse and Broom Grey Scrub Herbaceous Freshwater Vegetation Major Shelterbelts Other Exotic Forest 0 0.475 0.95 1.9 2.85 3.8 Kilometers Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Pine Forest - Open Canopy

9.15

Stage 15: Design Model Metabolism Analysis

This metabolism demonstrates the improvements of site interconnections my design model has achieved. It is visible through the increased amounts of arrows within the diagram. Power is drawn from the solar panels and excess is pumped back into the grid. The property owners will be credited for all of the excess power they dont use in summer, but it also allows them to draw power from the gird in winter when the solar panels cannot produce enough energy to run the farm. The farm will continue to obtain water from the bore to provide water for the chickens and clean the sheds. The waste water from the sheds will be diverted into the rain gardens. Water will also be collected from the living roofs to water the plants in summer whilst they are establishing. The two good aspects of this site (the use of woodchips, a by product from local timber mill, and the collection of waste from chickens excretions that is distributed on horticultural and agricultural fields within the region) are maintained. However the waste from the timber industry is utilised even more to provide woodchips for the biomass heating. Skylight produce lighting for the chickens. Improved utilisation of eco-services within the site. Especially with water, light and temperature management. Meat is now the major output of this site.

115

10.0 Design Model Calculations

10.1

Rain water collection

Total site Area: Total Roof Area: Total Imper vious Area:
(excluding roofs)

6.2170ha 0.5922ha 0.0821ha

According to the Countryside Living Toolbox the equation for calculating water volume is as follows: Catchment effective first flush runoff area = Aeff = impervious % x total Area, as I propose using a living roof on all the sheds it will have a value of 1

= Vff = 10 x 0.5922 x 15.56 = 92.14m3 or 92,114 l


As the roofs are going to evapo-transpire allowances need to be made for loss of water. From studies completed by Robyn Symcock at Auckland University and the Waitakere Green Roof the common amount of water lost in living roofs is 60%

= 1 x 0.5922 = 0.5922
The first flush volume (V ff ) = 10 x A eff x d ff = m 3 (d ff being 1/3 of the 2 year 24 hour storm water)

Annual rainfull: 46.7mm

= 60% x 92,114 l = 37,000 l

TOTAL WATER COLLECTED = 37,000l

117

10.2

Power calculations

To calculate the number of solar panels the study site would require the amount of kwh. According to the New Zealand Herald the average rate of kwh during January 2012 was 30c. Based on this information it took: Cost information was retrieved from an existing broiler shed farm in Christchurch, they paid:

Shay Brazier from the Zero Energy House and Solar City informed me that a solar panel of:

$17,394.23 for power

for the year 2011.

57,980.797kwh to power 2608m 2 or 22.23 kwh per m 2 per year.


The total area of the sheds on the study site equates to 5920m 2 and from the above calculations it would require:

990 x 1600mm can produce 1200 kwh a year.


In order for the study site to generate enough power to supply the sheds it will require:

The owner of the farm found it hard to calculate the total amount of kilo watt hours (kwh) as they had changed companies half way through the year.

131,612.85 kwh or $39,483.60 to power the sheds a year

110 solar panels.

TOTAL POWER SAVINGS PER YEAR: $39,483.60

10.3

Biomass heating

At the moment the typical method used for heating broiler sheds is gas. Information retrieved from the same farm in Power Calculations (14.2) shows it costs:

$25,083.47 a year to heat the sheds


Again the owner was unable to determine the amount of LPG used to heat the sheds, but the average price of LPG in New Zealand and according to the AA website is $1.30 per litre. Based on this average the farm used:

According to the data researched and costs provided, the above farm uses:

132,018 kwh to produce heat. = 63.83kwh to heat 1m 2


Based on this information the study site will require:

After conversing with Shay Brazier he pointed out Biomass heating as it is more economical and environmentally friendly. After further research into this area and consultation with the farm owner who supplied all the running costs, it became apparent that the woodchips used to spread on the floors of the sheds for the chickens is a waste product from timber mills and this fits in well with the cradle to cradle and industrial ecological system approaches. Eduard Ebbinge at Spark Energy provided the following information: The running cost on chips is around 5c-6c/ kWh for seasoned fuel-grade wood chips and 8c/kWh for wood pellets. By way of comparison, diesel is around 12.5c/kWh and LPG around 18c/kWh. (Spark Energy, 2012) Based on this information calculations showed it will cost:

19,295 litres of LPG to heat their sheds


Information provided on the indicative running costs on the energywise.govt website states that it costs:

378,052kwh to heat

or =$71,829.93 per year using LPG

19c per kwh to run a unflued gas heater

$22,683.14 per year using woodchips


Not only does this system of heating provide savings for the farm owners, but it also utilises waste from other industries.

