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LEGAL MEDICINE : GENERAL CONSIDERATION Legal Medicine is a branch of medicine which deals with the application of medical knowledge

e to the purposes of law and in the administration of justice. Legal medicine Application of medicine to legal cases. Forensic medicine Application of medical science to elucidate legal problems. Medical jurisprudence Knowledge of law in relation to the practice of medicine. SCO E: Application of medical and paramedical sciences as demanded by law and administration of justice. NAT!RE OF T"E ST!D# OF LEGAL MED: - The ability to ac uire facts! arrange them and draw a conclusion from facts in the administration of justice. Medical juris$% Medical e&aminer% Medicolegal o''icer% Medicolegal e&per$ - A physician who speciali"es primarily with medico-legal duties. - #mhotep $%&' (.). earliest medico-legal e*pert. DIFFERENCE : a+ #njury,-isease point of .iew b+ /*amine a patient c+ 0inor injuries ORDINAR# "#SICIAN Treatment -iagnose #gnored MEDICO(LEGAL OFFICER )ause Testify , justice 1ecords all , ualify crime

RINCI LE OF STARE DECISIS: - 2hen the court has once laid an interpretation of law as applied to certain facts! it will adhere to and apply to all future cases where the facts are substantially the same. )ASIC RINCI LES GO*ERNING A LICATION AND EFFECTS OF LA+S: 3. 4#gnorantia legis nominem e*cusat 4 pre.ent use as defense in .iolation $. Law shall ha.e no retro-acti.e effect. 5. 1ights may be wai.ed! unless the is contrary to law! public order! public policy! morals or good customs! or prejudiced to a third person with a right recogni"ed by law. 6. )ustoms which are contrary to law! public order or public policy shall not be countenanced. 7. Laws are repealed by subse uent ones! and their .iolation or non-obser.ance shall not be e*cused by dis-use! custom or practice to the contrary. ersons au$,ori-ed $o per'orm au$opsies: 3. 8ealth 9fficers $. 0edical officer of law enforcement agencies. 5. 0embers of the medical staff of accredited hospitals. Au$opsies s,all .e per'ormed in $,e 'ollo/ing cases. 3. 1e uired by special laws $. 9rder of competent court! mayor! fiscal 5. 2ritten re uest of police officers 6. :ol;en! fiscal disinter to determine cause of death. 7. 2ritten re uest of nearest kin to ascertain cause of death. MEDICAL E*IDENCE - is the means sanctioned by the rules of court of ascertaining in a judicial proceeding the truth respecting a matter of fact. T0pes o' e1idence: 3. Autoptic or 1eal e.idence made known to the senses $. Testimonial e.idence oral under oath 5. /*perimental e.idence 6. -ocumentary e.idence Me$,ods o' preser1ing e1idence: 3. <hoto! .ideotape!photocopy 6.0anikin method $. :ketching 7.#n the mind of the witness 5.-escription =. :pecial methods: embalming

DECE TION AND DETECTION Knowledge of truth is important in the administration of justice! lies solely in the ability to e.aluate the statement gi.en by the suspect or witness. Me$,ods o' decep$ion de$ec$ion: 3. -e.ices which record the psycho-physiological response: a+ >se of a polygraph or lie detector machine b+ 2ord association test c+ <sychological stress e.aluator $. >se of drugs that try to 4 inhibit the inhibitor? a+ Administration of the truth serum b+ @arcoanalysis or @arcosynthesis c+ #nto*ication 5. 8ypnotism 6. (y obser.ation 7. :cientific interrogation =. )onfession I2 RECORDING OF S#C"O( "#SIOLOGICAL RES ONSE @er.ous control )@:,A@: :ym,<ara: :ympathetic influenced by physical and emotional stimuli! effects <arasympathetic works to restore things A. >se of a Lie -etector or <olygraph A The fear of the subject when not telling the truth acti.ates the symp. A To a series of automatic and in.oluntary physiological changes which are recorded by the instrument. A >se of control uestions B 0ost reliable C effecti.e uestioning techni ue. A :upplemetary tests: a. <eak of tension test - peak of tension on rele.ant uestions b. ;uilt comple* test - does not response to added rele.ant uest. c. :ilent answer test - subject .erbal response creates distortion in the tracing or clearing of the throat. Reason 'or admissi.ili$0 $o $,e cour$ o' $,e resul$ o' ol0grap, e&am : 3. 8a.e not recei.ed the degree of standardi"ation of acceptance. $. Trier of fact is apt to gi.e almost conclusi.e weight to the e*perts opinion 5. @o way to assure the a ualified e*aminer administered the test. 6. 0ay wai.e right against self-incrimination. 7. #t has many errors. Fac$ors responsi.le $o 345 errors: 3. @er.ousness e*perienced by a subject who is telling the truth - apprehension by the fact that he is a suspect. -*iety to cooperate $. <hysiological abnormalities B (< inc. or dec.! )ardiac prob. 5. 0ental abnormalities 6. >nreponsi.eness in a guilty subject no fear of detection 7. Attempt to beat the machine )an a person be compelledD @o! use of intelligence and other faculties. (. 2ord association test: -Time between the words uttered by the e*aminer and the answer of the subject is recorded. ). <sychological :tress /.aluator - when a person is under stress,lying! the microtremor in the .oice utterance is moderately or completely suppressed. - degree of suppression .aries in.ersely to degree of psychological stress II2 !SE OF DR!GS T"AT IN"I)IT T"E IN"I)ITOR - @ot admissible in court

A. Administration of truth serum - 8yocine hydrobromide gi.en hypodermically until state of delirium which the subject feels a compulsion to answer the uestion truthfully. (. @arcoanalysis or @arcosynthesis - :odium amytal or sodium penthotal ). #nto*ication with alcohol - #n wine there is truth III2 "# NOSIS - alteration of consciousness! not all subjects can be hypnoti"ed I*2 O)SER*ATION <hysiological and psychological signs and symptoms of guilt: a+ :weating! color change b+ -ryness of the mouth c+ /*cessi.e acti.ity of adams apple d+ Eidgetting e+ <eculiar feeling inside f+ :wearing! spotless past record g+ #nability to look at the in.estigator *2 INTERROGATION - emotional appeal! mutt and jeff techni ue *I2 CONFESSION - e*pressed acknowledgement of his guilt. TO6#O DECLARATION - contains guidelines to be obser.ed by physician concerning torture! inhuman and degrading punishment. MEDICO(LEGAL AS ECTS OF IDENTIFICATION - determination of the indi.iduality of a person Impor$ance o' iden$i'0ing a person: 3. #n the prosecution of a crime! the identity of the offender and .ictim. $. :ettlement of estates! retirement! insurance 5. an*iety of nest of kin. 6. #n some transactions sales! release of dead body Rules in personal iden$i'ica$ion: 3. Law of multiplicity of e.idence in identification greater number of similarities $. Falue of different points of identification fingerprints ! moles Fisual recognition of lesser .alue than fingerprints,dental 5.The longer between death the more e*perts are needed in establishing the identity. 6.The team to act in shortest time because it is perishable. 7. @o rigid rule in the procedure of identification of the person. 0ethods of identification: 3. (y comparison #d found in the crime scene compared with the file. $. (y e*clusion IDENTIFICATION OF ERSONS A2 Ordinar0 me$,ods o' iden$i'ica$ion 3. )haracteristics which may easily be changed: a+ growth of hair! beard d+ grade of profession b+ clothing e+ body ornamentations c+ fre uent place of .isit $. )haracteristics that may not be easily be changed: a+ mental memory f+ hands and feet b+ speech g+ comple*ion c+ gait h+ changes in the eyes

d+ mannerism i+ facies e+ handedness-left ,right j+ degree of nutrition oin$s o' iden$i'ica$ion applica.le $o .o$, li1ing and dead .e'ore onse$ o' Decomposi$ion: 3. 9ccupational marks painters ha.e stains $. 1ace: 0alay:brown! flat nose round face! 1ound head! 2earing apparel 5. :tature: Tips of middle fingers of both hands e*tended laterally 6. Tatoo marks 7. 2eight not good point changes from time to time =. -eformities! injuries permanent deformities G. (irth marks moles! scar Age of :car: 1ecently formed: :lightly ele.ated! reddish,bluish! tender to touch Eew week-$ months: #nflammatory redness! soft! sensiti.e $ = months: brownish! free from contraction! soft B = months: white! glistening! contracted! tough :car formation is delayed by: sepsis! age! depth of wound! mobility 0ay not de.elop mall! superficial! healed by first intention. &. Tribal marks! :e*ual organs! blood e*am ANT"RO OMETR# 7 )ERTILLON S#STEM8 Alp,onse )er$illon - utili"es anthropometrical measurement of the human body for identification. (asis: 3. 8uman skeleton is unchangeable after $' years. $. @o two human beings ha.e e*actly the same bones. 5. >se of simple instrument #nformation: 3. -escripti.e data color of hair! eyes! shape of noseH $. (ody marks 5. Anthropometric measurement height 6. 0easurement of the head! limbs <ortait <arle I spoken picture+ pictures ue description of a person /*trinsic factors in identification: 3. ornamentation $. personal belongings 5. wearing apparel 6. foreign bodies 7. identification by close friends! police records! photographs Lig,$ as a 'ac$or in iden$i'ica$ion: 3. )learest moonlight A Less than 3=-3G yards :tarlight A Less than3'-35 yards $. (road daylight A @ot farther than 3'' yards not seen before Almost strangers Arecogni"ed at $7 yards 5. Elash of firearm A $ inches letters can be read with the aid of the flash of $$ caliber at a distance of $ feet. 6. Elash of lightning sufficient light to identify 7. Artificial light relati.e to the intensity of light )2 Scien$i'ic me$,ods o' iden$i'ica$ion 3. Eingerprinting $. -ental identification 5. handwriting 6. #dentification of skeleton 7. -etermination of :e*! Age =. #dentification of blood! blood stains G. #dentification of hair! fibers 92 FINGER RINTING A most .aluable method of identification.

a+ @o two identical fingerprints 3 : =6!'''! '''! ''' b+ @ot changeable - 6th month formed in the fetus A <ractical uses a+ #dentity of dead bodies b+ <rints reco.ered at crime scene c+ <rints on file for comparison d+ 1ight thumb print is substitute for signature A -A)TJL9;1A<8J : art and study of recording fingerprints as means of id. A -A)TJL9:)9<J: art of id by comparison of fingerprints A <919:)9<J : study of pores found on the pappillary friction ridges of skin Eingerprints canKt be effaced: Aas long as the dermis of the bulbs of the finger is not completely destroyed. 32 DENTAL IDENTIFICATION A possibility of $ persons to ha.e the same is remote A enamel is the hardest substance of the body! outlast other tissues in putrifaction :2 "AND+RITING A (#(L#9T#) : :cience of handwriting analysis A ;1A<89L9;J : study of handwriting for the purpose of determining the writers personality! character and aptitude. ;2 IDENTIFICATION OF T"E S6ELETON human shape! si"e! general nature single indi.idual plurality or e*cess of bones 8eight add 3 to 3 L in. for the soft tissues <earsonKs formula for the reconstruction of the stature of long bones Topinard and Rolle$ A two Erench anatomist de.ised a formula for the determination of the height fro males and females. "ump,re0<s $a.le A Table of different height of bones for different ages and their corresponding statures. Manou1rier made the following co-efficient for the determination of height. De$ermina$ion o' se& o' $,e s=ele$on: a+ < d+ Eemur b+ :kull e+ 8umerus c+ :ternum Di''erence .e$/een Male 3+ )onstruction 2all $+ 8eight 5+ <ubic arch 6+ -iameter of the true 7+ )ur.e of iliac crest =+ ;reater :ciatic notch G+ (ody of pubis &+ #liopectineal line %+ 9bturator foramen 3'+ :acrum CRANI!M 3+ :haft $+ 0astoid process 5+ cranium placed hori"ontally rest on


Female Lighter Less pronounced Lesser 2ider,rounder ;reater Lower le.el 2ide 2ider 1ounded triangular Long and wide FEMALE more cur.e smaller occipitalC ma*illary bones

8ea.ier 0ore pronounced ;reater @arrow C less round Less 1eaches higher le.el @arrow @arrow :harp /gg-shaped :hort and narrow MALE less cur.e larger mastoid process

6+ :tyloid process 7+ Eorehead =+ :uperciliary ridges G+ Mygomatic arches &+ Lower jaw %+ Eace

shorter higher! more obli ue less sharp! more rounded more prominent larger C wider larger in proportion to cranium

longer,slender less high! more .ertical sharper less prominent narrower and lighter smaller

-etermination of the duration of interment: - All soft tissues in a gra.e disappear within one year. (asis of the estimate fro duration of interment: 3+ <resence or absence of soft tissue adherent to the bones. $+ Eirmness and weight! brittleness! dryness of the bones. 5+ -egree of erosion of the surface of the bones. 6+ )hanges in the clothings! coffin! and painting. 42 IDENTIFICATION OF SE> Test to determine the se*: 3. :ocial test $. ;enital test 5. ;onadal test 6. )hromosomal test barr cells in females /.idences of se*: 3. <resumpti.e e.idence A ;eneral features! hair in some parts A Trans.estism se*ual de.iation by desire to assume the attire and be accepted as a member of the opposite se*. $. 8ighly probabale A .agina! large breast 5. )onclusi.e e.idence A o.ary in females ?2 DETERMINATION OF AGE Legal impor$ance a+ Aid to identification b+ -etermination of criminal liability c+ -etermination of right of suffrage d+ -etermination whether a person can e*ercise rights e+ -etermination of the capacity to marriage f+ 1e uisite to certain crimes De$ermina$ion o' age o' 'e$us: "ess<s rule or "aase<s rule a+ Eetus of less than $7 cm long- get s uare root of length in cm! result in months b+ B $7 cm- di.ide the length of the fetus by 7 and the result is the age in month. @2 IDENTIFICATION OF )LOOD AND )LOOD STAINS Legal impor$ance: a+ -isputed parentage b+ )ircumstantial e.idence against perpetrator of a crime c+ -etermination of the cause of death d+ -etermination of the direction of the escape e+ -etermination of the appropriate time crime was committed f+ -etermination of the place of the crime g+ -etermination of the presence of certain diseases. ,0sical e&amina$ion a+ :olubility test b+ 8eat test

c+ Luminescence test: 5 amino-phtalic-acid-hydra"ide-8)L! :odium pero*ide! distilled water (luish-white in a dark room C,emical e&amina$ion: a+ :aline e*tract of the blood plus ammonia brownish B alkaline hematin b+ (en"idine test blue color in white filter paper c+ ;uaiacum test I Fan -eenKs -yas or :chombeinKs test+ - blue d+ <henolpthalein test I Kastle-0eyer test+ - pink e+ Leucomalachite ;reen test Microscopic e&amina$ion - saline e*tract of stain 0icro-chemical tests: 3. 8emochromogen crystal or Takayama test: $. TeichmannKs blood crystals or 8emin crystal testA :odium chloride dark brown rhombic prisms of chloride! hematin formed A best of the micro-chemical test. 5. Acetone-haemin or 2agenhaar test Spec$rospcopic e&amina$ion - blood pigments ha.e the power to absorb light of certain length and produce the characteristic absorption bands on the spectrum. A Eresh blood o*yhgb! 8gb! reduced hematin A olders stains methemoglobin! alkaline hematin )iologic e&amina$ions 3. <recipitin test blood is human or not $. (lood grouping Age of blood stains: 8gb con.erted to 0ethgb of hematin red to red-brown A warm weather- within $6 hours A2 IDENTIFICATION OF "AIR AND FI)ERS -ifferences between hair forcibly e*tracted and naturally shed hair: - bulb is irregular ! undulating surface! e*crescence of diff! si"e and shape "AIR "!MAN ANIMAL Medulla 3. Air network #n fine grains large or small sacks $. )ells #n.isible w,out t* in 8$9 /asily .isible 5. Eu"" w,out medulla Eu"" w, medulla Cor$e& 3. $. Cu$icle 3. Looks like a thick muff <igments in the form of fine grains thin scales Eairy thin hollow cylinder irregular grains thick scale

MEDICO(LEGAL AS ECTS OF DEAT" Impor$ance o' Dea$, de$ermina$ion: 3! The personality of a natural person is e*tinguished by death. $.The property of a person is transmitted to his heirs at the time of death. 5. The death of a partner is one of the causes of dissolution of partnership agreement. 6. The death of either the principal or agent is a mode of e*tinguishment of agency. 7. The criminal liability is e*tinguish by death. =. The case fro claims which does not sur.i.e is dismissed upon death of the defendant. Dea$, B is the termination of life. 6inds o' dea$,: 3. :omatic or clinical death persistence of .ital functions $. 0olecular or cellular death 5 to si* hours after cessation of life

5. Apparent death or :tate of suspended animation transient loss of consciousness in hysteria! uremia! electric shock Signs o' dea$,: 92 Cessa$ion o' ,ear$ ac$ion and circula$ion.! >sually the auricle contract after somatic death fro a longer period than the .entricle! last to stop so called !LTIMEN MARIENS2 Methods of detecting the cessation of heart action and circulation: a+ /*amination of the heart- pulse! aucultation! flouro! /); b+ /*amination of peripheral circulation A 0agnus test application of ligature around the base of the finger - bloodless area at site of application - dead man no change A 9pening of small artery- spurting A #cards test injection of flourescein :N - greenish yellow discoloration in the whole skin - dead man only in the area of injection A <ressure on fingernails A -iaphanous test fingers are spread wide through a strong light- 1ed A Application of heat on the skin - blister A <alpation of 1adial pulse A -ropping of melted wa* 32 Cessa$ion o' respira$ion B more than 5 L minutes 0ethods of detecting cessation of respiration: a+ 9bser.ance of mo.ement of chest and abdomen b+ 2ith the aid of stet. c+ /*amination with a mirror d+ /*amination with a feather or cotton fibers e+ /*amination with a glass of water f+ 2inslowKs test no mo.ement in the image formed by reflecting artificial light on the water in a saucer and placed in the chest if respiration is taking place. :2 Cooling o' $,e .od0 7 ALGOR MORTIS8 - After death the metabolic process inside the body ceases. - The progressi.e fall of the body temp. is one of the most prominent signs. - Eirst two hours after death the cooling is rapid. - Eall of temp. of 37 to $' degrees Eahrenheit is considered as a certain sign of death. OST(MORTEM CALORICIT# is the rise of temp. of the body after death due to rapid and early putrefacti.e changes. >sually in the first $ hours. A seen in cholera! abscess! tetanus! 1E!:trynine poisoning! <eritonitis A2 Condi$ions connec$ed /i$, $,e .od0: Eactors delaying the rate of cooling of the body: 3. Acute pyre*ial disease $. :udden death in good health 5. 9besity of person 6. -eath from asphy*ia 7. -eath of the middle age Eactors accelerating cooling: 3. Leaness of the body $. /*treme age 5. Long-standing illness 6. )hronic pyre*ial disease with wasting )2 Condi$ions $,a$ are connec$ed /i$, $,e surroundings Eactors delaying cooling: 3. )lothings $. 2ant of access of air to the body

