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According to the Cocopa Indian tribe, giants of the past were able to carry logs that six of the humans failed to budge. Humans can roughly carry twice their body. The average human weighs 150 pounds (carrying weight of 300 lbs in group) times six humans, you now have the ability to carry 1,800 pounds. Now let us take into account that these six humans could not move the logs, and then they would have weighed well over 1,800 lbs. These giants were carrying 1,800 pound logs with ease. Super human strength is often attributed to the Nephilim. NATIVE AMERICAN ACCOUNTS OF GIANT RACE OF MEN Show Red Hair ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Accounts by Richard L. Dieterle Giants are a malignant race who flourished in primordial times before they were brought into check by the great spirits. Although they would frequently sojourn on the island earth where humans live, their home is in a Spiritland on the other side of the Ocean Sea. [1] Since two Wolf Spirits reached it floating on a small ice berg, it apparently lies in the arctic north. There the wind blows cold and fierce, and the ground can be covered in snow. [2] On the other side of the ocean, tribes of Giants flourished. Some of them protected their mortality by removing their hearts and wrapping them in bundles of feathers which they hid away on a platform. These Giants were killed by the Thunderbird, Ocean Duck, who found their hearts and burned them to ashes. [3] Like other spirits, the Man Eaters can be divided into two tribes: the Good Giants and the Bad Giants. Most seem to have belonged to the tribe of Bad Giants who indulge their appetite for human flesh, but the Good Giants have belied their name by abandoning the practice of eating people. [4] Originally, they too had eaten people, but the spirit called "Young Man Gambles Often" (Hotctcwagiogega), caused them to vomit up everything within them, until finally they disgorged ice from their stomachs. This it was that caused them to eat humans. After that, they enjoyed the same food that humans ate. [5] While the stomachs of Giants contain ice, their heads contain wampum, which is to say, sea shells. [6] Not only are the Giants by nature man eaters, as their Hotck name Wngertcge reveals, but male Giants are as tall as trees [7], four times the height of a man. [8] On the other hand, Giant women, who are particularly noted for their beauty [9], are about the same size as humans. [10] Despite the hostility and dietary proclivities of Giants, humans are part Giant themselves. Once humans were smaller and rather uniform in size. In ancient times men took Giant women as brides, and over time the admixture of the two

bloods produced a race of variable heights such as we are today. Particularly large humans merely take after their Giant ancestors. [11] Some large human men are thought to be reincarnations of Giant Spirits, usually of the Good Giant tribe, judging by their benevolence. [12] One cannibal Giantess, some call "Pretty Woman," had hair said to be, variously, red [13], orange [14], or yellow. [15] Despite her superior skill in lacrosse, her life was spared by the victorious good spirits, and she was adopted into human society. [16] In one account she marries Redhorn's father; in another, Redhorn himself. [17] The Man Eaters have a mysterious association with ice. Redhorn's father gave his Giant wife, Pretty Woman, an emetic which forced her to vomit up an ice cube. This was found to be the cause of her cannibalism. [18] There was a race of such man eaters known as "Ice Giants," who in winter would appear around the periphery of villages hoping to pick off people who strayed too far from the campfire. The Ice Giants were unconquerable by mere mortals, but they could be placated by offerings of tobacco, red feathers, and food, which were offered in the early evening. [19] The Giants, being confident of their command of the ice, once challenged an incarnated Wolf Spirit to a contest to see who would first succumb to the cold. The Wolf Spirit won the contest because he was able, unlike the Giants, to radiate heat whenever he sat atop a mound of snow. [20] Human beings were the favorite food of the Bad Giants who would go to some lengths to get it. On occasions they massacred whole villages in order to eat the inhabitants. [21] Like other man eaters, such as the Bad Thunderbirds [22] they would let some people live just to fatten them up so that they would be all the tastier later. [23] Good, fat humans, apparently make excellent soup as well. [24] When the Giants wanted to "eat soup," as they put it, one way to get it was to challenge the humans to games of chance. These games, however, were not idle sport, but contests in which lives were wagered on the outcome. If the humans won, they would kill the Giants wagered; if the Giants won, they would kill and eat the humans that they had won. Since the Giants were so large, they almost always won when they played against mortal humans. [25] As a result, many of the good spirits, taking pity on the abused humans, would descend to earth and give them their aid. Turtle, the spirit who invented war, was the most prominent and active of these. When the Giants prepared to engage in games or in war, they would generally paint themselves black from head to toe [26], although on other occasions, they were known to have painted themselves completely red. [27] One of their favorite games was dice. To get their dice, a Giant would pound his chest and cough up birds, which he would then throw up into the air like regular dice. In keeping with the icy associations of the Giants, the species was usually the snowbird. [28] One of the most popular contests was lacrosse. [29] The Giants would often be led by an amazon like Pretty Woman. Nevertheless, in whatever game they engaged, they were almost always defeated by the good spirits [30], the single exception being wrestling. Although they were never able to out-wrestle Turtle, they were able to defeat both Redhorn and the Thunderbird, Storms