TOTAL HEAT SAVING PER YEAR = $49,146.79

9
Vegetation Power consumption Power costs Heating kwh

Calculations
This table illustrates the aspects used to improve the running costs of the sheds and the total amount of savings this site could achieve by implementing my design model

119

Total site area: 6.2170ha


Exisiting 0.500ha Proposed 3.073.4ha Reduction factor

Total shed area: 0.6ha


System Savings improvements Living roofs, Native 17-57% on heating and planting, Deciduous cooling consumption and planting, Rain costs within sheds gardens, Orchards, Intensive horticulture zones 22,374.18 - 75,019.32kwh $39,427.20 64,268 - 215,490 $49,146.79 - $62,076.18 Collection off Living roofs $49,146.79 - $62,076.18 Total $ savings Energy and $ savings per m2

131,612.85kwh 56,593.53 - 109,238.67kwh $39,427.20 378,052kwh $71,829.93 None $0.00 162,562 - 313,786kwh $9,753.75 - $22,683.14 37,000l

Heating costs (LPG to Biomass) Water collection

Vegetation, skylights Power consumption, Solar panels Vegetation, skylights Biomass more cost effective, vegetation

3.73 - 12.50kwh $39,427.20 $6.57 10.71 - 35.92kwh $8.19 - $10.35

Total $ saving per m2: $14.76 - $16.92 Total $ savings for farm: $88,560.00 - $101,520.00 per year

Picture retrieved from: http://www.wallpapergate.com/wallpaper2706.html

121

11.0 Quadruple Bottom Line Analysis

11.1

Initial Table

Issues
Health Handling Stock densities Transportation Footprint Pollution Biodiversity Waste management Gas emissions Profit

Environment
Positive Negative

Quadruple Bottom Line Analysis


Economics Social
Positive Negative Positive Negative

Animal Welfare
Positive Negative

Air temperatures

123

11.2

Design Model Table

Issues
Health Handling Stock densities Transportation Size Biodiversity Pollution Waste management Gas emissions Profit

Environment
Positive Negative

Quadruple Bottom Line Analysis


Economics Social
Positive Negative Positive Negative

Animal Welfare
Positive Negative

Air temperatures

Reassessment of my positives and negatives table exposed the changes I had achieved in terms of sustainability improvements within my design model. Clearly by utilising eco-services within my model I have shifted most negative aspects into positives.

environments should change societies perception whilst increasing the profits for the farm.

Waste Management
By successfully utilising the systems approaches I have designed a model that utilises wastes from other industries and produces valuable waste for other industries.

Air Temperatures
By improving the air temperatures within and outside of the sheds you improve the health of the atmosphere and environment that increases the economics of the site and region and positively impacts on society and animal welfare.

Health
Clearly enhancing the environments outside the sheds improves the ecology of the region and enhances the environment within them improving the health of the chickens. The design model also improves the health these farms have on the surrounding communities and could potentially improve the quality of meat supplied to society. It also positively effects the health of the economics within and outside of the site by improving profitability for the farm owners whilst increasing the value of the surrounding community

Gas Emissions
Plants provide eco-services can have the ability to filter bad toxins produced intensive farming including smells and CO 2.

Transpor tation
Increasing the vegetation within the site produces more trees to uptake harmful CO 2 that are emitted into the air through transportation. I feel further research needs to be taken into this field of intensive farming to reduce the geographic distances between all intensive farming facilities to one region.

Profit
Improving the environmental, economic, social and animal welfare issues of intensive farming, increases the profitability for the farm owners which (as stated in Handling) positively reflects on the employees.

Size
By maintaining the same shed size and stock densities this design model can continue to provide affordable meat without impacting on the environment by requiring more landmass.

Handling
Improving the economics of the farm can increase wages and provide healthier working environments for employees which can improve their productivity and reduce their stress levels. This also has a positive effect on the animals, reducing the stress levels within the working environment improving animal handling practices.