5. :mall room 6. 2arm surroundings Eactors accelerating cooling: 3. >nclothed body $. )onditions allowing the access of air 5. Large room permitting the dissipation of heat 6. )ooling more rapid in water than in air Me$,ods o' es$ima$ing ,o/ long a person ,as .een dead 'rom $,e cooling o' $,e .od0: 3. #f body temp. is normal at the time of death: A the a.erage rate of fall of the temp. during the first $ L hours is L of the difference of the body temperature and that of the air. A the body attains the temp. of the surrounding air from 3$ to 37 hours after death in tropical countries. $. )hemical 0ethod I :chourupKs formula for the determination of the time of death of any whose ):E is e*amined for the concentrations of L.A.! @<@! A.A. A L.AB 37 mg to $'' mg,3''cc rapid in 3st 7 hours. A @<@ inc. from 37 to 6' mg,3'' cc in 3st 37 hours A A.A. inc. from 3 mg to 3$ mgO 3st 37 hours. ;2 INSENSI)ILIT# OF T"E )OD# AND LOSS OF O+ER TO MO*E A may be seen in the with- apople*y! epilepsy ! trance! catalepsy! hysteria 42 C"ANGES IN T"E S6IN B opacity! flattening! loss of elasticity ?2 C"ANGES IN AND A)O!T T"E E#E a+ Loss of corneal refle* seen # n li.e pts: ;.A.! uremia! narcotic poisoning b+ )louding of cornea c+ Elaccidity of the eyeball d+ <upil in the position of rest. e8 TAC"E NOIR DE LA SCLEROTIC!E B spot found in the sclera after death. @2 ACTION OF "EAT ON T"E S6IN A 8eat applied while ali.e produced blister with serum and redness around the area. A Eollowing combinations of signs show death has occurred: a+ Loss of animal heat to a point not compatible with life b+ Absence of response of muscle stimulus c+ 9nset of rigor mortis. C"ANGES IN T"E )OD# FOLLO+ING DEAT" 92 C"ANGES IN T"E M!SCLE B complete rela*ation of the whole muscular system. T,ree S$ages A'$er Dea$,: a8 S$age o' primar0 'laccidi$0 7 OST(MORTEM IRRITA)ILIT#8 A muscle rela*! may contract! dilated pupil! sphincters are rela*ed A presence of molecular life A warm place: 3 hour and 73 minutes A chemical reaction of muscle is alkaline .8 S$age o' pos$(mor$em rigidi$0 7 CADA*ERIC RIGIDIT# % DEAT" STR!GGLE OF M!SCLES OR RIGOR MORTIS8 A whole body is rigid due to contraction of the muscles A starts at muscle of neck! lower jaw A 1eaction is acidic due to inc. of lactic acid A de.elops 5 to = hours after death in temperate! earlier in warm A last from $ to 5 days in temperate! warm: $6-6&8 cold weather 3&-5=8 summer c8 S$age o' Secondar0 'laccidi$0 or Commencemen$ o' pu$re'ac$ion 7 DECA# OF M!SCLES+ A muscle are flaccid! not respond to stimuli! reaction is alkaline A due to dissolution of muscle proteins FACTORS INFL!ENCING T"E TIME OF ONSET OF RIGOR MORTIS

798 In$ernal Fac$ors a+ :tate of the muscles A healthy appears late A 9nset is hastened in: a.3 hunted animal a.$ prolonged con.ulsion,lingering illness a.5 death from- TJ! )holera! <hthisis! typhus b+ Age A early onset aged and newborn A delayed good health! good muscular de.elopment c+ #ntegrity of A section of the ner.e will delay onset! paraly"ed muscle 738 E&$ernal 'ac$ors a+ Temperature A 8astened by high temperature A B G7 degrees will produce heat stiffening b+ 0oisture A rapidly but with short duration in moist air Condi$ions simula$ing RIGOR MORTIS: 3. 8eat stiffening - B G7 degrees coagulates muscle proteins resulting to rigidity. A 4 <ugilistic attitude? fle*ed upper and lower limb A hands clenched! fle*or stronger than e*tensors! burned to death $. )old stiffening A due to solidification of fats when e*posed to cold temp. 5. )ada.eric spasm or #nstantaneous 1igor A instantaneous rigidity due to e*treme ner.ous tension! e*haustion! injury to the ner.ous system. A weapon in hand! weeds 3. Time of appearance $. 0uscles in.ol.ed 5. 9ccurrence 6. 0edico-legal signif. 3. )ontracted muscle $. /lasticity 5. Litmus reaction 6. )ontraction RIGOR MORTIS 5-=8 after death All muscles @atural phenomena Appro*imates time of death RIGOR MORTIS Losses transparency Loss elasticity Acidic Absolute flaccidity CADA*ERIC S ASM #mmediately after death )ertain group 0ay or may not appear -etermine nature of death

M!SCLE CONTRACTION 0ore or less transparent Fery elastic @eutral or sl. alkaline <ossess inherent contraction

32 C"ANGES IN T"E )LOOD a+ )oagulation of blood A blood may remains fluid inside the blood .essels =-&8 after death. ANTE(MORTEM CLOT OST(MORTEM CLOT 3. )onsistency Eirm :oft $. :urface of blood .essels 1aw after clots are remo.ed :mooth! health after 5. )lots 8omogenousP canKt be stripped )an be stripped off in layers b+ <ost-mortem Li.idity or )ada.eric Li.idity ! or <ost-mortem :uggilation or <ost-mortem 8ypostasis or Li.or 0ortis A :toppage of heart action and loss of tone of b... accumulates in dependent areas e*cept in bony areas. A capillaries coalesce B purplish in color called os$(mor$em li1idi$0. A 8asten by death due to cholera! uremia! Typhus


A appears 5 = 8 after death and fully de.eloped 3$ 8 after death. ,0sical c,arac$eris$ics o' os$(mor$em Cada1eric Li1idi$0 3. 9ccurs in the most dependent areas. $. the superficial layer of the skin 5. -oes not appear ele.ated from the rest of the skin. 6. )olor is uniform. 7. @o injury of the skin 6inds o' os$(mor$em Cada1eric Li1idi$0 3. 8ypostatic li.idity $. -iffusion li.idity Impor$ance o' Cada1eric li1idi$0: 3. 9ne of the signs of death. $. -etermines the position of the body has been changed after itKs appearance in the body. 5. )olor of li.idity may indicate the cause of death. a+ asphy*ia li.idity is dark b+ )9 poisoning pink c+ 8emorrhage less marked d+ 8ydrocyanic acid bright red e+ <hosphorus dark brown f+ <otassium chlorate coffee brown 6. -etermines how long the person has been dead 7. ; us an idea as to the time of death. oin$s $o .e considered /,ic, ma0 in'er $,e posi$ion o' $,e .od0 a$ $,e $ime o' dea$,: 3. <osture of the body when found. $. <ost-mortem hypostasis or li.idity 5. )ada.eric spasm CONT!SION 7)R!ISE8 OST(MORTEM "# OSTASIS 3. :mall bruises larger ones $. )uticle 5. (ruise 6. 7. (elow epidermis in true skin below this Abraded by the same .iolence that produce the bruise. Appears at the seat or surrounding may or may not be dependent /le.ated! inflammatory condition #n the epidermis or cutis >nabraded Always dependent @ot ele.ated! blood in b...

#ncision shows blood outside the b... (lood inside the .essels A most certain test of difference =. )olor .ariegated >niform color In$ernal ,0pos$asis in *isceral organs: 3. Lungs $. Loops of intestine 5. (rain OST(MORTEM LI*IDIT# OF ORGANS SIM LE CONGESTION 3. <ost-mortem staining in organs #rregular! most dependent parts >niform! all organs $. 0ucous membrane -ull!lusterless @ot in congestion 5. #nflammatory e*udate @ot seen @ot seen 9ther changes in the blood 3. 8ydrogen ion concentration acid p8 )9$! L.A.! After $68 alkaline ammonia. $. (reakdown of glycogen leads to accumulation of de*trose in the #F) and the right side of the heart. 5. 1ise in @<@ and Eree A.A. 6. )hemical:


A chloride in the plasma,1() decrease due to e*tra.ascular diffusion! in G$ 8 only L of its content. A 0g increases due to diffusion from without. A K increases due to diffusion from the .ascular endothelium. :2 A!TOL#TIC OR A!TODIGESTI*E C"ANGES AFTER DEAT" - After death! proteolytic! glycolyticClipolytic ferments of the glandular tissues continue to act w,c lead to the autodigestn of organs. ;2 !TREFACTION OF T"E)OD# ( #s the breaking down of comple* proteins into simpler components associated with the e.olution of foul smelling gasses and accompanied by the change of color of the body. Tissue c,anges in pu$re'ac$ion: 92 C,anges in $,e color o' $,e $issue 8emolysis of blood within blood .essels B 8gb diffuses through the walls 1eddish-brown in color #n the tissues B 8gb undergo chemical change ;reenish-yellow 3st seen at 1 #liac fossa MAR)OLIDATION B prominence of the superficial .eins with reddish discoloration which de.elops on both flanks of the abdomen! neck! and shoulder A look like 4marbled? reticule of branching .eins. 32 E1olu$ion o' gasses in $,e $issues )9$! ammonia! 8$! :uphurated hydrogen! methaneA offensi.e odor /ffects of pressure of gasses of putrefaction: a+ displacement of the blood bleeding in open wounds b+ bloating of the body c+ fluid coming out from nostrils! mouth d+ e*trusion of the fetus in a uterus e+ floating of the body :2 LiEue'ac$ion o' $,e so'$ $issues <utrefy rapidly : /yeball! lining of trachea! laryn* ! brain! stomach! intestine!! spleen <utrefy late : 8ighly muscular organs and tissues! /sophagus! diaphragm! heart! lungs! kidneys! >.(.! uterus! <.;. Fac$ors modi'0ing $,e RATE o' pu$re'ac$ion: 3. #@T/1@AL EA)T91: a+ age : healthy adults! @( not yet fed! later than infants b+ condition of body : full grown,obese rapid ! :tillborn- late c+ cause of death : infection - rapid $. /QT/1@AL EA)T91: a+Eree air a.3 air : free air hastens decomposition a.$ moderate moisture - accelerates a.5 loaded with septic bacteria early aerobes! later anaerobic - )lostridium welchiiA decomposition b+ /arth b.3 dry absorbent soil - retards b.$ moist fertile soil - accelerates c+ 1unning water- more rapid than still water d+ )lothings early it hastens but delays in the later stage. - tight clothings - delay Fac$ors in'luencing $,e c,anges in $,e .od0 a'$er .urial: 3. state of the body before death thin slower! mummify $. time elapsed between death and burial and en.ironment of the body 5. effect of coffin later 6. clothings and other co.erings on the body when buried pressure! insects 7. depth at which the body was buried - greater the later =. condition and type of soil G. inclusion of something in the gra.e which will hasten decomposition-food


&. access of air to the body after burial %. mass gra.e rapid 3'. trauma to the body .iolent death - slow C"RONOLOGICAL SEC!ENCE OF !TREFACTI*E C"ANGES OCC!RING IN TEM ERATE REGIONS 3-5 -AJ: AET/1 -/AT8 - greenish discoloration iliac fossa! soft eyeballs 5-7 -AJ: - frothy blood from mouth! nostrils &-3' -AJ: - abdominal distention! nails firm 36-$' -AJ: - blisters all the body! maggots $-7 09@T8: - skull e*posed! orbits empty IN TRO ICAL REGION 3$ 89>1: 1igor mortis all! hypostasis! greenish-discoloration caecum $6 89>1: 1igor mortis absent all! abdominal distention 6& 8 9.a of flies! trunk bloated! face discolored G$ 8 2hole body grossly swollen! hairs and nails loose 9@/ 2//K :oft .iscera putrefied T29 2//K: :oft tissues largely gone 9@/ 09@T8 (ody skeletoni"ed )EEN S!)MERGED IN +ATER E#1:T 6 91 7 -AJ: )old water little change! in rigor mortis E190 7 G -AJ: :kin on hands! feet is bleached! face faded white 3 $ 2//K: Eace swollen and red! skin of hands and feet wrinkled 6 2//K: :kin wrinkled! nail intact = & 2//K: Abdomen distended! skin of hands, feet come off with nails Fac$ors in'luencing $,e 'loa$ing o' $,e .od0 in /a$er: 3. age fully de.eloped! well nourished - rapid $. se* females floats sooner 5. conditions of the body obese float uicker 6. season of the year moist hot air putrefaction floats due to gas 7. water- shallow and stagnant water of creeks! higher specific gra.ity - sea water floats sooner than fresh water! higher specific gra.ity =. e*ternal influence hea.y-wearing apparel - slower RR9nly $ee$,% .ones and ,air remain for an indefinite time. RRElat bones disintegrates faster than round bones. S ECIAL MODIFICATION OF !TREFACTION 92 Mummi'ica$ion A is the dehydration of the whole body which results in the shi.ering and preser.ation of the body. A usually occurs when buries in a hot! dry with free access of hot air 32 Saponi'ica$ion or Adipocere 'roma$ion A a condition where the fatty tissues of the body are transformed to soft brownish-white substance known as ADI OCERE a$ SC le1el2 :2 Macera$ion A softening of the tissues when in fluid medium in the absence of putrefacti.e mircro-org! seen in death in utero reddish or greenish color! skin peeling off and arms flaccid and frail. "O+ LONG A ERSON "AS )EEN DEADF D!RATION OF DEAT" 3. <resence of rigor mortis : $-5 hours after death 3$ 8 fully de.eloped 3&-5= 8 disappears concomitant with putrefaction $. <resnce of <ost-mortem li.idity 5-= 8 after death appears as small petechia-like red spots


5. 9nset of decomposition $6-6& 8 after death manifested watery. foul smelling froth! mouth! nostrils 6. :tage of decomposition 7. /ntomology of the $6 8 before eggs are hatched! maggots =. :tage of digestion - 5-6 8 gastric empty =-& distal ileum! cecum G. <resence of li.e flies in the clothing in the drowning .ictim less than $68 &. :tate of clothings - pajama ! night %. )hanges in ):E 3'. (lood clots inside the b... in = & 8 after death. 33. :oft tissues of the body may disappear 3 to $ years after burial. os$(mor$em condi$ions simula$ing disease% poisoning or injur0: 3. post mortem hypostasis contusion! inflammation ! poisoning $. blisters of the cuticle scald and burns 5. swelling! detachment or splitting - injury RES!M TION OF DEAT" -isputable presumption - not heard in G years <resumption of death Absence of G years e*cept succession 3' years Fessel for 6 years Armed forces 6 years #n danger of death 6 years RES!M TION OF S!R*I*ORS"I 3. under 37 y.o. older $. abo.e =' y.o.- younger 5. under 37! abo.e =' - former 6. 37 and under =' y.o. male! older 7. under 37! or =' y.o. and the other in between - latter MEDICO(LEGAL IN*ESTIGATION OF DEAT" InEues$ O''icer is an official of the state charged with the duty of in uiring into certain matters. - in medico-legal e*amination: manner and cause of death T,e 'ollo/ing o''icials o' $,e go1ernmen$ are au$,ori-ed $o ma=e dea$, in1es$iga$ions: 3. <ro.incial and )ity <rosecutors $. Sudges of the 1T)! 0T) 5. -irector of @(# 6. :ol;en S$ages o' MEDICO(LEGAL IN*ESTIGATION: 3.)rime :cene #n.estigation in.estigation of place of commission of the crime $.Autopsy - in.estigation of the body of the .ictim 92 Crime Scene In1es$iga$ion - place where the essential ingredients of the crime took place. - <erson composed the :earch Team: a+ <hysician 0L# trained b+ <hotographer c+ Assistant! e.idence collector! note taker 32 Au$ops0


- comprehensi.e study of a dead body! in addition to the e*ternal e*amination . os$(mor$em e&amina$ion- e*ternal e*am without incision being made. urpose o' au$ops0: 3. -etermine cause of death $. )orrelate clinical diagnosis and symptoms 5. -etermine effecti.eness of treatment 6. :tudy the natural course of the disease 7. /ducate students and physicians MEDICO(LEGAL OR OFFICIAL A!TO S#: 3. -etermine cause! manner! time of death $. 1eco.ering! identifying! e.identiary material 5. <ro.ide interpretation and correlation of facts related to death 6. <ro.ide factual! objecti.e medical report 7. :eparating death due to disease from e*ternal causes. -ead body belongs to the state for cases that re uires medico-legal autopsy. 3. 1e uirement $. )onfirmation 5. /mphasis 6. )onclusion 7. 0inor AT"OLOGICAL A!TO S# )onsent of ne*t of kin )linical findings of research @otation at all abnormal findings :ummation of all abnormal findings @eed not be mentioned MEDICO(LEGAL A!TO S# Law that the consent )orrelate tissue changes to criminal act /ffect of wrongful act :pecific to the purpose #ncluded if useful

T,e 'ollo/ing manner o' dea$, s,ould .e au$opsied: 3. -eath by .iolence $. Accidental deaths 5. :uicides 6. :udden death of persons who are in good health 7. -eath unattended by physician =. -.9.A. with no clinical diagnosis G. -eath occurring in an unnatural manner Mis$a=es in au$ops0: 3. /rror or omission in the collection of e.idence for identification $. /rrors or omission in the collection of e.idence re uired fro establishing the time of death 5. /rrors or omission in the collection of e.idence re uired fro the medico-legal e*amination. 6. /rrors or omission result in the production of undesirable artifacts or in the destruction of .alid e.idence. Nega$i1e au$opsies - if after all efforts including gross and microscopic studies and to*icological analysis fail to re.eal a cause of death. Negligen$ au$ops0 @o cause of death is found due to imprudence! negligence! lack of skill! lack of foresight. CA!SES OF DEAT" rimar0 purpose o' a medico(legal au$ops0: -etermination of the cause of death. -eath is the direct and the pro*imate conse uence of the criminal or negligent act. -efense wounds on the .ictim: Nualify the crime to homicide. :eries of cuts in the borders of the wound: 0ultiple trust- intent to kill. Cause o' dea$,: is the injury or disease or both which initiates the physiological disturbance resulting to a fatal termination. 3. #mmediate or <rimary cause of death when injury or disease kills uickly the .ictim and no opportunity for complications to de.elop. /*: e*tensi.e brain injury


$. <ro*imate cause or :econdary cause - the injury or disease was sur.i.ed for a longer period Mec,anism o' dea$,: is the physiologic derangement or biochemical disturbance incompatible with life which is initiated by the cause of death. /*: 8emorrhagic shock! pulmonary depression! cardiac arrest! tamponade metabolic problem. Manner o' dea$,: is the e*planation as to how the cause of death arose. 3. @atural death fatality is cause solely by disease. /*: pneumonia! cancer $.Fiolent or unnatural death due to injury Medico(legal masEuerade( .iolent deaths may be accompanied by minimal or no e*ternal e.idence of injury or natural death where signs of .iolence may be present.