as He Walks. [31] On another occasion they out-wrestled a white Wolf Spirit, then killed and ate him. [32] When Morning Star came to earth, he also faced a challenge from the Giants to wrestle. As a warm-up, he grappled with an oak and pulled the entire tree out by the roots and slammed it to the ground. This so frightened the Giants, that they fled and ceased to bother the humans for decades. [33] Once when Turtle and Morning Star were on earth to help the mortals, they nearly wiped out the race of Giants, sparing only an old man, a little boy, and an infant girl, whom they forced to eat grass. After this indignity, they threw them across the sea. [34] More than once the competing Giants were wiped out with the exception of just two individuals. [35] Despite the conflict between humans and Giants, we know at least one case where the Wangerutcge bestowed a blessing upon a Bear clansman. Four Giant brothers who lived in the heavens, along with other spirits, gave this man a warbundle and sacred warpath songs that led to many a victory. [36] There may be a few solitary Giants left, since in historical times an Ice Giant attacked a man on the Wisconsin River between Stevens Point and Wisconsin Rapids. It was only because he was carrying a powerful medicine with him that he was able to fend off his huge opponent until his friends could come to his rescue. [37] Others, however, say that this race of malignant man eaters disappeared completely around 1840 when the last of them was killed off by a Good Giant who reduced himself in size to live among the humans and bless them. [38] ( *I believe they went underground and now live in the ancient tunnel systems and cities..Sutherland )

---------------------------------------THE GREAT MOUND PEOPLE AND /OR GIANT COVERUP

The Vatican has been long accused of keeping artefacts and ancient books in their vast cellars, without allowing the outside world access to them. These secret treasures, often of a controversial historical or religious nature, are thought to be suppressed by the Church because they might damage it's credibility, casting doubt on their official texts. The Smithsonian has also been accused of being invoved in this coverup. They have been suppressing archaeological evidence since the late 1800's. In 1881 the Smithsonian began rewriting history , promoting the idea that the Native Americans were the original Mound Builders. An idea that is accepted today . They also began a program suppressing evidence that lent credence to the School of

Thought, known as DIFFUSIONISM. * Diffusionism is a belief that throughout history there was interaction of people with world wide travel and trade. The Smithsonian opted for the opposite School of Thought, known as ISOLATIONISM. * Isolationism holds that most civilizations were isolated from each other with very little contact between them -especially those seperated by water. In this intellectual war that started in the 1880s, it was held that even contact between the civilizations of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys were rare, and certainly these civilizations did not have any contact with such advanced cultures as the Mayas, Toltecs, or Aztecs in Mexico and Central America. By Old World standards this is an extreme, and even ridiculous idea, considering that the river system reached to the Gulf of Mexico and these civilizations were as close as the opposite shore of the gulf. It was like saying that cultures in the Black Sea area could not have had contact with the Mediterranean. When the contents of many ancient mounds and pyramids of the Midwest were examined, it was shown that the history of the Mississippi River Valleys was that of an ancient and sophisticated culture that had been in contact with Europe and other areas. Not only that, the contents of many mounds revealed burials of huge men, sometimes seven or eight feet tall, in full armour with swords and sometimes huge treasures. A well-known historical researcher (who shall remain nameless), told that a former employee of the Smithsonian, who was dismissed for defending the view of diffusionism in the Americas (i.e. the heresy that other ancient civilizations may have visited the shores of North and South America during the many millennia before Columbus), alleged that the Smithsonian at one time had actually taken a barge full of unusual artefacts out into the Atlantic and dumped them in the ocean

De Soto's Encounters with Giants In 1539, probably while the survivors of Narvaez' crew were making their way across the country, another Spanish explorer, Hernando De Soto, sailed nine ships into Tampa Bay. There he put ashore six hundred lancers, targeteers, cross-bowmen, and harquebusiers, along with two hundred and thirteen horses. As they ventured inland, the first Indians they encountered were friendly Timucuans. While some of their leaders were giants, most of these people stood, on average, only a foot taller than the explorers. Their vast territory extended from Tampa Bay north to the present Jacksonville area and west to the Aucilla River, which runs along the eastern border of modern Jefferson County and empties into the gulf. As De Soto marched through the various Indian provinces, he met with their caciques. It