Biodiversity
Retaining the smaller intensive farms provides more land area for nature, increasing the biodiversity within the site and region

Stock Densities
The design model effectively improves the stock densities by allowing natural energies to penetrate the sheds. This should in turn reflect on the economics and social aspects as by maintaining the same stock densities, within improved

Pollution
This model reduces most if not all pollution created by broiler sheds through eco-services provided by vegetation.

125

12.0 Design Model Principles

Change the existing district plans and RMA objectives for farming (e.g. aesthetics and systems requirements) by creating practical and achievable guidelines for the improvement of intensive farms
Minimise the impact of existing intensive farming In-depth site analysis to capture natural energies Improve shed environment for the chickens by optimising and improving the environment out side the sheds Increasing vegetation on these small footprint farms to improve ecological connections Decrease the demands intensive farming has on power and nonrenewable resources by utilising eco-ser vices and renewable energies Improve site interconnections and shift to ma ximise on site systems A design model that can be implemented within a realistic budget that continues to yield profits for proper ty owners Maintain and enhance the typical land use of proper ties, a lifestyle block or small holding Provide a rich soft engineered landscape that is attractive to the public and local community whilst increasing land value for the proper ty owners Achievable design inter ventions using current best practice and accessible technology Continue the supply of affordable meat to the world by minimising the costs of running intensive farms through use of renewable resources and Eco-ser vices

127

13.0 Design Testing

13.1

13.1.1 Site location

Stage 1: Region Analysis

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest LCDB

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Monk Road, Waioneke, South Head, Auckland

129
4 4
H 356 152 101
RO TRIG

5 5
H 367
ROAD
AD HE
TH SOU

H 366 H 355

6 6

7 7

8 8

H 380
AD

H 358

MM

H 357

MM

13.1.2 District Plan


LAKE OTOTOA
H 398

SO UT H RO HEAD AD

KAIPARA HARBOUR

According to the Auckland Council District Plan Operative Rodney Section 2011 my site is zoned Rural. The main objectives as per chapter 14 that impacts on my design model development is to: Maintain and enhance both rural production and the rural character of the Rural Zones, which is characterised by: The dominant effect of paddocks, trees, natural features, and agricultural, pastoral or horticultural activities; Separation between dwellinghouses to maintain privacy and a sense of openness; A dwellinghouse clustered with ancillary buildings and structures on the same site; Farm buildings and structures close to lot boundaries including roads; Generally quiet but with some significant intermittent and/or seasonal noise from farming activities; Clean air but with some significant short term and/or seasonal smells associated with farming activities; and Limited or no roadside advertising. Analysis of my first design model testing in Christchurch confirms that it successfully fits within the guidelines as stated within the district plan. However as stated in Design Model Principles, I believe councils should change their objectives to improve the sustainability of farming.

SOUTH HEAD ROAD

M HA D HIG OA R

H H 397 396

E HU NO AD DO RO

Regulations under the Te Uri o Hau Claims Settlement Act 2002, Schedule 9, require the Council to serve summaries of any applications for resource consent affecting the Kaipara Harbour on the Te Uri o Hau Settlement Trust as an affected party - See District Rules, Chapter 7, Section 7.6.2.2, and Appendix 7G.
SO UT HH EA D

H 463

FU RO LLER AD

RO AD

H 407

H 413 H 404

N N

LAKE KUWAKATAI
H 405 H 406
AD HE H UT A D SO RO

N N

R NK MO

D OA

H 410

314

H 408
H SOUT

H 419 H 411 H 420 H 411

H 449

ROAD HEAD
D OA IR

RO AD

H TA IRE MA

cL EO D

DO UR D cM A M RO

OO

H 445

OO

R BE EB D W OA R
SHIN E RO AD

TE K AN ROA AE D

101 152

H 402

H 401 H 400 H 399


SO WIL N RO AD

SHELLY BEACH ROAD

812

SOUTH

H 403

N WILSO

D ROA

HEAD

RO AD

P P

TASMAN SEA LAKE KERETA


N SO IL W

H 444 H 409
KAIPARA LAKE RO AD

P P

101

4 4

5 5

152

6 6
Contact Council Regarding Known Land Hazards

H 442

7 7

8 8

A KUR ARE TUP ROAD

RO AD

Zones/Policy Areas
General Rural Landscape Protection Rural Dune Lakes Countryside Living Rural Countryside Living Town East Coast Rural Residential H (High Intensity) Residential M (Medium Intensity) Residential M (Township Policy Area) Residential EP (Eastern Peninsula) Residential PL (Physical Limitations) Residential L (Low Intensity) Residential LP (Landscape Protection) Retail Service Mixed Business Industrial Open Space 1 Open Space 2 Open Space 3 Open Space 4 Open Space 5 Special Zones Future Urban Islands General Inland Water (General) Inland Water (Protection) 3