Degree o' Cer$ain$0 $o $,e cause o' dea$,: 3. :tructural abnormalities established beyond doubt the cause of death. /*. :2 with 8. $. -egree of probability amounting to the cause of death. /*: /lectrical shock 5. 8istory establishes cause of death and confirmed by anatomic or chemical findings. 6. 2hen neither history! laboratory and anatomic findings! taken indi.idually or in combination is sufficient to determine the cause of death but merely speculate as to the cause of death. /*. )rib death among infants. S$eps in $,e In$ellec$ual rocess in $,e de$ermina$ion o' $,e cause o' dea$,: 3. 1ecognition of the structural organic changes or chemical abnormalities responsible for the cessation of .ital functions. $. >nderstanding and e*position of the mechanism by which the anatomic and other de.iations from normal caused the death. #nstantaneous physiologic death or -eath from inhibition! death from primary shock! :yncope with instantaneous e*itus. - This is sudden death which is cause within seconds or minute or two after a minor trauma or peripheral stimulation of relati.ely simple nature. - The peripheral stimulation initiates the cardio-.ascular inhibitory refle*. /*: Fagocardiac slowing or stoppage of the heart. (low to the laryn*! solar ple*us! scrotum! pressure to the carotid sinus. Diseases /i$, no speci'ic 'indings o' a disease: 3. :udden infant death syndrome I:#-:+ or crib death $. :udden une*plained nocturnal death I:>@-+ DOA means actually dead or dying! pro.ided the physician had not been gi.en ample opportunity to arri.e at a working diagnosis as to the cause of death. !nde$ermined - if the physician cannot determine the cause of death. MEDICO(LEGAL CLASSIFICATION OF T"E CA!SES OF DEAT" a. @atural death cause by natural disease condition in the body. b. Fiolent death 3. Accidental death $. @egligent death 5. #nfanticidal death 6. <arricidal death 7. 0urder =. 8omicidal death #f signs of .iolence are associated with the natural cause of death: G Did $,e person die o' a na$ural cause and /ere $,e p,0sical injuries in'lic$ed immedia$el0 a'$er dea$,F - .iolence applied in a dead person : #mpossible crime. G +as $,e 1ic$im su''ering 'rom a na$ural disease and $,e 1iolence onl0 accelera$e $,e dea$,F A 9ffender responsible of the death of the .ictim. A )riminal liability shall be incurred by any person committing a felony although the wrongful act done be different from which he intended. IArt.6 no.3 1<)+ G Did $,e 1ic$im die o' a na$ural cause independen$ o' $,e 1iolence in'lic$edF - accused will not be responsible for the death but merely for the physical injuries he had inflicted. /*. :lapping a person with heart problem! only slight physical injury. - to make the offender liable for the death of the .ictim! it must be pro.en that the death is the natural conse uence of the physical injuries inflicted. T,e 'ollo/ing are dea$,s due $o na$ural causes: 3. Affection of the )@: a. )erebral apople*y sudden loss of consciousness followed by paralysis or death due to 8emorrhage from thrombosis or embolism in the cerebral .essels. b. Abscess of the brain c. 0eningitis of the fulminant type $. Affection of the circulatory system a. 9cclusion of the coronary .essels Amost common cause of :udden death due to natural causes.


b. Eatty or myocardial degeneration of the heart. c. 1upture of the aneurysm of the aorta d. Fal.ular heart disease e. 1upture of the heart 5. Affections of the 1espiratory system a. Acute edema of the laryn* b. Tumor of the laryn* c. -iptheria d. /dema of the lungs e. <ulmonary embolism f. Lobar pneumonia g. <ulmonary hemorrhage 6. Affections of the ;#T a. 1uptured <>b. Acute intestinal obstruction 7. Affections of the ;>T a. Acute strangulated hernia b. 1uptured tubal pregnancy c. 9.arian cyst with twisted pedicle =. Affection of the glands a. :tatus thymico-lymphaticus b. Acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis G. :udden death in young children a. (ronchitis b. )ongestions of the lungs c. Acute broncho-pneumonia d. Acute gastroenteritis e. )on.ulsion f. :pasm of the laryn* )2 *iolen$ dea$, - are d,t injuries inflicted in the body by some forms of outside force. The physical injury must be the pro*imate cause of death. A That the .ictim at the time the physical injuries were inflicted was in normal health. A That the death may be e*pected from the physical injuries inflicted. A That the death ensued within a reasonable time. CLASSIFICATION OF TRA!MA OR INH!RIES 3. <hysical injury trauma sustained through the use of physical force. $. Thermal injury injury by heat or cold 5. /lectrical injury electrical energy. 6. Atmospheric injury due to change of atmospheric pressure. 7. )hemical injury chemicals =. 1adiation injury radiation G. #nfection microbic in.asion ENAL CLASSIFICATION OF *IOLENT DEAT"S 3. Accidental deaths due to misad.enture or accident. Art. 3$ no. 6 1<) Any person who while performing a lawful act with due care! causes an injury by mere accident without fault or intention of causing it. /*. <atient died of AT: injection after proper skin test. $. @egligent death felonies may be committed when the wrongful act is due to reckless imprudence! negligence! lack of skill or foresight. /*. :urgeon left a pack 8omicide through reckless imprudence 5. :uicidal death ! destruction of oneKs self - not punished! unfortunate being.


- Art $75 1<) ; assistance to suicide. <unishable because he has no right to destroy or assist in the destruction of life of another. 6. <arricidal deaths Art. $6= father! mother! child! Ileg,illeg+ ascendant! descendant! spouse Ileg.+ 7. #nfanticidal deaths Art. $77 killing of a child less than 5 days =. 0urder Art. $6& - treachery! consideration! means of inundation! occasion of calamities! - e.ident pre-meditation! cruelty G. 8omicidal deaths Art $6% DEAT"S !NDER S ECIAL CIRC!MSTANCES 3. -eath caused in a tumultuous affray Art $73. $. -eaths or physical injuries inflicted under e*ceptional circumstances. Art $6G 32 AT"OLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF T"E CA!SES OF DEAT" a. -eath due to syncope fatal and sudden cessation of the action of the heart. b. -eath from asphy*ia a condition in which the supply of o*ygen to the blood or to the tissues or to both has been reduced below normal working le.el. :tage of increasing dyspnea 3 min :tage of /*piratory con.ulsion :tage of e*haustion 5 min c. -eath from coma S ECIAL DEAT"S 3. Hudicial dea$,s Art. ### :ec.3 <ar. 3% <hil. )onst. 4cruel and unusual punishment shall not be inflicted. P electrocution! hanging! musketry! gas chamber. 32 Eu$,anasia or merc0 =illing :2 Suicide Au$oma$ism - due to drug may be considered as accidental rather than suicidal. E1idences $,a$ /ill in'er dea$, is suicidal: 3. 8istory of depression! mental disease. $. <re.ious attempt 5. #njuries are located in areas accessible to hand. 6. /ffects of the act of self-destruction may be found in the .ictimP! empty bottle 7. <resence of suicidal note. =. :ecluded! not in public .iew. G. /.idences which rule out 8!0! < ;2 Dea$, 'rom s$ar1a$ion : )ause may be due to suicidal! homicidal or accidental. RRThe human body without food losses 3,$6th of its weight daily. And 6'O lossBdeath Eactors that influence the length of age! condition of the body! se*! en.ironment. DIS OSAL OF T"E DEAD )OD# Sec299I: Re1ised Adminis$ra$i1e Code : <ersons charged with the duty of burial. 3. -eceased was married: the spouse $. #f unmarried : the nearest of kin of the deceasedP adults! within the <hil. And in possession of sufficient means to defray the necessary e*penses. 5. #f none of the abo.e municipal authorities.


Sec 99I; RAC Rig,$ o' cus$od0 Any person charged by law with the study of burying the body of a deceased person is entitled to the custody of such body for the purpose of burying it! e*cept when an in uest is re uired by law for the purpose of determining the cause of death. #f communicable! the local board of health or local health officer or municipal council. Concep$ o' possession the right of custody a dead body.. The right of custody does not mean ownership of the dead body. /*ecutors right of custody superior to the right of spouse dead body. An e*ecutor is the person mentioned in a will who will carry on the pro.ision of the will. #n the absence of a testamentary disposition! the right of the spouse is paramount. MET"ODS OF DIS OSAL OF T"E DEAD )OD# 92 Embalming = to & uarts of antiseptic solutions of formalin! perchloride of mercury or arsenic which is carried into the internal carotids and the femoral arteries. 2. Burial or inhumation a. :ec 3'%$ 1A) buried within 6& hours if unembalmed. 2ithin 3$ hours! if communicable. E&cep$: 3. :ubject of legal in.estigation. $. Authori"ed by the local health authorities that may be buried more than 6&8. 5. #mpliedly when embalmed. b. -eath certificate necessary before burial: :ec. 3'&G 1A) 1e uirement of -eath )ert. and the duty of the physician to issue or the local health officer! or if none by the mayor! secretary! councilor of the municipality to issue the certificate.. Sec J9 2D2 A4? Code o' Sani$a$ion K )urial reEuiremen$: - death cert.! issued by physician. c. <ermission from the <ro.incial fiscal or from the municipal mayor. #s necessary if death is due to .iolence or crime. A :ec. %3If+ <.-. &7= )ode of :anitation Sec2 9IJ; Re1ised Adminis$ra$i1e Code B Disposi$ion o' .od0 and .elonging o' person d0ing o' dangerous communica.le disease2 /*. 0eningococcemia in (agiuo )ity 3. The body of a person who died of any dangerous communicable disease shall not be carried form place to place e*cept for burial or cremation. $. -uty of the local health official to disinfect the body before being prepared for burialP the furniture! house! either disinfect or burned if capable of con.eying infection. Sec2 J97,8 2D2 A4? Code o' Sani$a$ion 3. 1emains shall be buried within 3$ hours after death. )ause of death is due to a dangerous communicable diseaseP $. @ot to be taken any place of public assembly. 5. 9nly adult members of the deceased are allowed to attend the funeral. Sec2 9IJ9 RAC -eath )ertificate must be presented before burial. Sec2 9IJJ the placing of the body of any deceased person in an unsealed o.erground tomb is prohibited unless if permanently sealed. E&cep$: 3. Tombs and .aults which are strictly .aults for bodies or remains awaiting final disposition. $. /mbalmed bodies awaiting final disposition. Sec2 99II o' RAC% Sec2 J9L o' 2D2 A4? Code o' Sani$a$ion The depth of the gra.e must be at least 3 L meters deep! filled well and firmly. Sec2 3?J4 RAC <enali"es the desecration of burial premisesP tombstone! plant! tree! fence! post or wall. <$'', not greater than = months.


Sec2 JI code o' Sani$a$ion )urial Grounds reEuiremen$s 3. #t shall be unlawful for any person to bury the remains in places other than those legally authori"ed . $. At least $7 meters from any dwelling house and no house shall be constructed within the same distance from any burial ground. 5. @ot within 7' meters from any water source. O$,er .urial reEuiremen$s: 3. :hipment of remains abroad shall be go.erned by the rules and regulations of the (ureau of Nuarantine. $. The burial or remains in city or municipal grounds shall not be prohibited due to race! nationality! religious or political reasons. 5. /*cept when re uired by legal in.estigation or when permitted by the local health authority! no embalmed remains shall remain unburied longer than 6& hours. F!NERALS Ar$2 :I4 CC The duty and the right to make arrangements for the funeral of a relati.e shall be in accordance with the order of support under Art. $%6. -escendants : /ldest Ascendants : <aternal For suppor$ as men$ioned in Ar$2 3J; 3. :pouse $. The descendants of the nearest degree 5. Ascendant of the nearest degree 6. (rothers and sisters Ar$2 :I? CC K #n keeping with the social position of the deceased. Ar$2 :I@ CC K #n accordance to the e*pressed wishes of the deceased. Ar$2 :IJ CC P :howing of disrespect to the dead shall be liable to the family of the deceased for damages! materials or moral. Ar$2 9:3 R C: #nterruption for religious worship. Ar$ 9:: R C: 9ffending the religious feeling Ar$2 339J CC: <ro.ides for the moral damages may be reco.ered for acts mentioned in Art. 5'% )). LIMITATIONS TO T"E F!NERAL RITES 3. 2ill of the deceased. $. (urial of a person sentenced to death must not be held with pomp. 5. 1estrictions as to funeral ceremonies in cases of deaths due to communicable disease. 3. Disposing of the dead body in the sea - <ro.ided the deceased is not suffering from dangerous communicable deceased. - :ec. 3'%5 1A) <ermit for con.eyance of body to sea for burial. 4. Cremation is the pul.eri"ation of the body into ashes by the application of heat. - Eirst must be identified! - <ermit and in a crematory made for the purpose. NOT GRANTED: a. #f the deceased left a note. b. #dentity of the person is not definite. c. /*act cause of death cannot be ascertained and the need for further in uiry or e*amination. 5. Use of body for scientific purposes - )orpse of prisoners - Any person to be buried for public e*pense and which is unclaimed for $6 hours.


Sec2 JA 2D2 A4? Code o' Sani$a$ion :pecial precautions for safe handling of cada.ers containing radioacti.e isotopes. RA :;J as amended .0 RA 9I4? <ermission to use 8uman organs or any portions of the human body for medical! surgical or scientific purposes under certain conditions. - in writing! specific use! signed by the grantor and two disinterested witness. Sec2 J? Code o' Sani$a$ionK -onation of human organs for medical ! surgical and scientific purposes according to the :anitation )ode. ersons permi$$ed $o de$ac, ,uman organs: 3. Licensed physicians $. Known scientist 5. 0edical or scientific institutions ReEuiremen$s 'or a 1alid au$,ori-a$ion 3. #t must be in writing $. #t must specify the person or institution grated the authori"ation. 5. 0ust specify the organ or part to be remo.ed. 6. :igned by the grantor and two disinterested person. 7. )opy of the authori"ation must be submitted to the :ecretary of 8ealth. E>"!MATION The deceased buried may be raised or disinterred upon the lawful order of the proper authorities. Sec 9IA3 RAC )emetery permits e.en to @(# agents Sec2 9IJ@ RAC /*humation in case of death from dangerous communicable disease after 7 years from burial. Sec J3 Code o' Sani$a$ion 5 years if non-dangerous communicable disease. 1emains shall disinfected before burial. ReEuiremen$s $o .e sa$is'ied in e&,uma$ion: 3. -uration of interment as re uired. $. /*humation permit 5. )ompliance of sanitary re uirements rocedures 'ollo/ed in MedicoLegal E&,uma$ions: 3. A formal re uest from any of the law enforcement agency or any person authori"ed by law. a. @ame of the person! place of interment! date of interment! suspicion as to cause of death. b. To determine the cause of death. c. To determine as to identity of the person. d. To organs or tissues for further e*amination for : A To*icological analysis A 8istopath e*ams A :mears from .aginal canal and blood for alcohol determination $. :et the date and time of e*humation! if physician has a strong reason to belie.e that for the justification and strong probability. 5. 2ritten re uest to the 1egional director or :ecretary of 8ealth. 6. ;ra.e must be properly identified by the person who was present when the body was interred. 7. After opening the coffin! the body must be .iewed by any person who can identify the deceased. =. Actual autopsy and adoption of the procedure is needed to accomplish the purpose of the e*humation. G. -isinfection of the body and all areas in.ol.ed must be carried out with the assistance of the local health officer and the return of the body to the burial place.


MEDICO(LEGAL AS ECTS OF "#SICAL INH!RIES ,0sical injur0 : is the effect of some of stimulus on the body. :tab wound the effect is immediate but a blunt object is delayed production on the contusion. Causes o' ,0sical Injuries 3. <hysical .iolence $. 8eat or cold 5. /lectrical energy 6. )hemical energy 7. 1adiation by radioacti.e substances =. )hange of atmospheric pressure G. #nfection . !"#$%C&' %()U*%E$ B*+U,"- &B+U- B# !"#$%C&' .%+'E(CE A The effect of the application of physical injury on person is the production of wound. A A disruption of the anatomic integrity of the tissues of the body. A! not all physical .iolence will result in the production of wound. ,0sics o' /ound produc$ion: a. 0F$ Kinetic energy A TTTTTTTTTT $

UFelocity component is the important factor: 03= rifle with a .elocity of 5$'' ft, sec causes damage more than a hea.ier .5& caliber. b. Time A The shorter the period of time needed for the transfer of energy! the greater the likelihood of producing damage. A #f a person is hit on the body and the body towards the direction of the force applied! the injury is less as when the body is stationary. A The longer the time of contact between the object or instrument causing the injury! the greater will be the dissipation of energy. c. Area of transfer A The larger the area of contact between the force applied on the body! the lesser the damage to the body. A (y applying an e ual force! the damage caused by stabbing is greater compared to a blunt instrument. d. 9ther factors A The less elastic and plastic the tissue B the greater that a laceration will result. M Elas$ici$0 : Ability of the tissue to return to its normal si"es and shape after being deformed by a pressure. A A force transmitted through a tissue containing fluid will force the fluid away from the area of contact in all directions e ually! fre uently causing the tissue to lacerate. *ITAL REACTION A #t is the sum total of all reactions of tissue or organ to trauma! either obser.ed micro or macroscopically. a2 R!)OR redness or congestion of the area due to an increase of blood supply as a part of the reparati.e mechanism. .2 CALOR :ensation of heat or increase in temperature. c2 DOLOR - pain due to in.ol.ement of the sensory ner.e. d2 LOSS OF F!NCTION- due to trauma! the tissue may not function. The presence of .ital reaction differentiates an ante-mortem from a post-mortem injury. E>CE T: .ital reactions not seen e.en if injury inflicted during life: 3. -uring agonal state of a person were cells donKt react to the trauma. $. :udden death as in sudden coronary occlusion. CLASSIFICATION OF +O!NDS: . &$ -+ $E.E*%-# a. 0ortal wound caused immediately after infliction that is capable of death.