Notations
Designation (see Appendix 15A)

Scheduled or Restricted Activity (see Rules 14.8.2 and 14.8.3) Protected Item (see Appendix 17A-17D, 18A to Rules) Future Esplanade Reserve or Strip (see Appendix 23A to Rules) Indicative Roads and Accessways (see Rules 16.11 and 23.8.13) Indicative Reserves (see Rules 16.11 and 23.8.13) Road to be Widened or Stopped (see plans at back of Maps) Boundary between Special Zones Boundary of Wharf/Mooring Area Airfield Height Boundary (see Appendix 1 to Maps) Structure Plan Areas (see Appendix 6 to Maps) HP Gas Pipelines (see note in front of Maps) HV Transmission Lines (see Rule 23.8.17 and note in front of Maps)

Auckland Council District Plan


10 11 12 17 18 19 23 24
0

(Rodney Section) 2011

MAP 18
Scale 1 : 40 000
400 800 1200 1600
Metres

13.1.3 GIS Analysis Improved ecological connections when compared with Christchurch Poor, waterlogging soils. Hydrology prominent, with a femoral stream running along the nor th west boundar y of my site. Native and exotic vegetation dominant throughout the region, providing good ecological connections when compared with Christchurch. Undulating topography.
0 0.75 1.5 3 4.5 6 Kilometers
Site Land Parcels Soil Typic Orthic Brown Typic Sandy Brown Peaty Orthic Gley Typic Orthic Gley Fluid Sulphuric Gley Acidic Orthic Granular Mellow Humic Organic Mottled-weathered Fluvial Typic Sandy Recent Yellow Albic Ultic Perch-gleyed Albic Ultic Typic Yellow Ultic Sandy Raw Estuary Lake

Site Land Parcels LCDB Afforestation Broadleaved Indigenous Hardwoods Forest Harvested Herbaceous Saline Vegetation Indigenous Forest Major Shelterbelts Mangrove Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Site Rivers and Streams Other Exotic Forest Pine Forest - Closed Canopy

0.75

1.5

4.5

6 Kilometers

Land Parcels Catchments

0.75

1.5

4.5

6 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Open Canopy Vineyard

131
13.2 Stage 2: Existing Plan Analysis

Existing layout is organised when compared with the Christchurch site. Sheds still standout instead of blending in with the surroundings. Sheds are still a dominant feature. This design only allows for 4 sheds, but would the expansion to six sheds still be viable on this site? Even though it is larger than the Christchurch site.

13.3

Stage 3: Site Analysis

A majority of the site contains good aspect for broiler sheds. Existing vegetation already surrounds the site with a swamp and femoral stream on the nor th west boundar y. An undulating site with the flatter areas being located within close proximity of the swamp and stream.
0 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 Kilometers
LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels

Site Land Parcels Flat (-1) North (0-22.5) Northeast (22.5-67.5) East (67.5-112.5) Southeast (112.5-157.5) South (157.5-202.5) Southwest (202.5-247.5) West (247.5-292.5)

Contours Site Land Parcels

Raster
Value
High : 89

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Northwest (292.5-337.5) North (337.5-360)

0 0.0275 0.055

0.11

0.165

0.22 Kilometers

Low : 0.999949

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13.4

13.3.1 Sun Analysis

Stage 4: Natural Energy Analysis

Morning

Noon

Af ternoon

5m

5m

5m

10

5m
10 m

5m

10

5m

10m

10m
10m

15m
15m

15m
Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

20

m
2 0m

20

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

25m
25m

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy

25m

Vineyard

13.4.1 Wind Analysis


Warm Winds Cold Winds

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest LCDB

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

0.05

0.1

0.2

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Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

135

13.5

Stage 5: Natural Energy Maximisation Diagram

The same diagram was utilised from design model 1 to identif y possible layout orientations the sheds, that identified the orientation direction for the sheds that would ma ximise all of the natural energy resources, which should significantly reduce the running costs of the sheds.