<arts of body that are mortal heart! .essels! )@:! lungs! other organs. b. @on-mortal wound - @ot capable of producing death after infliction. 2. &$ -+ /%(D +0 %($-*U1E(- U$ED a. (lunt instrument contusion! hematoma! lacerated wound. b. :harp instrument A :harp-edge instrumentB incised wound A :harp pointed B punctured wound A :harp edgeC sharp-pointed B stab c. 2ounds brought about by tearing force lacerated wound d. (y change in atmospheric pressure barotraumas. e. 2ounds brought about by heat or cold frostbite! scald! burns. f. 2ounds brought about by chemical e*plosion ;:2! shrapnel wound g. 2ounds brought about by infection. 3. &$ -+ -"E 1&((E* +0 %(0'%C-%+( a+ 8#T means of bolo! blunt instrument! a*e. b+ T1>:T or :TA( bayonet dagger c+ ;>@ <92-/1 /Q<L9:#9@ <rojectile or shrapnel wound. d+ :L#-#@; or 1>((#@; or A(1A:#9@ 4. &$ *E,&*D$ -+ -"E DE!-" +0 -"E 2+U(D a+ :uperficial wound only the layers of the skin. b+ -eep inner structures beyond the layers of the skin. ENETRATING +O!ND ( 2ounding agent did not come out or <iercing a solid organ. ERFORATING +O!ND B 2ounding agent produces communication between the inner and outer portion of the hollow organs. 91 piercing or tra.ersing completely a particular part of the body causing communication between the points of entry and e*it of the instrument or substance producing it. 5. &$ *E,&*D$ -+ -"E *E'&-%+( +0 -"E $%-E +0 &!!'%C&-%+( +0 0+*CE &(D -"E '+C&-%+( +0 %()U*# a. )oup #njury <hysical injury which is located at the site of the application of force. b. )ontre-coup injury opposite the site of the application of force. c. )oup contre-coup injury site and also opposite of application of force. d. Locus minoris resistencia <hysical injury not located at the site nor opposite the site of the application of force but in some areas offering the least resistance to the force applied. /*ample: (low in fore head B contusion on the region of the eyeball. e./*tensi.e injury <hysical injury a greater area of the body beyond the site of the application of force /*ample : Eall or 0FA 3. &$ -+ *E,%+($ +* +*,&($ +0 -"E B+D# %(.+'.ED #njuries in .arious parts of the body 4. $!EC%&' -#!E$ +0 2+U(D$ a+ -/E/@:/ 29>@-: #nstincti.e reaction of self-preser.ation. Bhands,fractures b+ ATT/1@/- 29>@ 2ound in the nature and shape of the instrument. B 2heels!abrasions from rope. c+:/LE-#@EL#)T/- 29>@-: - 2ound produced on oneself but no intention to end his life. Mo$i1e o' producing sel'(in'lic$ed /ounds: 3. To create or deliberately magnify an e*isting injury or disease for pension or workmanKs compensation. $. To escape certain obligations or punishment 5. To create a new identity 6. ;ain attention or sympathy 7. <sychotic beha.iour :ome ways of self-mutilation: 3. 8ead banging or bumping $. /*posure of body to heat radiation from open fires! radiators 5. <enetrating nail to chest wall


6. )astration by amputation of the penis 7. Trichotillomania- pulling of body hair LEGAL CLASSIFICATION OF "#SICAL INH!RIES 3. M!TILATION A Art. $=$ 1<) Kinds of mutilation: a. #ntentionally a person! totally or partially of some of the essential organs for reproduction. b. #ntentionally a person of any part or parts of the human body other than the organs for reproduction. 0utilation to be punishable it must be intentional or not physical injury. MA#"EM is the unlawful and .iolent of another of the use of a part of the body so as to render him less able in fighting! either to defend himself or to annoy his ad.ersary. Fasectomy,Tubal ligation are not mutilation and a legitimate method of contraception despite the fact that it is done intentionally and a person of his power of reproduction. SERIO!S "#SICAL INH!RIES Ar$2 3?: R C Any person who shall wound! beat or assault another Art. $=5 and administering injurious substance! without intent to kill Art. $=6. The main purpose of di.iding the pro.ision into four paragraphs a+ #s to graduate the penalties depending upon the nature and character of the wound inflicted b+ Their conse uences on the person of the .ictim. 3. <rison mayor because of the physical injuries inflicted! the injured person becomes insane! imbecile! impotent or blind. $. <rision correctional in its medium and ma*imum periods - loss of speech! hear or smell - loss of eye! hand! foot! arm! leg A loss of the use or incapacitated for the habitual work he used to do. 5. <rision correctional in its minimum and medium periods. - person injured shall be deformed. - lost any other part of the body! incapacitated for more than %' days. 6. Arresto mayor in its ma*imum period to prision correctional - #f the physical injuries shall ha.e cause the illness or incapacity for labor for more than 5' days. #s the offense shall be committed against any of the persons enumerated in Art. $6= 9r with attendance of any of the circumstances mentioned in Art. $6& A The case co.ered by subdi.ision number 3 of this art. will be punished by reclusion temporal in its medium Cma*imum periods. A :ubdi.ision number $ by <rision correctional in its ma*imum period to prision mayor in its minimum period. A :ubdi.ision number 5 by prision correctional in its medium and ma*imum A :ubdi.ision number 6 prision correctional in its minimum and medium periods. The pro.isions of the preceding paragraph shall not be applicable to a parent who shall inflict physical injuries upon his child by e*cessi.e chastisement. 1A G=3'. #t may be committed through a simple negligence or imprudence. ADMINISTERING INH!RIO!S S!)STANCE OR )E*ERAGES Ar$ 3?; R C /lements: 3. The offender inflicted upon another any serious physical injury! $. There is knowledge that the substance, be.erage administered is injurious 9r took ad.antage of the .ictims weakness of credulity. 5. There is no intent to kill in the part of the offender. #f intentional soB frustrated murder. Treachery is inherent in Art. $=6 1<) LESS SERIO!S "#SICAL INH!RIES Ar$2 3?4 R C Any person who shall inflict upon another physical injuries not described in the preceding articles! A (ut which shall incapacitate the offended party for labor 3' days or more A 9r shall re uire medical attendance for the same period (oth of w,c is 3' days but not B5' days C there must be proof to it.. The crime of less serious physical injuries may be ualified and a fine of a higher penalty is imposed when: 3. There is a manifest intent to insult or offend the injured person.


$. There are circumstances adding ignominy to the offense. 5. The .ictims is the offenderKs parents! ascendants! guardian! curators! teachers. 6. The .ictim is a person of rank or person of authority! pro.ided the crime is not direct assault. <.-. 3=% 9bligation imposed on <hysicians treating persons suffering serious and less serious physical injuries re uired to report to law enforcement agencies. SLIG"T "#SICAL INH!RIES AND MALTREATMENT Ar$ 3?? R C

3.Arresto menor- when the offender has inflicted physical injuries which shall incapacitate the offended party for labor form 3 to % days or shall re uire medical attendance of the same period
$. Aresto menor or fine not e*ceeding <$'' and censure when the offender has cause physical injuries which do not pre.ent the offended party from engaging in his habitual work nor re uire medical attendance. 5. Arresto menor in its minimum period or a fine not e*ceeding <7' when the offender shall ill treat another by deed without causing any injury. #f there is no e.idence to show actual injury or incapacity for labor or period of medical attendance! the accused can only be guilty of slight physical injuries. :o a tender slap on the face! holding the arm tightly! application of pressure in some parts of the body or mild blow which show no sign of physical .iolence may still be considered slight physical injuries or maltreatment. I <arag 5 + "#SICAL INH!RIES INFLICTED IN A T!M!LTO!S AFFRA# Ar$ 343 R C /lements: 3. There is a tumultuous affray $. <articipants suffered from serious physical injuries. 5. The person who inflicted serious physical injuries cannot be identified. 6. All those who appear to ha.e used .iolence upon the person of the offended party shall be penali"ed by arrest from 7-37 days. T# ES OF +O!NDS 7 MEDICAL CLASSIFICATION8 . C'+$ED 2+U(D no breach of continuity of the skin or mucous membrane. a2 Super'icial 2hen the wound is just underneath the layers of the skin or mucous membrane. a.3 ETEC"IAE is a circumscribed e*tra.asation of blood in the subcutaneous tissue or underneath the mucous membrane. /*ample : mos uito bite! blood disease! hanging a.$ B CONT!SSION is the effusion of blood into the tissues underneath the skin on account of the rupture of the blood .essels as a result of the application of blunt force or .iolence. A si"e of contusion greater than the si"e of the object. A Location of the contusion is not always the site of application of the force. /*ample: (lack eyeB Eorehead Medico-legal point of view: A contusion as indicated by its e*ternal pattern may correspond to the B shape of the object or weapon used. /*tent B the possible degree of .iolence applied. -istributionB indicates the character and manner of injury as in manual strangulation around the neck. Age of Contusion: appreciated from its color change The si"e tends to become smaller from the periphery to the center and passes through a series of color changes as a result of the -isintegration of the 1() and liberation of hemoglobin. The contusion is red! purple soon after its complete de.elopment. 6 to 7 days B green G to 3' days B yellow and gradually disappears on the 36th or 37th day. The ultimate disappearance of color .aries from 3 to 6 weeks depending upon the se.erity and constitution of the body. The color changes starts at the periphery. CONT!SION *S2 OST(MORTEM "# OSTASIS Con$usion A(elow the epidermis in the true skin in small bruises or e*tra.asations! below this in larger ones and often much deeper still. The epidermis has no blood .essels to be ruptured. os$ mor$em "0pos$asis A#n the epidermis or in the cutis as a simple stain or a showing through the epidermis of the underlying engorged capillaries.


Con$usion A)uticle was probably abraded by the same .iolence that produced the bruise. #n small punctures such as fleas bites! this is not obser.ed. os$(mor$em ,0pos$asis A)uticle unabraded! because the hypostasis is a mere sinking of the blood! there is no trauma. Con$usion AA bruise appears at the seat of and surrounding the injury. This may or may not be a dependent part. os$(mor$em ,0pos$asis AAlways in a part which for the time of information is dependent. Con$usion A9ften ele.ated because ele.ated blood and subse uent inflammation swell the tissues. os$(mor$em ,0pos$asis A@ot ele.ated! because either the blood is still in the .essels or at most has simply soaked into and stained the tissues. Con$usion A#ncision shows blood outside the .essels.This is the most certain test of differenceC can be obser.ed e.en in .ery small bruises. os$(mor$em ,0pos$asis A#ncision shows the blood is still in its .esselsC if any oo"ing occurs! drops can be seen issuing from the cut mouths of the .essels. Con$usion A)olor .ariegated. This is only true of bruises that are the same days old d,t the changes in the hemoglobin produced during life. os$(mor$em ,0pos$asis A)olor is uniform. The well known change in color produced in blood /*tra.asated #nto tissues does not occur in dead tissues with the same regularity. Con$usion A#f the body happens to be constricted at or supported on a bruised place! the actual surface of contact may be a little lighter than the rest of the bruise but will not be white. os$(mor$em ,0pos$asis A#n a place which would otherwise be the seat of hypostasis pressure of any kind e.en simple support is sufficient to obliterate the lumen of the .enules and capillaries and so to pre.ent their filling with blood. 2hite lines or patches of pressure bordered by the dark color of hypostasis are produced and marks of floggings! strangulation! etc. are thus sometimes simulated. FACTORS INFL!ENCING T"E DEGREE AND E>TENT OF CONT!SSION 92;eneral condition of the patient. $.<art of the body affected. Eatty tissues! bloody parts B contused easily Eibrous areas! muscle B less 5. Amount of force applied The greater the force! the more effusion of blood. 6. -isease )ontusion may de.elop with or without application of force. /*ample: Aplastic anemia! whooping cough 7. Age )hildren and old age tend to bruise easily. =. :e* women! obese easily de.elops unlike bo*ers. G. Application of heat and cold T,e dis$inc$ion .e$/een an$e(mor$em and pos$(mor$em con$usions in an undecomposed .od0 is $,a$ in K 3. Ante-mortem bruising: there is swelling! damage to epithelium! e*tra.asation!coagulation and infiltration of the tissues with blood $. <ost-mortem bruising there are no such findings. a2: "EMATOMA - is the e*tra.asation or effusion of blood in a newly formed ca.ity underneath the skin. 2hen the blunt instrument hit a hard part of the body like a bony part which is superficially located. - Eorce causes the subcutaneous tissue to rupture on account of the presence of a hard structure underneath.. DISTINCTION )ET+EEN CONT!SION AND "EMATOMA 3. #n contusion- the effused blood are accumulated in the interstices of the tissues underneath the skin #n hematoma blood accumulates in a newly formed ca.ity underneath the skin. $. in contusion! theskin shows no ele.ation and is ele.ated! the ele.ation is slight and is on account of inflammatory changes


#n hematoma the skin is always eele.ated. 5. #n contusion! puncture or aspiration with syringe of the lesion! no blood can be obtained. #n hematoma shows presence of blood and subse uent depression of the ele.ated lesion. RRAbscess! gangrene! hypertrophy! fibroid thickening and e.en malignancy are potential complications of hematoma. M!SC!LO(S6ELETAL INH!RIES 3. :prain - partial or complete disruption in the continuity os a muscular or ligamentous support of a joint! due to a blow! kick or torsion force. $. -islocation displacement of the articular surface of bones entering into the formation of a joint. 5. Eracture solution of continuity of bone resulting from .iolence or some e*isting pathology. a. )lose or :imple E* no break in continuity of the o.erlying skin. b. 9pen or )ompound E* E* is complicated by an open wound caused by the broken bone which protruded with other tissues of the broken skin. c. )omminuted E* Eractured bone is fragmented into se.eral pieces. d. ;reenstick E* E* wherein only one side of the bone is broken while the other is merely bent. e. Linear E* when the E* forms a crack usually in flat bones. f. :piral E* break in the bones forms a spiral manner as seen in long bones. g. <athologic E* E* caused by weakness of the bone due to disease. 6. :train the instead of an actual tearing ,the rupture of a muscle , ligament which may not be assoc w, the joint. 7. :ubla*ation #ncomplete or partial dislocation. INTERNAL "EMORR"AGE - rupture of blood .essels which may cause hemorrhage due to the following: a. Traumatic intracranial hemorrhage. b. 1upture of parenchymatous organs. c. Laceration of other part of the body. CERE)RAL CONC!SSION 7 COMMOTIO CERE)RI + - T8/ SA11#@; 91 :T>@@#@; 9E T8/ (1A#@ )8A1A)T/1#M/- (J 091/ 91 L/:: )90<L/T/ :>:</@:#9@ 9E #T: EQ@: A: A 1/:>LT 9E #@S>1J T9 T8/ 8/A- 2,) L/A-: T9 :90/ )9009T#9@ 9E T8/ )/1/(1AL :>(:TA@)/. - is more se.ere when the or mobile head struck a fi*ed hard object as compared when the head is fi*ed and struck by a hard object. :igns and :ymptoms 3. unconsciousness which is more or less complete. $. muscles are rela* and flaccid. 5. eyelids are closed and the are insensiti.e. 6. surface of the body is pale! cold and clammy. 7. respiration is slow and sighing. =. pulse is rapid! weak! faltering and scarcely perceptible to the fingers. G. temperature is subnormal. &. sphincters are rela*ed with unconscious e.acuation of the bowel and bladder. %. refle*es are present but sluggish and in se.ere cases may be absent. RRLoss of memory for e.ents just before the injury is a constant effect of cerebral concussion and is of medico-legal importance. 2. +!E( 2+U(D$ a2 A.rasion 7 Scra$c,% gra-e% impression mar=% 'ric$ion mar= + - it is an injury characteri"ed by the of the superficial epithelial layer of the skin caused by a rub or friction against a hard rough object. - )ontusion with abrasion A forcible contact before friction occurs. - the shape .aries and the raw surface e*udes blood and lymph which later dries and forms a protecti.e co.ering as :)A( or )1>:T. Characteristics of abrasion: 3. #t de.elops at the precise point of the force causing it. $. ;rossly or with the aid of a hand lens the injury consists of parallel linear injuries which are in line with the direction of rub or friction causing it.


5. #t may e*hibit the pattern of the wounding material. 6. >sually ignored by attending physician. 0edico-legal .iewpoint Aabrasions caused by fingernails may indicate struggle or assault and are usually located in the face! neck! forearms and hands. Aabrasions resulting from friction on rough surfaces are located in bony parts and are usually associated w, contusion or laceration. A nature of the abrasion may infer degree of pressure! nature of the rubbing object and the direction of mo.ement. 7. Abrasion heals in a short time and no scar unless if not infected or if the whole thickness of the skin is in.ol.ed. 0orms of abrasion 3. Linear abrasion appears as a single line! straight or cur.e. A pinching with fingernails A cur.e a. A sliding the point of a needle A straight linear ab. $. 0ulti-linear de.elops when the skin is rubbed on a hard rough object producing se.eral linear marks parallel to one another. /*ample: 0FA 5. )onfluent linear marks in the skin are almost indistinguishable on account of the se.erity of friction C roughness of the object. 6. 0ultiple se.eral abrasions of .arying si"es and shapes found in different parts of the body. T0pes o' a.rasion 3. :cratch caused by sharp pointed object which slides across the skin! like pin! thorn or fingernail. - #njury usually parallel to the direction of slide. A Eingernail scratch B broad at point of commencement with tailing at the end. $. ;ra"e usually caused by forcible contact with rough! hard objects resulting to irregular of the skin surface. A course indicated by a clean commencement and tags on the end. 5. #mpact or imprint abrasion I patterned abrasion! stamping abrasion!abrasion a la signature+ - those whose pattern and location pro.ides objecti.e e.idence to show cause! nature of the wounding instrument and the manner of assault or death. A marks of grid of radiator! thread marks of wheel! teeth marks. 6. <ressure or friction abrasion caused by pressure accompanied by mo.ement usually obser.ed in hanging or strangulation. A spiral strands of the rope as seen in the skin in hanging. Di''eren$ial diagnosis: 3. -ermal erosion-gradual breakdown or .ery shallow ulceration of the skin w,c only the epidermis C heals w,out scarring. $. 0arks of insects C fishes bites skin injury is irregular w, no .ital reaction and usually found on angles of the mouth! margins of nose! eyelids and forehead. 5. /*coriation of the skin by e*creta found in infants and the skin lesions heals when the cause is remo.ed. @o apparent history of rubbing trauma on the affected area. 6. <ressure sore usually found at the back at the region of bony prominence. 8istory of longstanding illness! bed ridden.

)9L91 L9)AT#9@ F#TAL 1/A)T#9@ reddish-bron"e due to slight e*udation of blood any area with intra.ital reaction may show remains of damaged /pithelium

yellowish and transparent bony prominence rough handling of the shows not .ital reaction and characteri"ed by a separation of the epidermis from )omplete loss of the former.

.2 Incised /ound 7 cu$% slas,% slice8 produced by a sharp-edged I cutting+ or sharp-linear edge of the instrument like a knife! ra"or! bolo! glass etc. A #mpact cut B when there is forcible contact of the cutting instrument with the body surface. A :lice cut B when cutting injury is due to the pressure accompanied with mo.ement of the instrument A )hopped or 8acked wound B when the wounding instrument is a hea.y cutting instrument like saber! injury is se.ere

C,arac$eris$ics o' incised /ound:

3. $. 5. 6. 7. /dges are clean cut. The wound is straight >sually the wound is shallow near the e*tremities and deep at the middle portion. <rofuse hemorrhage because of the clean cut on the .essels. ;aping is usually present due to the retraction of the edges.


=. )lothes will also show a clean cut if cut by the instrument. G. Easter healing if without complications. &. #ncised wound made by broken glasses maybe irregular! needs to be remo.ed. C,anges $,a$ occur in an incised /ound: 3. After 3$ hours edges are swollen! adherent with blood and with leukocyte infiltration. $. After $6 hours proliferation of the .ascular endothelium and connecti.e tissue cells. 5. After 5= to 6& hours capillary network complete! fibroblasts running at right angles to the .essels. 6. After 5 to 7 days .essels show thickening and obliteration. +,0 a person su''ers 'rom incised /ound: 3. As a therapeutic procedure. $. As a conse uence of self-defense 5. 0asochist may self-inflict incised wounds for self-gratification. 6. Addicts and mental patients. :uicidal wounds usually located in peculiar parts of the body! accessible to the hand. - the most common site is the wrist! radial artery and the neck. 8omicidal wounds usually deep! multiple and both accessible and non-accessible parts. - clothing are usually in.ol.ed - -efense and other forms of wounds are present. Accidental wounds multiple incised wounds obser.ed on the passenger and of 0FA due to broken windshields. - kitchen in the preparation of food.