13.6

Stage 6: Shed Locations


[ [ [

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest LCDB

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed 0 0.05 Canopy 0.1 Vineyard

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest Canopy 0 - Closed 0.05 0.1 Vineyard

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

1.

Ground Floor

1. 1:2000

Ground Floor

1:2000

Layout direction for ma ximisation of renewable energy resources was determined (as seen on the right). However, this site dif fered form Christchurch as the proper ty owners wish to expand their farm by another 2 sheds in the near future. Af ter careful analysis into the site and its constraints (especially in relation to topography) I determined the site could not tolerate 6 sheds. Although it would be more beneficial for the farm economically, it would have negative impacts on the environment, society and animal welfare.

137

13.7

Stage 7: Contour relocation


[

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

For the sheds to be laid out ef fectively within the site, the existing landform will need to be altered. Af ter discussions with the shed designer (Gar y Swindale) he informed me the sheds are usually situated on the most level section of the site (as seen in the existing plan page 129). This reduces the amount of ear thworks required, ef fectively saving the owners money. However my design dif fers from this as it will utilise renewable energy resources to save on the running costs of the farm, meaning more money will need to be invested in the construction phases of the farm. The sheds on this site will need to follow the proposed contours and step down with the level changes across the site.

13.8

13.8.1 Income

Stage 8: Zoning

As per design model 1, the site was then divided into zones through natural energy catchment.

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

139
[

13.8.2 Living

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

13.8.3 Biodiversity/Eco-services
Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

141
[

13.8.4 Permaculture

Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

0.05

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

11
13.9

Model Testing
Stage 11: Design Model 2
B
Wetland pond Mixture of deciduous specimen trees with under planting of natives that tolerate wetland conditions

[
Plan Key
Native planting Concrete drive Rain gardens Permeable metal drive

Wetland pond

Broiler sheds Deciduous planting

Silos

Orchards Livestock paddocks Recreation areas

Silos Wetland/native plantings

Dwellings Intensive horticulture (vege gardens)


Contours Site Rivers and Streams Land Parcels LCDB Major Shelterbelts Manuka and or Kanuka Orchard and Other Perennial Crops Other Exotic Forest

Silos Wetland pond


0 0.0275 0.055 0.11 0.165 0.22 Kilometers

Pine Forest - Closed Canopy Vineyard

Silos Rain garden area also contains biomass heating, generator and employee facilities

on B-B
adapts with topography

Deciduous trees under planted with natives

8.000

0.000 1 Ground Floor

26.500

7.200

22.000

4.000

17.000

4.000

22.000

7.200

11.200

6.500

16.775

6.500

12.200

6.500

16.775

6.000

38.365

Section AA

Scale: 1:1500

1:1500

I n t e n s i v e F a r m D e s i g n M o d e l A u c Scale: k l 1:1500 a n@ A2 d

13.10 Stage 10: Cross Section B-B

Permeable metal drive

Permeable metal drive

Permeable metal drive

Permeable metal drive

Permeable metal drive

Permeable metal drive Rain gardens Permeable metal drive Broiler sheds with living roofs, solar panels and skylights Permeable metal drive

Deciduous planting

Scale: 1:750@ A3

143

13.11 Stage 11: Design Model 2 Achievements


Lower regions of the site will be utilised for wetlands and collection ponds that filter before entering the femoral stream and swampland. Rain gardens between the sheds will collect and filter water from washout of the sheds. Combination of living roofs and solar panels ma ximise catchment of the suns energy for power. Water will be collected from living roofs to irrigate plants in the warmer months. Steep slopes have been retired into native vegetation. Concrete drives will be located at the ends of sheds for access for heav y vehicles when removing or delivering wood chips and birds. The remainder of the drives are to be constructed with compacted lose metal. Sk ylights within living roofs will provide natural lighting for the chickens. Deciduous planting protects the broiler sheds, the orchard, the house and livestock from the hot summer sun and winds whilst letting the warm winds and sun through in winter. Intensive hor ticulture is placed within close proximity of the house. Livestock areas were located on the remaining level areas of the site. Easy access for larger vehicles is provided throughout the site. The site constraints limited the access to one route, but as it is located quite a distance from the house and protected with planting it shouldnt interrupt the residents. LPG heating will be replaced with Biomass heating facilities. Existing contours will be changed to allow the sheds to ma ximise catchment or renewable energies. Vegetation increases the amenity value of the site whilst improving the biodiversity within the site and region.