-#1/)T#9@ :/F/1#TJ :></1EKL )>T 9bli ue from below left ear!downwards across front neck just abo.e the Adams apple >sually not so deep C may only in.ol.e trachea! carotid C esophagus >su present before the commencement of deeper 2ound

>sually hori"ontal below the adams apple >sually deep and may cause in.ol.ement of the cartilage C bones <ractically absent but may rarely be present when the .ictim struggled when attacked >sually .ictim lying on bed or in a workplace 2eapon is absent (ld found at the back of neck. 8ands are clean. Absence of such history Always absent

<9:#TK@ 9E T8/ (9-J 0ay be sitting or facing a mirror or standing 29>@-#@; Eirmly grasp Icada.eric spasm+, found lying beside the 2/A<9@ .ictim (L99(ld found in front part of body -#:T1#(>T#9@ 8and smeared with blood. 09T#F/ 8istory of mental depression! Einancial! social problem! alcoholism <1/F#9>: 8* 0ay be present 9f :/LE--/:T1>)TK@

3. $-&B 2+U(D$ is produced by the penetration of a sharp and a sharp-edged instrument like a knife! scissors. - if the sharp edge is the one that comes in contact with the skin then it is an incised wound. - #f the sharp pointed portion first come in contact! it is a stab wound. A surface length may reflect the width of the wounding instrument. A smaller when the wound is not so deep. A wider if upon withdrawal is not in the same direction as seen in slashing mo.ement. The presence of an abrasion from the e*tremity of the skin defect is in line with direction of the slashing mo.ement. The e*tremities of stab wound may show the nature of the instrument used. - a doubled bladed weapon shows both e*tremities to be sharp. - A single bladed weapon one of its e*tremities as rounded and contused! not seen if instrument is uite thin. The direction of the surface defect may be useful in the determination of the possible relati.e position of the offender and the .ictim when the wound was inflicted.


As to whether the wound is slit-like or gaping depends on the direction of the wound to the Langers line. T,e dep$, o' $,e /ound ma0 .e in'luence .0: 3. si"e and sharpness of the instrument. $. area of the body in.ol.ed 5. the degree of force applied RR8emorrhage is always the most serious conse uence of stab wound due to the se.erance of blood .essels or in.ol.ement of bloody organs. "o/ $o descri.e s$a. /ound: 3. length of the skin defect edges must be coaptated first Tailing the direction of withdrawal of the wounding weapon. $. condition of the e*tremities A sharp e*tremity B sharpness of the instrument used. A #f (oth e*tremity are sharp B double bladed weapon is used. 5. condition of the edges. A edges are regular and clean cutB due to one stabbing act. A serrated or "ig"ag in appearance B se.eral stabbing wounds I series of thrust and withdrawal.+ 6. linear direction of the wound it may be running .ertically! hori"ontally! or upward medially or laterally. 7. location of the stab wound to include e*act measurement from anatomical landmarks. =. direction of the penetration must be tridimentional G. depth of the penetration &. tissue and organs in.ol.ed S$a. /ounds ma0 .e: A2Suicidal 3. Located .ital parts of the body. $. >sually solitary 5. Llocated co.ered parts of the body! the clothing is not in.ol.ed 6. :tab wound is accessible to the hand of the .ictim 7. 8and of .ictim is smeared with blood =. wounding weapon is firmly grasp by the hand of the .ictim. G. #f stabbing is accompanied w,slashing mo.ementThe wound tailing abrasion is seen towards the hand inflicting the injury. &. :uicide not may be present %. <resence of a moti.e for self destruction. 3'. @o disturbance in the death scene with wounding instrument found near the .ictim. )2 "omicidal stabbing with homicidal intent is the most common C,arac$eris$ics:3. #njuries other than stab wound may be present . $. :tab wound may be located in any part of the body. 5. >sually more than one stab wound 6. A moti.e for stabbing! if none then the offender either insane,drugs 7. -isturbance in the crime scene Medical e1idence s,o/ing $,e in$en$ o' $,e o''ender $o =ill $,e 1ic$im: 3. there are more than one stab wounds $. stab wounds located in different parts of the body 5. stab wounds are deep 6. serrated stab wounds means thrust and withdrawal of the wounding weapon to increase internal damages. 7. irregular or stellate shape skin defectsB due to changing direction of the weapon with the portion of the instrument at the le.el of the skin as the 4. !U(C-U*ED 2+U(D - is the result of a thrust of a sharp pointed instrument. A /*ternal injury is uite small but the depth is to a certain degree.P ice-pick! nail - @ature of the e*ternal injury depends on the sharpness of the end of the wounding instrument:


A contusion of the edgesB if end is not sharp A opening may beB round! elliptical! diamond shaped or cruciate. - /*ternal hemorrhage is limited although internal injuries may be se.ere.B blood .essels and bloody organs is fatal if no inter.ention applied. - :ite of e*ternal wound can be easily sealed by dried bld! serum! or clotted bld. - <unctured wounds are usually accidental C,arac$eris$ics: 3. The opening of the skin is .ery small! wound is much deeper than it is wide. $. /*ternal hemorrhage is limited than internally may be se.ere. 5. :ealing of e*ternal opening is fa.orable for the growth and multiplication of anaerobic organism like bacillus tetani. "omicidal ( 3. multiple and usually located in different parts of the body. $. wound are deep 5. there are defense wounds on the .ictim. 6. signs of struggle in the crime scene. Suicidal ( 3. located in areas of the body where the .ital organs are located. $. usually singular! if multiple located in one area. 5. parts of body in.ol.ed is accessible by the hand of the .ictim. 6. clothing usually not in.ol.ed. 7. wounding is made while the .ictim is in sitting or standing position ! bleeding is towards the lower part of the body or clothing. =. no disturbance in the crime scene. G. wounding instrument found near the body. unc$uring /ound /i$, punc$uring ins$rumen$ loaded /i$, poison: 3. poison dart cyanide or nicotine $. fish spines 5. dog bites with hydrophobia .irus 6. injection of air and poison as a way of euthanasia. 5.'&CE*&-ED 2+U(D$ 5 -E&*6 *U!-U*E6 $-*E-C" 7!U-+/89 - is a tear of the skin and the underlying tissues due to forcible contact with a blunt instrument. - 0ay be produced by a hit with a piece of wood! iron bar! fist! stone! butt. - #f the force is applied to a tissue is greater than its cohesi.e force and elasticityB the tissue tears and a laceration is produced. C,arac$eris$ic: 3. shape and si"e of the injury does not correspond to the wounding instrument $. tear on the skin is rugged with e*tremities irregular! ill-defined. 5. injury de.eloped where the blunt force is applied. 6. borders of the wound are contused and swollen. 7. de.eloped in areas where the bone is superficially scalp. =. e*amination with the aid of hand lens shows bridging tissue joining the edges and hairs bulbs are intact. G. bleeding is not e*tensi.e due to blood .essels are not se.ered e.enly. &. healing process is delayed and has a tendency to de.elop a scar. Classi'ica$ion o' lacera$ed /ounds: 3. :plitting caused by crushing of the skin between two hard objects. /*: laceration of scalp hit by a bunt instrument! cut eyebrow of a bo*er. $. 9.erstretching of the skin - 2hen pressure is applied on one side of the boneB the skin the area will be stretched up to a breaking point to cause laceration and e*posure of the fractured bone. - #n a.ulsion: the edges of the remaining tissue is that of laceration. 5. ;rinding compression - the weight and the grinding mo.ement may cause separation of the skin with the underlying tissues. 6. Tearing


- this may be produced by a semi-sharped edged instrument which causes irregular edges on the wound like hatchet and choppers. Lacerated wounds are rarely suicidal. INCISED +O!NDS /dges are clean cut! regular! well defined @o contusion or swelling around the #ncised wounds /*tremities of the wound are sharp! may be 1ound! or contused /*amination by means of a hand lens shows that hair bulbs are cut 8ealing is faster )aused by sharp edged instrument LACERATED +O!NDS edges are roughly cut! irregular! ill-defined swelling and contusion around the lacerated wounds e*tremities are ill-defined and irregular hair bulbs are preser.ed healing is delayed caused by a blunt instrument


GA ING OF +O!ND - :eparation of the edges especially in deep wound may be due to the following: 92 mec,anical s$re$c,ing or dila$a$ion - the presence of a mechanical on the edges to pre.ent coaptation will cause separation. /*ample: drain in an abscess! retractor during operation. 32 loss o' $issue due $o: a. -estruction due to pressure! infKtion! cell lysis! burning! chemical reaction. b. A.ulsion or physical or mechanical stretching resulting to separation of a portion of the tissue. c. Trimming of the edges debridement of the skin which come in contact with the bullet at the entrance and e*it of ;:2 and of necrotic materials. :2 re$rac$ion o' $,e edges - underneath the skin are dense networks of fibrous and elastic connecti.e tissue fibers running on the same direction and forming a pattern more or less present in all persons. - This pattern of fiber arrangement is called clea.age direction or lines of clea.age of the skin and their linear representation on the skin is called Langers line. rac$ical /a0s o' de$ermining ,o/ muc, o' $,e s=in sur'ace is in1ol1ed in an injur0 or disease: - skin functions as a mechanical protection of the body! storage of water. - -etermination of how much skin is in.ol.ed is important in the mode of treatment and prognosis especially in burns! contusion.. A burns of G'O in children and older age group are fatal. M rule o' nine is used2 8ead and neck %O %O one upper e*tremity %O 3&O front chest and abdomen 3&O 3&O posterior chest and abdo 3&O 3&O one lower e*tremity front %O 3&O one lower e*tIback+ %O 3&O pudendum 3O 3O Fac$ors responsi.le 'or $,e se1eri$0 o' $,e /ound: 3. 8emorrhage may influence the se.erity of wound by: a. loss of blood incompatible with life - blood constitutes 3,$' of the body weight of an adult. - 7 to = uarts of blood I one uart is %6= cc+ - loss of 3,3'th of its .olume will cause no significant change. - loss of one uartB fainting - loss of 3,5rd to $,7th B irre.ersible shock - males can withstand more loss of blood than females. - hypertension causes more e*cessi.e and rapid bleeding. b. 8emorrhage may result in an increase in pressure in or on the .ital organs to affect the normal function. - intracranial hemorrhage cause compression of the .ital centers of the brain. - hemopericardium B pericardial tamp - hemorrhage to the chestB diminution of the respiratory outputBano*ia. c.. 8emorrhage may cause mechanical barriers to the function of organs. - into tracheo-bronchial luminaB asphy*ia - into muscles B disturbance in their contractility. )auses of hemorrhage: a. trauma - destruction of its blood .essel wall b. natural causes - intracerebral hemorrhageIapople*y+B lenticulostraite br. 0)A - :pontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage B saccular berry aneurysm - rupture of arteriosclerotic aneurysm


- rupture of esophageal .arices - pulmonary hemorrhage due to <T(! lung abscess! bronchiectasis - ruptured ectopic pregnancy $. :i"e of injury - burns greater than 3,5rd of the body are fatal 5. 9rgans in.ol.ed usually fatal to heart! brain! lungs. 6. :hock blow to genitalia! slight burns to young and old. 7. Eoreign body or substance introduced into the body - bacterial! .iral! foreign body! chemical! TO>IN2 92 sna=e .i$esB $ punctured wds at the center of the reddened affected area. The .enom is injected through its fangs which is connected to the poison gland. Sna=e 1enom $o&ici$0 /ill depend on: 3. potency of .enom injected $. amount of .enom injected by the fang will depend on - season of the year - the length of time the snake has eaten. - if a snake has just killed its preyB to*ic content is smaller. 5. si"e of the patient 6. immediate treatment instituted. Sna=e 1enoms are $/o principal classes: 3. @euroto*ic primarily paralysis the respiratory and cardiac center of the brain. - may cause @!F! ascending paralysis! coma! con.ulsion! c,p arrest $. 8emato*ic - affects particularly the blood - manifestations are pain! swelling on the affected area! #F hemolysis! @!F! pulmonary and cardiac edema. Emergenc0 $rea$men$ ma0 .e: 3. incision of the wound to promote more e*ternal hemorrhage to drain the .enom. $. tourni uette abo.e the site of the wound 5. placing ice on the bite site 6. sucking the wound to drain .enom with the mouth 7. administration of anti-snake .enom serum. =. Absence of medical or surgical inter.ention wound may not be fatal but due to neglect or ignorance of its management! may be serious and fatal 32 Scorpion 1enom - .enom has to*ic! hemolytic! hemorrhagic - one punctured wound on the center of a reddened area - pain! edema and reddening :2 Coelen$era$e s$ing 7 jell0'is, 8 - tentacles penetrate into the skin and cause e*plosion of the nematocyst and liberation of the .enom. - e*treme pain. >rticarial rash! dilated pupils! paleness! labored breathing FATAL EFFECT OF +O!NDS: 3. 2ounds may be directly fatal by reason of: a. hemorrhage neck due to carotid bleed. b. 0echanical injuries on .ital organs c. shock $. 2ounds may be indirectly fatal by reason of: a. secondary hemorrhage following sepsis b. specific infection


c. scarring effect d. secondary shock NAT!RE OF DEAT" D!E TO SECONDAR# CA!SES 3. )hanges whose natural se uence are direct C ob.ious sepsis! tetanus $. )hanges producing separate pathological lesions which in turn to be fatal /*: operation to ligate .essel but died of peritonitis despite diligence,skill 5. )hanges where a definite pathological condition was present before the injury. /*. <erson with tumor and stabbed ! stab is not capable of death but accused is responsible for his death. 6. )hanges where a definite pathological condition of totally different nature arises after the wounding and the conse uential se uence is doubtful. /*. T( meningitis ffg blow to the head COM LICATIONS OF TRA!MA OR INH!R# 3. :hock due to injury to ner.ous system! ano*emia! endothelial damage $. 8emorrhage 5. #nfection a. from the instrument b. from the organs in.ol.ed in trauma e*. (owels injured c. injury may depress general .itality d. deliberate intro of micro-organism 6. /mbolism "EALING OF +O!NDS 3. <ower of the human tissue to regenerate replaced the destroyed tissue by newly formed similar tissue. 1egenerates rapidly : ).T.! blood forming tissues!surface epith. skin :low to regenrate:sm. 0uscles! neurons of )@:! highly speciali"ed glandular tiss. Time of healing is dependent on: a. .ascularity b. age of person c. degree of rest or immobili"ation d. nature of the injury $. Aberrated healing process: a. formation of e*uberant granulation or proud flesh b. keloid formation c. stricture d. fistula or sinus formation

MEDICO(LEGAL IN*ESTIGATION OF +O!NDS Rule $o 'ollo/ .0 a p,0sician: 3. all injuries must be described $. description of wound must be comprehensi.e! sketch,photograph 5. e*amination must be influenced be any other information obtained from others in making a report or a conclusion.


Ou$line o' $,e medico(legal in1es$iga$ion o' p,0sical injuries: 92 General in1es$iga$ion o' $,e surroundings: a. e*amination of place where crime is committed. b. /*amination of clothing! stains! cuts! hair! f.b. in the crime scene c. #n.estigations on possible witnesses to the incident d. /*amination of the wounding instrument e. <hotography! sketching! accurate description of the crime scene. 32 E&amina$ion o' $,e /ounded .od0 a. e*aminations applicable to or the dead - age of the wound from the degree of healing - determination of the weapon used - reasons for the multiplicity of wounds - determination if the wound is accidental! suicidal or homicidal b. e*amination applicable only to the - determination if injury is fatal - determination if injury will produce permanent deformity - determination if wound produces shock - determination if wound produces complications c. e*amination applicable to a dead .ictim only - determination if wound is pre-mortem or post-mortem - determination whether wound is mortal or not - determination whether death is accelerated by a disease present at time of injury. - determination whether wound cause by A!:! 8 :2 E&amina$ions o' /ound - character of wound : abrasion! hematoma! laceration etc - location of wound : from some fi*ed area B to determine trajectory,course - depth of wound : not in the ! only if the outer and inner are fi*ed - conditions of the surroundings of the wound A near ;:2 burning! tattooing A suicidal cuts superficial tentati.e cuts or hesitation cuts A lacerated wounds contusion on neighboring skin - e*tent of the wound A e*tensi.e injury marked degree of force applied in the production of the wound. A homicidal cutthroats are deeper! e*tensi.e! numerous than suicide - direction of the wound B impt. in the position of the .ictim to the offender - number of wounds se.eralB homicidal - conditions of locality a. degree of hemorrhage b. e.idence of struggle c. information as to the position of the body d. presence of suicide note e. condition of the weapon


ANTE(MORTEM +O!NDS 8/09118A;/: -0ore profuse! arterial due to loss of tone of .essels! Absence of heart actionP <ost-mortem clotting of blood inside b... -0arks of spouting of blood from arteries -)lotted blood

OST(MORTEM +O!NDS :light or none! .enous @o spouting of blood (ld not clotted!or soft clot @one

:#;@: 9E #@ELA00K@: #nflammation C reparati.e processP :welling in the area! /ffusion of lymph! pusP Adhesion of the edges >nless if .ictim is weakened :#;@: 9E 1/<A#1: Eibrin formationP growth of epitheliumP :cab, scar formKn -eep staining of the edges and cellular tissues w,c is not remo.ed by washing

@o time of repair @ot deeply stained can be remo.ed by washing /dges do not gape! but are closely appro*imated to each other unless if the wound is 3 to $ hrs after death

1/T1A)T#9@ 9E T8/ /-;/: 9E T8/ 29>@-

/dges gape owing to the reaction of the skin and muscle fibers DETERMINATIONS IF +O!ND IS: "OMICIDAL A(1A:#9@: )9@T>:#9@ #@)#:/29>@-: @ot common unless #f dragged 9r if .ictim resisted S!ICIDAL 1arely obser.ed 1are e*cept when jumping from a height )ommonly obser.ed )ommonly obser.ed R depth! location and surroundings

ACCIDENTAL /*tensi.e abrasions 0FA Eound in any portion of the body - Eall Ere uent but rarely cause of death

oin$s $o consider in $,e de$ermina$<n as $o /,e$,er $,e /ounds is A% S% "2 3. e*ternal signs and circumstances related to the position and attitude of the body when found. $. location of the weapon or the manner in which it was held 5. the moti.e in the commission of the crime 6. the personal character of the deceased 7. the possibility for the offender to ha.e purposely changed the truth of the condition. =. other information a. signs of struggle b. number and direction of wounds c. direction of wound d. nature and e*tent of the wound e. state of clothing LENGT" OF TIME OF S!R*I*AL OF T"E *ICTIM AFTER INFLICTION OF T"E +O!ND 3. degree of healingB signs of repair of wound appear in less than a day after the infliction of injury. $. changes in the body in relation to the time of death Bsystematic changes in the body A wasting! anemia! bed sore. 5. age of blood stain not reliable 6. testimony of witness when the wound was inflicted. OSSI)LE INSTR!MENTS +"EN !SED )# T"E ASSAILANT IN INFLICTING T"E INH!RIES 3. contusion blunt $. incised wound sharp-edged instrument 5. lacerated wounds- blunt


6. punctured wounds sharp pointed 7. abrasion body surface is rubbed on a hard surface =. ;:2 the diameter of the wound of entrance may appro*imate the caliber of the wounding instrument. Could $,e injur0 ,a1e .een in'lic$ed .0 a special /eaponF A physician canKt determine that a specific weapon was used in inflicting a wound. #t is possible that it is caused by a certain instrument presented. 8e must be cautious in categoric statements +,ic, o' $,e injuries sus$ained .0 $,e 1ic$im caused dea$,F #f with conspiracy no need co" the act of one is the act of all. #f none- offenders are only responsible for their indi.idual acts. #f multiple injuries: which of the wound injured a .ital organ. 9r if same organ which caused the degree of damage. +,ic, o' $,e /ounds /as in'lic$ed 'irs$F #f multiple for the ualification of the offense committed. Eirst treachery ! murder Last - homicide )onsider: 3. relati.e position of the assailant and the .ictim when the first injury was inflicted on the latter. $. trajectory,course of the wound inside the body of the .ictim 5. organs in.ol.ed and the degree of injury 6. testimony of witness 7. presence of defense wounds inflicted first. E''ec$ o' medical and surgical in$er1en$ion on $,e dea$,: #f death followed after operationB offender is responsible if death was ine.itable and that e.en with operation death is normal and direct conse uence of the injury! and the physician is competent and in spite of e*ercise of degree of diligence still death is the outcome. #f death ensued e.en the wounds are minor! and death due to the negligence or incompetence of the physician then the offender cant be responsible. E''ec$ o' negligence o' $,e injured person on $,e dea$, #f death occurred from complications arising from a simple injury owing to the negligence of the injured person in its proper care and treatment A the offender is responsible for the death A a person is not bound to submit himself to medical t* for the injuries recei.ed during the assault. A unless if it is pro.en that the negligence of the .ictim is deliberate so offender is not responsible but only for physical injuries. o/er o' 1oli$ional ac$s o' $,e 1ic$im a'$er recei1ing a 'a$al injur0: A dying declaration! attempt to kill the offender after the first blow of the offender Rela$i1e posi$ion o' $,e 1ic$im and assailan$ /,en injur0 /as in'lic$ed: 3. location of the wound $. direction of the wound 5. nature of instrument used in inflicting the injury 6. testimony of the witness E>TRINSIC E*IDENCES OF T"E +O!NDS 3. e.idences from the wounding weapon A position of the weapon - near or grasp by .ictim A blood on weapon - may be stained with blood A hair and other substance on weapon $. e.idences in the clothing of the .ictim A soaked with blood - hemorrhage A gunpowder - distance A tears - struggle 5. e.idences deri.ed from the e*amination of the assailant A paraffin test! tears in clothing! blood stains! into*ication etc.


6. e.idences deri.ed from the crime scene A amount of hemorrhage! wounding instrument etc. "#SICAL INH!RIES IN T"E DIFFERENT ARTS OF T"E )OD# . "E&D &(D (EC/ A not be underestimated A bleeding from ears! nose! mouth B basal fractures A may ha.e normal *-rays yet with se.ere head injury Eactors influencing the degree and e*tent of head injuries : a. nature of the wounding weaponB degree of .iolence applied depends on the thickness of the scalpC the weight of the weapon. b. #ntensity if the force B intensity and hea.y agent c. point of impact Be*tensi.e in f* of .aults at side or back d. mobility of the skull at the application of force if head is mobile! freeB effect on the brain is due to the shearing mo.ement imparted to the brain. B may produce contusion! laceration without f*. #f head is fi*ed and unsupportedB jarring mo.ement of the brain is absent but the fracture is e*tensi.e. "ead injuries are classi'ied as $o $,e si$e o' $,e applica$ion o' 'orce: 3. -irect or )oup injuries $. #ndirect injuries a. contr-coup injuries b. remote injuries fall hitting buttocksB basal f* c. locus minoris resistencia - injury in areas with less resistance 5. )oup-contre-coup injuries I direct and indirect injuries+ +ounds in $,e Scalp: 3. it is difficult to pre.ent the spread of infection $. there is pro*imity of the scalp to the brain 5. there are free .ascular connection between the structures inside and outside the brain 6. it is fre uently difficult to determine the e*tent of damage of the skull. E1A)T>1/: 9E T8/ :K>LL p. 5'$ C"A TER 9: G!NS"OT +O!NDS Dea$, or p,0sical injuries .roug,$ a.ou$ .0 po/dered propelled su.s$ances: 3. Eirearm shot A the injury is caused by the missile propelled by the e*plosion of the gunpowder located in the cartridge shell and the rear of the missile. $. detonation of high e* - grenades A e*plosion inside the metallic container will cause fragmentation of the container. %. 0%*E&*1 2+U(D A Eirearm : is an instrument used for the propulsion of a projectile by the e*pansi.e force of gasses coming from the burning of gunpowder. Itechnical definition+ A includes rifles! muskets! shotguns! re.ol.ers! pistols! other deadly weapons which a bullet! ball! shell or other missile may be discharged by means of gunpowder or other e* A includes air rifle e*cept of small calibers and limited range. A the barrel of any firearm shall be considered as a complete firearm for all purposes thereof. enal pro1isions o' la/s rela$i1e $o 'irearm: a. :ec. $=%$ 1A) unlawful manufacture! dealing in ac uisition! disposition or possession of firearms or ammunitions therefore or instrument used or intended to be used in the manufacture of firearms or ammunition. b. :ec. $=%' 1A) selling of firearms to unlicensed purchaser. c. :ec. $=%3 1A) - failure of personal representati.e of deceased licensee to surrender firearm.


d. Art. 377 1<) - Alarms and :candals e.Art. $76 1<) -ischarge of firearms CLASSIFICATION OF SMALL FIREARMS: :mall firearms - are those which propel projectile of less than 3 inch in diameter. 3. as to wounding power: A low .elocity firearm Bmu""le .elocity of not more than 36'' ft per sec. /*. A high power firearm B mu""le .elocity more than 36'' ft. per second B usual is $$'' to $7'' ft per second or more. $.as to nature of the bore: A smooth bore weapon Binside portion of the barrel that is perfectly smooth from the firing chamber to the mu""le. /*. shotgun A rifled bore firearm B the bore of the barrel with a number of spiral lands C which run parallel with one another but twisted spirally from breech to mu""le. /*. 0ilitary rifle 5. as to manner of firing A pistol fired with a single shot /*. A rifle may be fired from the shoulder /*. :hotgun 6. As to the nature of the maga"ine A cylindrical maga"ine the cartridge is located in a cylindrical maga"ine which rotates at the rear portion of the barrel /*. A .ertical or hori"ontal maga"ine the cartridge is held one after another .ertically or hori"ontally and also held in place by a spring side to side or end to end. /*. Automatic pistol T0pes o' small 'irearms /,ic, are o' medico(legal in$eres$: 3. usual mu""le .elocity is ='' feet per second $. automatic pistol self-loading firearm! mu""le .elocity of 3$'' feet per second 5. rifle - mu""le .elocity of $7'' feet per second and a range of 5''' feet. 6. shotgun - projectile is a collection of pellets A /eapon in order $o cause injur0 mus$ ,a1e $/o principal componen$ par$s: 3. the cartridge or ammunition - bullet primer! cartridge case! powder charge $. firearm instrument for the propulsion of a projectile force of gases from a burning powder. ENTRANCE +O!ND Appears to be smaller than the missile 9wing to the elasticity of the tissue /dges are in.erted >sually or round depending upon the angle of approach of the bullet )ontusion collar or contact ring is present due to in.agination of the skin and spinning of the missile Tattooing or smudging may be present when firing is near >nderlying tissues are not protruding Always present after fire <araffin test may be positi.e E>IT +O!ND Always bigger than the missile /dges are e.erted -oes not manifest any definite shape Absent Absent >nderlying tissues may be seen <rotruding from the wound 0ay be absent! if missile is lodged in the body @egati.e

INSTANCES +"EN T"E SIDE OF T"E +O!ND OF ENTRANCE DO NOT A RO>IMATE T"E CALI)ER OF T"E FIREARM #n distant fire! the rule is that the diameter of the ;:2 of entrance is almost the same as the caliber of the wounding firearm e*cept: 92 Fac$ors /,ic, ma=e $,e /ound o' en$rance .igger $,an $,e a. in contact or near fire b. deformity of the bullet which entered c. bullet might ha.e entered the skin sidewise d. acute angular approach of the bullet


32 Fac$ors /,ic, ma=e $,e /ound o' en$rance smaller $,an $,e a. fragmentation of the bullet before penetrating the skin b. contraction of the elastic tissues of the skin O$,er e1idences or 'indings used $o de$ermine en$rance o' GS+ 3. e*amination of the clothing! if in.ol.ed in the course of the bullet a. fabric shows punch in destruction b. particle of gunpowder $. e*amination of the internal injuries caused by the bullet a. bone fragments! cartilage! soft tissues are dri.en away from entrance wound b. destruction of the bone is! with sharp edges at the e*it it is irregular! bigger and be.elled c. testimony of witness De$ermina$ion o' $,e $rajec$or0 o' $,e .ulle$ inside $,e .od0 o' $,e 1ic$im 3. e*ternal e*amination a. shape of wound of entrance A when bullet is fired at right angle with the skinB the wound of entrance is circular e*cept in case of near fire. A if fired at another angle ! it is A when the bullet is deformed no such characteristics findings will be obser.ed. b. shape and distribution of the contusion collar A contusion collar is widest at the side of the acute angle of approach of the bullet. A if the bullet hits the skin perpendicularlyB collar will ha.e a uniform width around the ;:2 e*cept when bullet is deformed or in near fire. c. difference in le.el between the entrance and e*it wounds d. by probing the wound of entrance not with too much force $. internal e*amination a. actual dissection and tracing the course of the wound at autopsy b. fracture of bones and course in .isceral organs c. location of bone fragments and lead particle d. *-ray e*am 5. other e.idences to show trajectory a. relati.e difference in the .ertical location of entrance and e*it in the clothing b. relati.e position and distance of the assailant from the .ictim in the reconstruction of re-enactment of the crime. c. testimony of witness E>IT +O!NDS OR OFFS"OOT +O!ND A-oes not show characteristic shape unlike the entrance wound due to the absence of e*ternal support beyond the skin so the bullet tends to tear or shatter the skin. :hored ;:2 of e*it: if pressed on a hard object like when .ictim is lying: 2ound of e*it is circular or nearly circular with abrasion. ODD AND E*EN R!LE IN GS+ A #f the number of entrance and e*it wound is e.en so presumption that no bullet is lodge in the body. A .erified by *-ray "o/ $o de$ermine $,e o' 'ires made .0 $,e o''ender: 3. determination of the number of spent shells $. determination of entrance wounds in the body of the .ictim number of entrance wounds may not show the e*act number of fire: a. not all fire made may hit the body of the .ictim b. the bullet may in the course of its flight hit a hard object thereby splitting it C each fragment may produce separate wounds of entrance. c. (ullet may ha.e perforated a part of the body and then made another wound in some other parts of the body 5. number of shots heard by the witness


Ins$ances /,en $,e o' GS+ o' en$rance is less $,an $,e o' GS+ o' e&i$ in $,e .od0 o' $,e 1ic$im: 3. a bullet might ha.e entered the body but split into se.eral fragments! each of which made separate e*it. $. one of the bullets might ha.e entered a natural orifice of the body. /*. nose 5. there might be two or more bullets which entered the body through a common entrance and later making indi.idual e*it wounds 6. in near shot with a shotgun! the pellets might ha.e entered in a common wound and later dispersed while inside the body and making separate wounds of e*it. Ins$ances /,en $,e o' GS+ o' en$rance is more $,an $,e o' GS+ o' e&i$ in $,e .od0 o' $,e 1ic$im: 3. when one or more of the bullet is not through and through and the bullet is lodged in the body. $.when all of the bullets produce through and through wounds but one or more made an e*it in the natural orifices of the body. 5. when different shots produced different wounds of entrance but two or more shots produced a common e*it wound. Ins$ances /,en $,ere is no GS+ o' e&i$ .u$ $,e .ulle$ is no$ 'ound in $,e .od0 o' $,e 1ic$im: 3. when the bullet is lodged in the ;#T and e*pelled through the bowel or lodged in the pharyn* and e*pelled through the mouth. $. near fire with a blank cartridge produced a wound of entrance but no slug may be reco.ered. 5. the bullet may enter the wound of entrance and upon hitting the bone the course is deflected to ha.e the wound of entrance as the wound of e*it. An$emor$em GS+ hemorrhage! swelling! .ital reaction. - microscopically: congestion and leucocytic infiltration. ro.lems con'ron$ing Forensic ,0sician in $,e iden$i'ica$ion o' GS+: 3. alteration of the lesion due to natural process:drying of wound! infn! healing proc.. $. medical and surgical inter.ention: refer to clinical record of patient 5. embalming 6. problems inherent to the injury itself. 7. *-ray e*am migratory! e*ternal sou.enirs T,e e''ec$s o' $,e clo$,ing on $,e mo1emen$ o' $,e .ulle$ depend on: 3. number of layers of fabric between the mu""le and subjacent skin $. nature of the fabricP closely wo.en 5. mu""le- clothing distance E&amina$ion o' $,e e&$ernal /earing apparel o' $,e 1ic$im o' GS+ ma0 .e signi'ican$ in in1es$iga$ion .ecause: 3. it may establish the possible range of the fire: fire Atear in the clothing co.ering the skin! fibers turn outward away from body A soot deposit! gunpowder tattooing! burning of fibers around the turned fiber A mu""le imprint A dirt and greasy deposit may be wipe out and .isible in the torn clothing b.not contact but near shot A same with Ia+ e*cept for absence of mu""le imprint and beyond flame range c. far fire A there is a hole tear with inward direction of the thread $. it may be useful in the determination as to which is the point of entry and of e*it of the bullet. /ntry- the fiber are in.erted. 5. it may be useful in locating the bullet Special considera$ion on .ulle$s 3. sou.enir bullet $. bullet migration 5. tandem bullet


E*IDENCES S"O+ING T"AT T"E G!NS"OT +O!NDS MA# )E S!ICIDAL 3. shot fired in a closed locked room! or open uninhabited place. $. death open near the place .ictim was found 5. shot fired with the mu""le of the gun in contact with the part of body in.ol.ed 6. location of entrance wound accessible part of body 7. shot usually solitary =. direction of fire is compatible with the trajectory of bullet G. personal history may re.eal social! economic! business or marital problem which cannot be sol.e. &. gunpowder presence in the hand of the .ictim %. entrance wound usually does not contain clothing 3'. fingerprints of .ictim on the butt 33. suicide note at the .icinity 3$. no disturbance in the place of death Russian roule$$e A unfortunate .ictim has no predetermined desire of self-destruction E*IDENCES T"AT GS+ IS "OMICIDAL 3. site of wound of entrance has no point of election $. fire is made when the .ictim is at some distance 5. signs of struggle or defense wounds 6. disturbance in the surroundings 7. wounding firearm usually not found in the scene of the crime =. testimony of witness E*IDENCES TO S"O+ T"AT GS+ IS ACCIDENTAL 3. usually one shot $. no special area of body in.ol.ed 5. consideration on the testimony of the assailant and determination as to whether it is possible by knowing the relati.e position of the .ictim 6. testimony of the witness OINTS TO )E CONSIDERED AND INCL!DED IN T"E RE ORT OF T"E "#SICIAN 3. complete description of the wound of entrance and e*it $. location of the woundP part of body in.ol.ed! distance of wound from midline! distance of wound from heel or buttock. 5. direction and length of the bullet track 6. organs or tissues in.ol.ed in its course 7. location of the missile! if lodged in the body =. diagram. <hotograph! sketch or drawing showing the location and number of wounds. C!ESTIONS T"AT A "#SICIAN IS E> ECTED TO ANS+ER IN CO!RTK 3. )9>L- 29>@- T8/ 29>@- (/ #@EL#)T/- (J T8/ 2/A<9@ <1/:/@T/- T9 8#0D $. AT 28AT 1A@;/ 2A: #T E#1/-D 5. 28AT 2A: T8/ -#1/)T#9@ 9E T8/ E#1/D 6. #: #T :/LE-#@EL#)T/-D 7. A1/ T8/1/ :#;@: 9E :T1>;;L/D =. -#- T8/ F#)T#0 -#/ #@:TA@TA@/9>:LJD G. #: #T <9::#(L/ E91 T8/ F#)T#0 T9 E#1/ 91 1/:#:T T8/ ATTA)K AET/ T8/ #@S>1J 2A: :>:TA#@/-D &. 28/1/ 2A: T8/ <9:T#9@ 9E T8/ A::A#LA@T A@- T8/ F#)T#0 28/@ T8/ :89T 2A: E#1/-D The caliber may be inferred from the diameter of the wound of entrance. De$ermina$ion o' $,e leng$, o' sur1i1al o' $,e 1ic$im: 3. nature of the ;:2 $. organs in.ol.ed 5. presence or absence of infection 6. amount of blood loss 7. physical condition of the patient


Capaci$0 o' a 1ic$im $o per'orm 1oli$ional ac$s depends upon the area of the body in.ol.ed! in.ol.ement of .ital organs and the resistance of the .ictim. DETERMINATION AS TO T"E LENGT" OF TIME A FIREARM "AD )EEN FIRED 3. odor of the gas inside the barrel $. chemical changes inside the barrel 5. e.idences that may be deduced from the wound DETERMINING +"ET"ER T"E +O!NDING +EA ON IS AN A!TOMATIC ISTOL OR A RE*OL*ER 3. location of the empty shells the empty shells are found in the cylindrical maga"ine chamber after the fire $. nature of the spent shell automatic firearm A bullet is copper jacketed 5. nature of the base of the cartridge or spent shell A base of a has a wider diameter than that of the cylindrical body to keep the cartridge stay in the maga"ine chamber. #t may be possible for a person who is accustomed to the sounds of firearms of different calibers to identify the firearm by the sound produced. #t is not possible to determine the direction of the shot by determining the direction of the sound e*cept when the flash or the person firing the shot is seen at the time the shot was fired. GS+ ma0 no$ .e a near 'ire or ma0 no$ appear $o .e near 'ire: 3. when a is set up to hold the firearm and to enable it to be discharged at a long range by the .ictim. $. when the ;:2 of entrance does not show characteristics of a near shot bec the clothing are interposed bet. the .ictim C the firearm 5. when the e*amining physician failed to distinguish between a near or far shot wound 6. when the product of a near shot has been washed out of the wound. >(ra0 3. $. 5. 6. 7. facilitate the location and e*traction of the wound re.eals fragmentation and its location shows bone in.ol.ement like fracture re.eal trajectory of the bullet shows effect of the bullet wound! like hemorrhage! escape of air! laceration

S"OTG!N +O!NDS #s a shoulder fired firearm a barrel that is smooth-bored and is intended for the firing of a changed compound of one or more balls or pellets. Measure $,e dis$ance .e$/een $,e $/o 'ar$,es$ s,o$7pelle$s8 in inc,es and su.$rac$ one% $,e o.$ained /ill gi1e $,e mu--le($arge$ dis$ance in 0ards2 De$ermina$ion o' $,e presence o' gunpo/der and primer componen$s: Impor$ance: 3. -etermination of the distance of the gun mu""le from the .ictimKs body when fired. >sually not more than $6 inches when fired. $. -etermining whether a person has fired a firearm. dorsum of the hand A metallic residues! burning and unburned gunpowder A in suicide found in the palm rocedures in de$ermining $,e presence o' gunpo/der: 3. ;ross e*amination use of hand lens Eine black powder not conclusi.e $. 0icroscopic e*amination 5. )hemical test: Tes$s 'or $,e resence o' o/der residues 1. 9n the skin -orsum of the hand or 2ound of entrance Dermal ni$ra$e $es$ 7 ara''in $es$% Dip,en0lamine $es$% Lung<s $es$% Gon-ales< $es$8 A melted paraffin heated at 37' degrees fahrenheit LungKs reagent