145

13.12 Stage 12: Planting

All plants will need to be selected based on the attributes as stated in section 7.4. Plant species need to be selected from the ecological district Warm Lowlands Ecosystems as stated in Native to the West. This design model contributes almost 6 hectares of native vegetation to the region. Again if other intensive farms within the surrounding region of my site were to utilise this model it would contribute even more biodiversity to the region. Shade analysis will also need to be carried out (as in 9.13) to determine what height of deciduous trees is required. The selection will also have to follow the guidelines as stated in 7.4 and 9.13.

Image retrieved from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia /commons/0/0f/Rain_forest_NZ.JPG

Picture retrieved from: http://www.wallpapergate.com/wallpaper2706.html

147

14.0 Design Model 2 Calculations

= Different site constraints

Topography + Water control + Proposed shed numbers

= Shows adaptability of model to different site conditions/parameters

Calculations
Total site area: 10.89ha
Vegetation Power consumption Power costs Heating kwh Heating costs (LPG to Biomass) Water collection Exisiting 0.640ha 225,600kwh $49,406.40 473,760kwh $112,818.05 None Proposed 6.7455ha 56,593.53 - 109,238.67kwh $0.00 203,641.6 - 393,220.8kwh $34,986.05 - $51,229.25 100,257l

Total shed area: 0.7250ha


Total $ savings $49,406.40 $61,588.80 - $77,832.00 Energy and $ savings per m2 3.73 - 12.50kwh $6.57 10.71 - 35.92kwh $8.19 - $10.35

Total $ savings for farm: $110,995.2 - $127,238.40 per year


The calculations of this site proved that my design model has the potential to provide savings no matter where it is situated within New Zealand. This farm has the potentials to achieve the same savings as the Christchurch model, but as it contains larger sheds it will achieve more savings.

149

15.0 Reflection

Through research I determined New Zealand has a high dependence on Agriculture for employment and exports. As a landscape architect I also came to the realisation that as a profession we have had minimal or no input into the design of intensive farms. In depth discussions with poultry industry members also confirmed that they realise the impacts their unsustainable meat production is having on the environment; and the importance of continued supply of affordable meat to the growing world population, especially within less fortunate countries. It was these issues along with my family history in agriculture construction that led me to believe that a blend of landscape design and sustainability is required to improve the overall issues of intensive farming. It was this rationale of thinking that drove my research project. As seen within this report you come to the realisation of the complex issues surrounding intensive farms, animal welfare being one of the main issues. My exploration into this exposed the complex interrelationships between animal welfare, the environment, society and economics (quadruple bottom line issues). It also confirmed that broiler shed sites are a complex network of systems that needed to be approached in a systematic manner to improve all of the negative aspects of intensive farming. Systems approaches like industrial ecology, permaculture and cradle to cradle identified aspects that were utilised within my design model. In particular these were utilisation of waste from other industries, supply of waste to other industries, zero waste output and minimisation of nonrenewable resource usage. This highlighted the importance of utilising different landscape design interventions (rain gardens, deciduous planting, living roofs etc) in a systematic way to achieve a design model that improved the quadruple bottom line issues. By approaching my design this way it enabled me to expose the current linear metabolism of these

existing intensive farm sites in comparison with the complex metabolism of my design model. It identified the improvements my design model could achieve with the interconnections and profitability of my intensive farming sites. I believe that through my research, design interventions and systems approach to intensive farming you can see the future this model has for the profession of landscape architects. It successfully mitigated the on site issues of intensive broiler shed farming, with positive impacts on the surrounding communities and biodiversity. Intensive farming is a complex web of functions and facilities that contribute to the final meat product. Within the chicken meat industry there are: Breeder sheds that produce the eggs for hatching. Hatcheries that hatch all of the chickens and supply them to the broiler sheds. Broiler sheds (the main focus of my studies) that rear the chickens for 6-8 weeks for meat products. Processing plants that process all of the chickens into meat products. And food supply for all chickens. My design model is unique as it is a realistic model that deals with individual sites and has the potential to be implemented within other sectors of chicken farming or even other intensive farming sectors (i.e. pig farming). By improving every site that is involved in the intensive farming process utilising this design model, landscape architects could potentially contribute to the improved sustainability of these farms. This could also positively reflect on society as they could potentially embrace intensive farming as the solution to feeding the growing populations. Currently the government is initiating the National Science Challenge. This is a movement that seeks to utilise sciences to intensify agriculture to earn more money off the