A small particles with nitrate or nitrite B blue reaction A not conclusi.e: fertili"ers! cosmetics! cigarettes! urine A @egati.e is not conclusi.e: thorough washing $. 9n clothings +al=er<s $es$ 7 C(acid $es$% "(acid $es$8 A glossy photographic paper fi*ed in hyposolution for $' min to remo.e the salts Cwashed for 67 min. C dries Tes$s 'or $,e presence o' rimer Componen$s B metallic primer residues like barium! antimony! and lead. 92 "arrison and Gilro0 $es$ :)otton swab moistened with '.3 molar 8)l to gather the primer component. A 1eagent sodium rhodisonate yields red color with the primer components. A Add 3.7 8)l to the red areaB blue-.iolet or pink in lead or barium A lacks specificity! sensiti.ity 32 Neu$ron Ac$i1a$ion Anal0sis 7NAA8 A :ample obtained by paraffin or by washing with dilute acid A /*tremely sensiti.e! e.en with small uantity :2 Flameless A$omic A.sorp$ion Spec$roscop0 7FAAS8 ;2 !se o' Scanning elec$ron microscope /i$, a Lin=ed >(ra0 anal0-er T"ERMAL INH!RIES OR DEAT"S - are those caused by de.iation from normal temperature! capable of producing cellular or tissue changes in the body. - /*posure to se.ere cold A Erost bite - e*posure to high temperature A burning scalding 92 DEAT" OR INH!R# FROM COLD - not common in the <hilippines - <rimary cause of death: -ecrease dissociation of 9$ from 8gb in the 1() : -iminished power of the tissue to utili"e 9$ - )old damp air is more fatal than cold dry air. - 2omen are more resistant to cold B greater deposits of :N fats. E''ec$s o' COLD: A2 Local e''ec$ 7 Fros$.i$e% Immersion 'oo$% Trenc, 'oo$ 8 3st (lanching ! paleness of the skin due to .ascular spasm. $nd /rthyma! edema! swelling due to .ascular dilatation! paralysis and increased capillary permeability. 5rd - (lister formation 6th @ecrosis! .ascular occlusion! thrombosis and gangrene. 0icroscopically: Facuoli"ation! degeneration of epidermal cells : @ecrosis of the collage of the :N tissue : 9cclusion of the .essels due to clumping of 1() )2 S0s$emic e''ec$s: - 1efle* in nature due to the stimulation and paralysis of the - <ulmonary !)ardiac action is slowed down due to cerebral ano*iaB resulting to lethargy! delirium! con.ulsions! coma, death. 32 DEAT" OR INH!R# FROM "EAT B e''ec$ ma0 .e local or general Classi'ica$ions o' "ea$ Injur0: a+ ;eneral or :ystemic effects: a.3 8eat cramps a.$ 8eat e*haustion a.5 8eat stroke b+ Local effects: b.3 :calding


b.$ (urns A Thermal A )hemical A /lectrical! lightning A 1adiation GENERAL OR S#STEMIC EFFECT: dea$, usuall0 acciden$al 92 "ea$ cramps7 Miner<s Camp% Firemans Camp% S$ro=er<s camp8 - #n.oluntary spasmodic painful contraction of muscles due to dehydration and e*cessi.e loss of chlorides by sweating - T*: Eluids with chlorides 32 "ea$ E&,aus$ion 7 "ea$ collapse% S0ncopal Fe1er% "ea$ s0ncope% "ea$ pros$ra$ion8 - -ue to heart failure! cause:8eat precipitated by e*ertion,warm clothes A :udden syncope! face turns pale! dim .ision - T*: from the heated area :2 "ea$ s$ro=e7Suns$ro=e%"ea$ "0perp0re&ia%Coma$ous 'orm%T,ermic Fe1er8 - 2orking in ill-.entilated places with dry temperature or e*posure to the sun LOCAL EFFECTS OF "EAT 92 Scald: )aused by hot li uid The injury by scalding is not se.ere as burns: a. :calding li uid runs on the body surface distributing the heat b. /asily cools off c. Temperature not as high e*cept : oils and molten metals 32 T,ermal .urns: )aused by heat or chemical substances like fire! radiant heat! friction! solid substances! electricity. : )lassification of burns, D! !#TREN<S CLASSIFCATION 3st -egree erythema $nd - .esicle formation 5rd - destruction of the cuticle! part of true skin! painful 6th - whole skin is destroyed! ulceration! not painful 7th deep fascia! muscles =th - charring of the limbs 3. )A>:/ $. L9)AT#9@ 5. :#@;/#@; 6. (9>@-A1J 9E @910AL 7. #@S>1J =. )L9T8#@;: )!RNS -ry heat flame, heated solid, radiant heat At or abo.e the site of contact of hair is present @ot clear :e.ere #n.ol.ed SCALDS 0oist heat liquid, steam 9ccurs at or below Absent -istinct Limited @ot burned

roo's $,a$ $,e 1ic$im /as ALI*E )EFORE .urned $o DEAT": 3. <resence of carbon particles in the air passage. $. #ncrease carbo*y-hemoglobin blood le.el. 5. -ermal erythema! edema and .esicle formation. 6. :ubendocardial left .entricular hemorrhage. )!RNS 3. (L#:T/1: $. A1/A 9E #@ELA00AT#9@ 5. (A:/ 9E T8/ F/:#)L/ 6. T1A)8/9-(19@)8#AL L>0/@ 7. (L99ANTE(MORTEM )!RNS Abundant albumin,chlorides Around the antemortem burn 1ed <articles of soot or carbon Abundance of carbo*y-8gb OST MORTEM )!RNS :canty albumin,chlorides Absent @ot much change in color @o findings Absent


Di''eren$ial diagnosis o' .lis$ers: 3. -ue to putrefaction fluid content is blood stained watery fluidP asso. with putrefacti.e changes in other parts of body. $. -ue to disease - heat by the si"e! distribution 5. -ue to friction - 8* of application of heat :2 C,emical .urns )haracteristics of lesions: a. Absence of .esication b. :taining of the skin or clothing by the chemical c. <resence of the chemical substance d. >lcerati.e patches of the skin e. #nflammatory redness of the skin surface f. -elayed healing C"EMICAL )!RNS 3. (L#:T/1: Absent $. :K#@,)L9T8#@;: :tained by chemicals 5. A@ALJ:#: 9E :>(:TA@)/ :hows chemical cause of corrosion 6. L/:#9@ (orders are distinct C,arac$eris$ic lesions .0 di''eren$ c,emicals: a2 Sulp,uric acid 7 Oil o' *i$riol8 A most intense action! considerable destruction A ulcerations where acid flowed! clothings destroyed A blackish-brown sloughs .2 Ni$ric acid A )lothing is destroyed! brown A yellow or yellowish brown slough c2 "0drocloric acid A not so destructi.e A intense irritation! locali"ed ulceration red or reddish-gray. d2 Caus$ic soda and o$as, A )orrosi.e action on the tissues with bleached appearance ;2 Elec$rical .urns )ontact burns! spark burns! Elash burns 42 Radia$ion .urns *-ray! >F light burns "#SICAL INH!RIES OR DEAT" )# LIG"TNING AND ELECTRICIT# Lig,$ning is an electrical charge from the atmosphere. - 3 million .olts, $''' amperes Elemen$s o' lig,$ning $,a$ produces injur0: 3. -irect effect from the electrical charge. $. :urface flash burns from the discharge - electrical into heat energy. 5. 0echanical effect e*pansion of air B laceration 6. )ompression effect 4sledgehammer blow? :pasmodic contraction of cerebral .essels B shock Elec$rici$0 - main cause of death is shock - Abo.e 5'' .olts are like the effect of lightning! Fac$ors /,ic, in'luence $,e e''ec$ o' elec$rical s,oc=: 3. <ersonal idiosyncracy personal condition $. -isease cardiac dis. #s prone 5. Anticipation of shock )an withstand

T"ERMAL )!RNS <resent @o staining Absent -iffused


6. :leep increases resistance 7. Amperage or intensity of the electrical current principal factor A G'-&' in A) and $7' in -). =. 1esistance of the body G. @ature of current A) is more dangerous &. /arthing- shock is enhanced %. -uration of contact 3'. <oint of entry left more dangerous than the right Mec,anism o' dea$, in elec$rical s,oc=: 3.Fentricular fib leads to rupture of muscle fibers $. 1espiratory failure due to bulbar paralysis 5. 0echanical asphy*ia due to .iolent and prolonged con.ulsion. Me$alli-a$ion: - specific feature of electrical injury. A the metal of the conductor is .olatili"ed and particles of the metal are dri.en into the epidermis causing darkening of the skin Dela0ed e''ec$s o' elec$rical injuries: A necrosis of the area de.elops into gangrene A -amaged arteries becomes brittle! friable and liable to rupture A @er.ous injuries retrograde amnesia! hemiplegia A 0ay enter the head B cataract DEAT" OR "#SICAL INH!RIES D!E TO C"ANGE AF ATMOS "ERIC RESS!RE 7 )AROTRA!MA8 Increase o' a$mosp,eric pressure 7 "0per.arism8 -@ormal atmospheric pressure at sea le.el is G=' millimeters of 8g. - "enr0<s La/ M N A$ cons$an$ $empera$ure% $,e amoun$ o' gas dissol1ed in a liEuid is direc$l0 propor$ional $o $,e pressureO A As he goes deeper there will be an increase in the amount of gas dissol.ed in the blood and other body fluids. A #f ascent is made rapidly! the will suffer from the effects of the sudden release of the gasses from the body fluids. A released of air bubbles in the circulation and act as emboli in different parts of the body causing interstitial emphysema! pulmonary embolism! in big joints called bends. Decrease o' a$mosp,eric pressure 7Decompression8 3. 8ypobarism at high altitudes the atmospheric pressure is lower and more gas will be liberated by the body fluid. A release of gasses results to: a+ (ends joint and muscular pain b+ )hokes :ubsternal distress! non-producti.e coughing c+ :ubsternal emphysema d+ Trapped gas $. Ano*ia- 8ypo*ia felt at &'''-37!''' feet le.el - Aircrafts greater than 56!''' feet be pro.ided with 9$. AIRCRAFT INH!RIES AND FATALITIES 3. -uring the flight a+ Altitude: 8ypobarism I -ecompression+ b+ :peed spatial disorientation P sudden change of direction at a speed of 7'' miles drains brain from blood to the lower partsB unconsciousness c+ To*ins )9! )9$ saturates cabin resulting to asphy*ia d+ Temperature - At $7!''' feet 6' degree below "ero: frost bite ! free"ing e+ <re-e*isting disease )oronary dis.,8pn fatal due to sudden change en.. $. -uring crash fatalities occur us. during take-off and landing. - E*! 1upture of the heart due to cmpression. DEAT" )# AS "#>IA Asp,0&ia Applied to all forms of .iolent death due to interference with process of respiration - )onditions in which the supply of 9$ to the blood or tissues or both has been reduced below normal le.el. T0pes o' asp,0&ial dea$,: 92 Ano&ic dea$,


Eailure of arterial blood to be normally saturated with 9$ due to: a+ (reathing in an atmosphere with insufficient 9$- 8igh altitude b+ /*ternal obstruction of the air passage traumatic crush asphy*ia c+ <aralysis of the respiratory center poisoning! injury! anesthesia d+ 0echanical interference of the passage of air- drowning! asthma e+ :hunting of blood 32 Anemic ano&ic dea$, A-ecrease capacity of the blood to carry 9$ due to 8ge! )9 poisoning! Low 8gb :2 S$agnan$ ano&ic dea$, AEailure of circulation due to 8eart failure! shock! arterial .enous obstruction ;2"is$o$o&ic ano&ic dea$, AEailure of the cellular o*idati.e process! cannot be utili"ed in the tissues. )yanide ,ases o' asp,0&ial dea$,: 92D0spneic p,ase (reathing is rapid and deep! <1 inc.! 1ise of (< - due to lack of 9$ and retention of )9$ 32 Con1ulsi1e p,ase B )yanosis more pronounced! pupils dilated! unconscious ( Tardieu spo$s Apetechia ,hges in the .isceral organs - due to stimulation of )@: by )9$ :2 Apneic p,ase (reathing is shallow! gasping - -ue to paralysis of respiratory center Classi'ica$ion o' Asp,0&ia: 3. 8anging $. :trangulations: by ligature! manual strangulation! spl forms palmar 5. :uffocation: choking 6. Asphy*ia by drowning 7. Asphy*ia by pressure on the chest =. Asphy*ia by irrespirable gasses A2 AS "#>IA )# "ANGING A @ot necessary the whole body is suspended: <ressure at side of neck A 0echanism of death: Air passage is constricted by pressure of the ropeP )ompression of carotids! jugs! :up. Laryng ner.eB )ereb. ano*ia Causes o' dea$, in ,anging: 3. :imple asphy*ia by blocking the air passage. $. )ongestion of the .enous blood .essels in the brain. 5. Lack of arterial blood in the brain. 6. :yncope due to pressure on the .agus and carotid sinus. 7. #njury in the spinal column =. )ombination of the abo.e. "anging is an$e(mor$em: Fital reactionA principal criterion 3. 1edness or ecchymosis at the site of ligature. $. /cchymosis of the pharyn* and epiglottis. 5. Line of redness or rupture of the intima of the carotid artery 6. :ubpleural hges. )2 AS "#>IA )# STRANG!LATION Tightened by force not the weight 3.8J9#- (9@/ "ANGING Ere uently injured STRANG!LATION +IT" LIGAT!RE Ere uently spared


$.-#1/)T#9@ 9E L#;AT>1/ 0A1K: 5. L#;AT>1/ L9)AT#9@ 6. L#;AT>1/ ;199F/ 7. F/1T/(1AL #@S>1J

#n.erted F-shape At le.el of 8yoid bone -eepest opposite the knot Ere uently obser.ed

>sually hori"ontal (elow laryn* >niform depth @ot obser.ed

Manual s$rangula$ion or $,ro$$ling: - form of asphy*ial death where the constricting force is the hand. C2 AS "#>IA )# S!FFOCATION - 9cclusion of air fr. the lungs by closure of air openings, obstruction of the air passageway fr. the e*ternal openings to the air sacs Smo$,ering: A form of asphy*ial death caused by closing the e*ternal respiratory orifices. O1erla0ing most common in children : pressure of pillows Gagging application of materials to pre.ent air to ha.e access to mouth and nostrils. las$ic .ag su''oca$ion C,o=ing( Eorm of suffocation by the impaction of E.(. in the respiratory passage. D2 AS "#>IA )# S!)MERSION OR DRO+INING - Eorm of asphy*ia where the nostrils and mouth has submerged in watery fluid. Time reEuired 'or dea$, in dro/ning: - :ubmersion for 3 L minutes considered fatal. - A.erage time re uired for death in drowning is $ to 7 minutes. Emergenc0 $rea$men$ in Dro/ning 3. :chaeferKs methodEace down! prone position:operator e*erts pressure in ribs $. :yl.esterKs method- Lying on his back! astride body! swinging arms os$(mor$em 'indings: 92 E&$ernal 'indings a+ 2et clothes! pale face! E.(. clinging on skin surface b+ 4)utis anserine? or 4goose flesh? skin is pale ! contracted @9T -*tic c+ 2asherwomanKs hands and feet skin of hands C feet:bleached @9T -*tic d+ <ostmortem li.idity marked in the head! neck and chest. e+ <resence of firmly-clenched hands with objects <erson was ali.e at first f+ <hysical injuries for struggle g+ :uicidal drowning <ieces of stone 32 In$ernal 'indings A2 RES IRATOR# S#STEM 92 NEmp,0sema aEuosumO B Lungs are distended o.erlapping the heart A-,t irritation made by the inhaled water on the mucous membrane of the air passage w,c stimulate the secrKn of mucous 32 NEdema aEuosumOB -ue:/ntrance of water into air sacs! Lungs are doughy :2 NC,ampignon d<ocumeO whitish foam accumulates in the mouth,nostrils A -ue: abundance of mucous secretion A 9ne of the indications that death was due to drowning. 6. Tracheo-bronchial lumen congested! filled with froth 7. (lood stained fluid found inside chest ca.ity. =. :ection lungs shows fluid with bloody froth. )2 "EART 3. (oth sides of heart may be filled or emptied with blood. $. :alt water drowning (lood chloride content is greater than left side. Eresh water- (lood chloride is more # the right side. FRES"( RIG"T


Ge$$ler<s Tes$: - Nuantitati.e determination of the chloride content of the blood in the right and left .entricle of the heart. : -ifference of a$ leas$ 34 mg2 C2 STOMAC" - <resence food in the stomach but absence of water.B -eath is rapid or submersion made after death. #mpossible for water to get into the stomach if body is submerged after death. FINDINGS CONCL!SI*E T"AT T"E ERSON DIED OF DRO+NING 3. The presence of E.(. in the hands of the .ictim. The clenching of the hands is a manifestation of cada.eric spasm in the effort of the .ictim to sa.e himself from drowning. $. #ncrease in .olume Iemphysema a uosum+ edema of the lungs I edema a uosum+ 5. <resence of water in the stomach 6. <resence of froth! foam! E.(. in the air passage found in the medium where the .ictim was found. 7. <resence of water in the middle ear due to .iolent inspiration when the mouth is full of water. Floa$ing o' $,e .od0 in dro/ning: -2ithin $6 8 due to the decomposition which causes the accumulation of gas in the body! the body floats. - (ody is fle*ed because of the dominance of the fle*or muscles (N$e$e de negriO bron"e color of head and neckP face as the most dependent portion of the body. 8omicidal -. A struggle! moti.e! articles found near the place! phys. injuries :uicidal -.A note! hea.y objects! mentality! 8* of pre.ious attempt Accidental A Absence of .iolence in the body.! e*clusion of suicide! witnesses E2 COM RESSION AS "#>IA 7 TRA!MATIC CR!S" AS "#>IA8 - Eorm of asphy*ia where the free e*change of air in the lungs is pre.ented by the immobility of the chest and abdomen due to e*ternal pressure or crush injury. - 8omicidal Aoffender kneels on the chest - Accidental A pinned between two big objects )ur=ing B in.ented by (urke and 8areA murder for the sale to medical schools - Kneels or sits on the chest and the hands close the mouth and nostrils Dea$, .0 cruci'i&ion- alternati.e raising and lowering of the body leads to e*haustion! unconsciousness and death from asphy*ia A #) mm are stretched F2 AS "#>IA )# )REAT"ING IIRES IRA)LE GASES 92 Car.on mono&ide N silen$ =illerO% colorless! insoluble in water and alcohol. - formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon fuel. -0ain action is 9$ depri.ation Cuali$a$i1e $es$ 'or CO in $,e .lood a+ KunkelKs test 6 .olume of water V 5* its .olume of 3O tannic acid - crimson red if positi.e b+ <otassium Eerrocyanide test bright red c+ :pectroscope e*am d+ ;as chromatograph e+ #nfra-red analysis 32 Car.on dio&ide B CO3% Car.onic acid gas - (lown out of the lungs during respiration - <roduct of complete combustion of carbon containing compounds - /nd result of fermentation C decomposition of organic matters.- septic tank