land. Although sciences play an important role in agriculture I believe it is through a combination of science and the holistic landscape systems approach into intensive farming that we can achieve the most beneficial improvements to the quadruple bottom line issues of intensive farming. I also read an article on Helen Clark who recently attended the Rio + 20 conference. She sees a future for New Zealand in sustainable environmental management, and it is our expertise in land based production that could lead the world into sustainable food production. (McNicholas, 2012) She believes you cant deal with the environment if the people are poor and the world is inequitable...you have to deal with these things together (McNicholas, 2012) I feel that by utilising the holistic landscape systems approach I have produced a unique design model that values the farmers and industrys perspective whilst continuing to provide profits for them. It is a realistic model that creates employment opportunities, improves quadruple bottom line issues whilst assuring the continued supply of affordable meat to the world. Proving that landscape architecture could effectively contribute our expertise to the sustainability of agricultural production throughout the world. I am not saying that intensive farming is the only way solution to the world food crisis, but it is here to stay for the foreseeable future and I believe I have designed a model that improves the sustainability of intensive farms that could be achieved within the near future. New Zealanders alone consume over 70 million chickens every year, so improved approaches to the production of this meat resource is required. I believe that landscape architects can play a much larger role in working with design of agricultural landscapes to achieve positive contributions to sustainability and improved production outcomes.

151

16.0 Conclusion

Food Landscapes: A smart, profitable Design Model for improved sustainability in Intensive Farming
The focus of my research was to highlight the contribution landscape architecture can provide to improvement of intensive farming. This has effectively been achieved ameliorating the current production methods, perceptions and aesthetics of intensive farming, to produce a sustainable design model that effectively shifts most if not all negative aspects into positives.

153

17.0 Future

The industr y has identified changes need to be made to improve the sustainability of intensive farms

There are potentials for this design model

Fur ther work to extend this research project would include quantification of cost of construction of design model (rain gardens, living roofs, solar panels and biomass heating) in comparison with the standard cost of broiler shed construction

Calculate life-cycle costs in order to assess the extra cost of this design model

Present the design model to industr y leaders and conferences like VIV Asia 2013

Fur ther research into quantif ying the effects the design model has on the general public perceptions of intensive farming and the welfare of chickens within the sheds

Fur ther research into the improved sustainability of supply of food for the chickens

155

18.0 References

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McDonough, W., & Braungart, M. (2002). Cradle to cradle: remaking the way we make things. North Point Press, New York, U.S.A. Resource Management Act, (2002). Poultry Production and the Resource Management Act. Retrieved May 10, 2012 from: www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/rma/poultry-and-rma-jun02.pdf Selwyn District Council, (2012). Biodiversity - What is it?. Retrieved April 20, 2012 from: Spark Energy, (2012). Heat with woodchip boilers. Retrieved July 7, 2012 from: http://www.sparkenergy.co.nz/Spark_Energy/Efficient_wood_heating_for_business.html Statistics NZ, (2010). Agricultural Production Statistics: June 2010 (final). Retrieved April 20, 2011 from: http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/industry_sectors/agriculture-horticulture forestry/AgriculturalProduction_HOTPJun10final/Commentary.aspx Tauger, M. (2010). Agriculture in World History. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis Tegel, (2012). Our poultry. Retrieved July 15, 2012 from: http://www.tegel.co.nz/our-poultry Torcellini, P., Pless, S., Deru, M. & Crawley, D., (2006). Zero Energy Buildings: A Critical Look at the Definition. Retrieved July 10, 2012 from: www.nrel.gov/sustainable_nrel/pdfs/39833.pdf Vasey, D., (1992). An Ecological History of Agriculture. Iowa State University Press, U.S.A. Waimakariri District Council, District Plan, Chapter 14, Rural Zones. Retrieved June 11, 2012 from: http://www.waimakariri.govt.nz/services/planning-resource-consents/district_plan.aspx