A The inhalation of pure )9$ may cause immediate .agal inhibition with spasm of the glottis and death. A manhole! poorly .entilated rooms Tes$s 'or $,e presence o' CO3 3. (arium nitrate white precipitate of (arium carbonate with carbonic acid $. nitrate white ppt. of carbonate when carbonic acid is added. :2 "0drogen sul'ide 7 "3S% Sulp,ure$$ed ,0drogen 8 M ro$$en egg odor - Eormed during decomposition process of organic substances containing sulphur - )auses titanic con.ulsion! delirium! coma! death ;2 "0drogen c0anide one of the most to*ic! rapid acting gas - Eormed by the addition of acid to potassium or sodium salt of cyanide - Eound in plantsP of cherry laurel! bitter almond! kernels of common cherry! plum! peaches! ordinary bamboo shoots! certain oil seed and beans - )ontains AM#GDALIN which in the presence of water and natural eny"me EM!LSIN is readily decomposed to "#DROC#ANIC ACID% glucose and .en-alde,0de2 A ='-%' mg of 8ydrogen cyanide is fatal! death in $ to 3' min. 42 Sul'ur dio&ide ( 8ea.ier than air! pungent odor - employed as disinfectant! bleaching agent! - found in eruption of .olcano +AR GASES Classi'ica$ion .ased on $,e p,0siological ac$ion 92 Lacrima$or or Tear gas B causes irritation with copious flow of tears a+ )hloracetphene I).A.<.+ b+ (romoben"yl cyanide I(.(.).+ c+ /thyl #odoacetate I K.:.K.+ 8igh concentration irritation of respiratory passages! lungs! F!@ 32 *esican$ o' )lis$ering Gas B contact with skin cause bleb or blister formation a+ 0ustard gas I -ichlordiethyl sulfide! yellow cross! Jperite+ b+ Lewisite I )hloro.inyl-dichlorarsine+ :2 Lung irri$an$s 7 Asp,0&ian$ or c,o=ing gas8 - -ysnea! tightness of the chest! coughing! coma ! death a+ )hlorine I )l$+ yellowish green gas b+ <hosgene I)9)l$+ c+ )hloropicrin d+ -iphosgene ;2 S$ernu$a$or nasal irritants of .omiting gases 42 aral0san$s @er.e gas - like organophosphates ?2 )lood poisons )9! 8$:! 8ydrogen cyanide DEAT" OR "#SICAL INH!RIES D!E TO A!TOMOTI*E CRAS" OR ACCIDENT Fac$ors responsi.le $o an Au$omo$i1e Cras, A2 "!MAN FACTOR 7 DRI*ER+ 3. 0ental attitude: reckless! fatigue! ine*perience $. <ercepti.e defect 5. -elayed reaction time


6. -isease 7. )hemical factor )2 EN*IRONMENTAL FACTOR - <oor .isibility! poorly maintained roads! rain! blind intersection C2 MEC"ANICAL FACTOR: <oor brake! worn out tires D2 SOCIAL FACTOR: :peed! insurance E2 EDESTRIAN Injuries and Dea$, on $,e Dri1er and assengers: 92 Firs$ collision: the impact of the .ehicle with another or fi*ed object A The 09F#@; F/8#)L/ rapidly decelerates and stops after impact. A The degree of damage depends: a+ speed b+ part of .ehicle in.ol.ed 32 Second collision: #mpact of unrestrained occupants with the .ehicle interior A 3st )ol.! 9ccupants mo.e same direction,.elocity towards point of impact a+ Eront impactB 9ccupants mo.e forward. b+ :ide impact I se.ere+ B to the side that was in.ol.ed in the 3st )ol. BThe passenger nearest to it will suffer the most. c+ 1ear impact crash Acceleration-deceleration injury or whiplash d+ 1oll crash I Turn turtle impact + A #f .ehicle is not put into a stop after the 3st )ollision! the unrestrained occupants will continue to strike to some parts of the .ehicle interior. edes$rian(*e,icle Collision: Dea$, or ,0sical Injuries $o pedes$rian 3.<rimary impact )ontact with .ehicle $. :econdary impact :ubse uent impact of the pedestrian to the ground - Accounts for the multiple injuries 5. 1un #njuries 6. 8it and run #njuries C"ILD A)!SE OR NEGLECTED C"ILD7 )a$$ered c,ild% )a$$ered c,ild s0ndrome% Mal$rea$men$ s0ndrome% Mal$rea$ed c,ild% ,0sicall0 a.used c,ild% Ill($rea$ed c,ild8 A #t is the physical and mental injury or maltreament of a child by a person who is responsible for the childKs welfare. Du$ies o' paren$s: Art 6= the child and youth welfare )ode A To gi.e him affection! e*tend benefits! super.ise! inculcate .alues! ad.ise! act as a good e*ample. Rig,$s o' paren$s : 1ight to discipline! punish moderately re uire obedience! 1espect Ac$ or omission a''ec$ing $,e c,ild<s ,eal$, or /el'are: 3. <hysical abuse The law allows chastisement for discipline but it may be physical abuse when it of instrument or fist blow. $. <hysical neglect Eailure to pro.ide the necessities of life. Causes o' c,ild a.use: 3. >nwanted child: -isputing parentage! #llegitimacy! born from rape! deformity $. Abusi.e parent: Temperamental ! )ompulsi.e disciplinarian 5. )hild as center of triangle 6. )hild may be hindrance to the socio-economic acti.ities of the parents. Medical e1idence $ending $o s,o/ injuries due $o A.use: 3. :kin imprints from forcefully striking objects $. 0ultiple bruises! scars! burns! emersion burn le.els 5. 0ultiple fresh healing fractures 6. Trauma to the mouth! nose ! ears! and eyes.


7. :.A.-#njuries to genetalia! peri-rectal! peri-.aginal =. @eglect: 0alnutrition! poor hygiene! infection! poor growth,de.elopment Social reac$ion $o $,e C,ild a.use and Neglec$: 3. 1eport of 0altreated or abused child within 6& 8 - Ereedom from liability of the reporting person or institution $. The court may depri.e parents of their authority the child or adopt other measures for the welfare of the child. 5. /stablishment of public and pri.ate welfare institutions for the care of abused! neglected! abandoned! infirmed! or other conditions which re uire aid! support or treatment. 6. Abuse! neglect or abandonment of children is made a criminal act or omission. MEDICO(LEGAL AS ECTS OF SE> CRIMES *irgini$0 B is a condition of a female who has not e*perienced se*ual intercourse And whose genetalia ha.e not been altered by carnal connection *ir$uous 'emale( if her body is pure and if she ha had any se*ual intercourse with another! though her mind and heart is impure. A woman is presumed to be .irgin if she is unmarried and o' good repu$a$ion. De'lora$ion B is the laceration of the hymen as a result of se*ual intercourse. Dura$ion o' lacera$ion: 3. Eresh bleeding laceration- recent origin $. Eresh healing with fibrin formation and with edema of the surrounding tissue After $68 5. 8ealed laceration with congested edges and with sharp coaptible bordersA 6 to 3' days. 6. 8ealed laceration with sharp coaptible borders without congestionA 3' days or $ to 5 weeks. 7. 8ealed laceration with rounded non-coaptible borders and retraction of edges B a month Rape: )0 ,a1ing carnal =no/ledge: 3. (y using force or intimidation- manifested and tenacious resistance $. -epri.e of reason! unconscious- insane! under alcohol! drugs 5. >nder 3$ y.o.- :tatutory rape! e.en if prosti! or with consent A e.en if the woman is inchaste. Carnal =no/ledge is the act of a man in se*ual bodily connection with a woman.! e.en with slightest penetration. A absence of sperms does not negate the commission of the crime of rape. T,e 'ollo/ing specimens ma0 .e e&amine 'or seminal 'luid and sperms: 3. 2earing apparel of the .ictim and the alleged accused $. Faginal smear from the .ictim 5. :tains on the body of the .ictim and of the accused 6. :tains found at the site of the commission of the offense. Examination for seminal fluid and sperms 3. ;ross e*aminations $. 0icro-chemical e*aminations a+ Elorence test b+ (erberioKs test specific of spermatic fluid c+ <uramen reaction d+ Acid phospahatase test 5. 0icroscopic e*aminations a+ -r. 8ankinKs method b+ ;anguliKs method 6. (iological e*aminations a+ <recipitin testI (iological test of Earnum+ semen is of human origin b+ :eminal grouping


OT"ER CRIMES AGAINST C"ASTIT#: 92 Seduc$ion #s the act of a man enticing women to ha.e unlawful intercourse - 2ith means of persuasion! solicitation! promises or bribes or other means without employment of force! - A .irgin 3$ y.o. but below 3& y.o. - 2ith the use of abuse of authority or confidence 32 Ac$s o' lasci1iousness are acts which e*cite lust! wanton conduct ! lewd - embracing! kissing! holdig womans breast - under 3$ , 3$ 3& y.o. :2 A.duc$ion B )arrying away of a woman by an abductor with lewd design. - >nder 3$ y.o. still forcible abduction e.en if with consent. ;2 Adul$er0 B 0arried woman committed intercourse with a man not her husband and knows she is married. 42 Concu.inage B Any husband who shall keep a mistress in the conjugal dwelling! or shall ha.e se*ual intercourse under scandalous circumstances with a woman not his wife or cohabit with her in any other place. T,e 'e$us is considered .orn: - #f it is ali.e at the time it is completely deli.ered from the motherKs womb. - #f the fetus had an intra-uterine life of less than G months! it is not deemed born if it dies within $6 8 after its complete deli.ery from the maternal womb. a$erni$0 B ) status of the father with respect to the child begotten by him. Filia$ion B ) status of the child in relation to its mother or father Legi$ima$e c,ildren B are those who were born on lawful wedlock or within 5'' days after the dissolution of marriage. )hildren born after 180 days following the celebration of the marriage And .e'ore :II da0s following is dissolution or the separation of the spouses shall be presumed to be LEGITIMATE2 ro1ided there is no physical impossibility of the husband access to his wife. Impo$enc0( is the physical incapacity of either se* to allow or grant to the other legitimate se*ual gratification. S$erili$0 B is the loss of power of procreation and is absolutely independent of whether or not impotence is present. I !A I"#A Sociological concep$: is the persistent inability through mental causes to adapt oneself to the ordinary en.ironment. . M Medicine : is the prolonged departure of the indi.idual from his natural mental state arising from bodily disease. M La/( the relation of a person and the particular act which is the subject of judicial in.estigation 3. $. 5. 6. 7. $EI% E& I !A I"# -e.elops suddenly @o peculiar facial e*pression :ymptoms complete! numerous! Fiolent e*ertion e*hausted <ersonal hygiene "'(E I !A I"# #nsidiously )ommonly @ot refer to a specific disease @o e*haustion @one

92 Earlier $es$ 'or insani$0 a+ +ild )eas$ Rule B a person is e*empted from criminal liability if he is totally depri.ed of his understanding and memory and knows no more than an infant! a brute! or a wild beast of what he is doing. b+ Delusion rule B a person is not responsible for his act if he suffering from delusion although he knows that he is wrong. 32 La$er $es$s 'or Insani$0 a+ McNag,$ens<s Rule a defense on the ground of insanity can be established if it can be pro.en that at the time of committing the act:


a.3 The accused was laboring under such defect of reason or from a disease of the mind as not to know the nature and uality of the act he was doing. 9r a.$ #f he did know! he did not know what he was doing was wrong. b+ Irresis$i.le Impulse Rule A person is considered insane when mental disease has rendered him incapable of restraining himself! although he understands what he is doing and knows it is wrong. c+ Dur,am<s Rule The accused is not criminally responsible if his act was the product of mental disease or mental defect. d+ Curren<s Rule- #n order to make the accused not responsible for his act it must be pro.en that at the time of committing the prohibited act the defendant! as a result of mental disease or defect! lacked substantial capacity to conform his conduct to the re uirements of the law which he allegedly .iolated. e8 American La/ Ins$i$u$e Rule B e.3 A person is not responsible for his criminal conduct if at the time of such conduct as a result of mental disease or defect he lacks the essential capacity to appreciates the criminality of his conduct or to conform his conduct to the re uirements of the law. e.$ The term 4 mental disease or defect? does not include as abnormality manifested only by repeated criminal or otherwise anti-social conduct. DR!G DE ENDENCE Dangerous drug ( #s a drug whose use is attended by risk and therefore unsafe! perilous and ha"ardous to people or to society. ro,i.i$ed drugs: 3. 9pium and its acti.e components and! such as heroin! morphine $. )oca leaf and its deri.ati.esP cocaine 5. Alpha and beta eucaine! 8allucinogenic drugsP L:6. #ndian hemp and its 7.9ther drugs whether natural or synthetic with the physiological effect of narcotic drug. Regula$ed drugs: 3. :elf-inducing such as secobarbital! phenobarbs $. any salt of an isomer of amphetamine like ben"idrine 5. 8ypnotic drugs such as metha ualone Identification of some dangerous drugs: Color test a. 9pium and its together with amphetamine 0ar uis test: b. (arbiturates -illie Koppanyi test! Mwikkers test c. 0arijuana -u uenois-Le.ine test d. L:- Fan >rk test e. )ocaine )obalt Thiocyante test ALCO"OLISM E$,0l alco,ol /thanol or grain alcoholA fermentation of .arious )89 in grains! fruits or flowers - >sed as sol.ents! antiseptic! be.erage Alco,olic .e1erages 0i*ture of water and ethyl alcohol Congeners : substances simultaneously produced during fermentation. : odor of alcohol Drun=ard A person who habitually uses any into*icating alcoholic li uor. "a.i$ual drun=ard 9ne who e*cessi.ely uses into*icating drink. ro1isions o' La/ regarding alco,olism:


3. #@T9Q#)AT#9@ #: A@ ALT/1@AT#F/ )#1)>0:TA@)/ T9 )1#0#@AL L#A(#L#TJ Art. 37! 1<) - 0itigating circumstanceA 9ffender committed a felony in a state of into*ication! if not habitual or subse uent to the plan to commit said felony - Aggra.ating circumstance A if into*ication is habitual A if into*ication is subse uent to the plan to commit felony. $. <>(L#) :)A@-AL )900#TT/- (J A </1:9@ 28#L/ -1>@K #: <>@#:8A(L/. Art. 377! 1<) - Any person while into*icated or otherwise shall cause any disturbance or scandal in public places. 5. )9@T1A)T: A;1//- T9 #@ A :TAT/ 9E -1>@K/@/:: A1/ F9#-A(L/ Art. 35$&! ) code.

6. T8/ LA2 </@AL#M#@; 0A@>EA)T>1/ 9E L#N>91 2#T89>T L#)/@:/ #: FAL#-. 7. T8/ :TAT/ 0AJ <1/F/@T :90/ </9<L/ E190 -1#@K#@; 8#;8LJ :<#1#T/- 2#@/ Absorption and distribution of alcohol: A 0a*imum period of absorption occurs 5' to =' minutes after initial intake. AThe optimum concentration of alcohol in be.erages between 3' $'O is the most rapidly absorbed. A #t is not the uantity of alcohol consumed that determines into*ication but the amount actually gets into the blood stream. +unces of B2 :.3;: Blood alcohol concentration +IDMAR6<S FORM!LAM ((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((((( I2A ,armacologic e''ec$s o' alco,ol: 3. -epresses the )@:. $. Acuity is progressi.ely diminished to the point comparable to wearing dark glasses at night. 5. 8earing decrease! talks louder! canKt hear the sound of horns. 6. -iminished sense of touch! burns fingers from cigarettes. 7. -ecrease sense of taste! smell =. #ncrease desire to se* markedly impaired performance. G. (lunting of judgment! motor skills Clinical signs and s0mp$oms in rela$ion $o alco,ol le1el: )*++& A*C+,+* 3' mgO $' mgO 7' mgO 3'' mgO 37' mgO 37'-5'' mgO 5'' mgO 6'' mg O C*I ICA* !I% ! A & !#M-"+M! <leasant clearing of the head <hysical feeling of well being Eeels on top of the world! inc. self-confidence 4>nder the influence? innocent not con.icted A some mental confusion! drowsiness All indi.iduals are into*icated! dec. performance All indi.. Lose muscular coordination :tuporous anesthetic le.el! death le.el

S$ages 'ollo/ing alco,ol inges$ion: 3. :tage of e*citement Eew minute after ingestion! feeling of well being $. :tage of incoordination or confusion blunting of perception. 5. :tage of narcosis or coma :low breathing! pupils dilated. ,0sical $es$s $o de$ermine drun=enness: 3. 1ombergKs test:tanding straight with eyes closed !heels together for 3 min. $. :tand straight with one foot ahead of the other 5. :ample of handwriting compared when he is free from alcohol. 6. 2alk to a corner and back Condi$ions simula$ing alco,olic in$o&ica$ion:


3. $. 5. 6. 7. =.

:e.ere head injuries 0etabolic disorders! -iab. <recoma! uremia @eurologic conditions assoc. with ata*ia! tremor! drowsiness /ffect of drug like insulin! barbs! antihistaminic! morphine <re-e*iting psychological dos-order. 8igh

resump$i1e limi$s o' alco,ol: '.'7O alcohol or less in their blood uninfluenced by alcohol '.'7 - .3'O A considered to be under the influence of alcohol I29I5 $o I2945 presumption that the person is drunk. '.$O - into*icated! staggering '.7O coma RRThe amount of alcohol in the breath is proportional to the concentration of alcohol in the blood. RR-iseases associated with or as a complication of alcoholism Eatty! cirrhosis. Delirium $remens B :udden withdrawal from alcohol may suffer a state of e*citement with hallucination. 6orsa=o/<s ps0c,osis a syndrome charac. by hallucination! disorientation! multiple neuritis! loss of memory of recent e.ents. unc, drun=enness B 9bser.ed in bo*ers who de.elops a physical and mental condition due to repeated trauma. GGG2ithdrawal of blood from a dead body cannot be a ground for damage. GGGThere is no .iolation of constitutional pri.ilege against self-incrimination because the pri.ilege applies only to testimonial compulsion and does not apply to the taking of physical e.idence from an accused. M urel0 mec,anical and i$ does no$ u$ili-e $,e men$al 'acul$ies o' $,e su.jec$2 La.ora$or0 e&amina$ion 'or alco,olism: 3. Analysis of blood most widely accepted $. Analysis of breath 5. Analysis of the urine 6. Analysis of body tissue 7. Analysis of sali.a! perspiration! spinal fluid O.jec$i1es o' alco,ol e&amina$ion: 3. Eor screening Apparatus: Alcoly"er! Alcosensor $. Eor e.identiary purpose A determines uantity of alcohol Me$,ods used in alco,ol de$ec$ion: 3. )hemical method 9*ides -chromate $. /n"ymatic method coen"yme @icotinamide adenine nucleutide I@A-+ 5. ;as chromatographic method 6. #nfrared absorption method To ha.e an accurate determination as to the uantity of alcohol in a specimen! immediate e*amination must be done. The longer the time between e*traction and e*amination! the more it increases the alcohol contents of the sample. MEDICO LEGAL AS ECT OF OISONING oison B anything other than agencies which is capable of destroying life! either in chemical action on the tissues of the body - or by physiological action by absorption into the system. Fa$al dose smallest dose known to cause death. Signs and s0mp$oms $,a$ ma0 lead one $o suspec$ poisoning: 3. :udden appearance of the complaints and symptoms. $. The symptoms appear when the person is at the state of health. 5. The symptoms appear after a meal! food! medicine. 6. 2hen se.eral persons partake the food! drug at the same time. 7. )ourse of symptoms either getting worse or steady impro.ement. =. -etection of the poison can be done on any of the following: A food taken! container! .omitus! e*cretions