was his custom after these conferences to courteously "detain" the cacique and some of his nobles--as a precaution against attack. He also required them to furnish him with porters. The Indians' reaction to this policy varied. After some reluctance, the cacique of Ocala, "an Indian of enormous size and amazing strength,"12 finally agreed to become De Soto's "guest." Vitacucho, the cacique in the neighboring province of Caliquin (present-day Alachua County), consented only after his daughter chanced to fell into De Soto's hands. But even while being detained, Vitacucho and his tall warriors secretly managed two serious uprisings. Copafi, the cacique of the Apalachee around Tallahassee, described as "a man of monstrous proportions,"13 refused even to meet with De Soto, but a party led by the governor himself finally captured the giant and brought him in. After wintering at Ambaica Apalachee, the Spanish explorers crossed over into Georgia. But there they received a kindly reception, with the nation of the Creeks greeting them everywhere in a warm, friendly manner. The several other caciques who guided them through the Carolinas and into Tennessee were, for the most part, also friendly, and even those who may have been offended by the governor's invitation to accompany him offered no serious objection. So all went well--until De Soto's company reached the borders of the giant cacique Tuscaloosa. As suzerain over many caciques, he ruled a wide territory that included most of modern Alabama and Mississippi. Though proud and haughty, Tuscaloosa sent an embassy headed by his huge son to greet and welcome De Soto and his men. Tuscaloosa's heir apparent, who, at eighteen years, already stood as tall as his father, came to De Soto while he stayed at Tallise, a large Indian town located on the bank of a great river. The young giant delivered to the governor the following communication from Tuscaloosa: "The grand cacique of Tuscaloosa, my master, sends me to salute you. He bids me say, that he is told how all, not without reason, are led captive by your perfection and power; that wheresoever lies your path you receive gifts and obedience, which he knows are all your due; and that he longs to see you as much as he could desire for the continuance of life. Thus, he sends me to offer you his person, his lands, his subjects; to say, that wheresoever it shall please you to go through his territories, you will find service and obedience, friendship and peace. In requital of this wish to serve you, he asks that you so far favor him as to say when you will come; for that the sooner you do so, the greater will be the obligation, and to him the earlier pleasure."14 Dismissing the cacique of Coca, who had accompanied him to Tuscaloosa's borders, De Soto set out to meet with Tuscaloosa. Early on the morning of the third day, the governor, his master of the camp, and fifteen cavalrymen entered the village where he was quartered. Having heard daily reports from his scouts on De Soto's progress, the Indian chieftain was prepared to receive them in state. As they rode in, they saw Tuscaloosa

stationed on a high place, seated on a mat. Around him stood one hundred of his noblemen, all dressed in richly colored mantles and plumes. Tuscaloosa appeared to be about forty years old. His physical measurements, writes Garcilaso de la Vega, who accompanied De Soto, "were like those of his son, for both were more than a half-yard taller than all the others. He appeared to be a giant, or rather was one, and his limbs and face were in proportion to the height of his body. His countenance was handsome, and he wore a look of severity, yet a look which well revealed his ferocity and grandeur of spirit. His shoulders conformed to his height, and his waistline measured just a little more than two-thirds of a yard. His arms and legs were straight and well formed and were in proper proportion to the rest of his body. In sum he was the tallest and most handsomely shaped Indian that the Castilians saw during all their travels."15 As the cavaliers and officers of the camp who preceded De Soto rode forward and arranged themselves in his presence, Tuscaloosa took not the slightest notice of them, even as they made their horses curvet and caracole as they passed. Determined to excite his at ten-ti on, some spurred their horses up to his very feet, to which "he, with great gravity, and seemingly with indifference, now and then would raise his eyes, and look on as in contempt."16 He made no move to rise even when De Soto approached. So the governor took him by the hand, and they walked together to the piazza. There they sat on a bench and talked for several minutes. Two days later De Soto decided to resume his journey toward Mobile.17 He also decided to take Tuscaloosa with him. On these marches the cacique in custody always rode alongside the governor. So De Soto ordered a horse for Tuscaloosa. But owing to the cacique's huge size and great weight, not even the largest horse they brought forward was able to bear him. At last, a pack horse accustomed to heavy burdens proved strong enough to carry the chief. But when he mounted Tuscaloosa's feet almost touched the ground. This description accords with Garcilaso de la Vega's statement that the chief stood a half-yard taller than the tallest men around him. Though no one recorded Tuscaloosa's actual size, these two measurements give us some idea of his height. If these descriptions are accurate, then we cannot err too much in estimating his stature at about eight feet. Even while they were on the trail to Mobile, De Soto's party encountered an ominous sign of what awaited them. Two soldiers turned up missing. The Spaniards suspected that the Indians caught the two men some distance from camp and killed them. When De Soto questioned Tuscaloosa about their whereabouts, the cacique testily replied that the Indians were not the white men's keepers. Vigilance was now increased, and the governor dispatched two of his best men to Mobile under the pretext of making arrangements for provisions. Four days later, as the Spaniards approached the town, the scouts rode out to De Soto and reported that many Indians had gathered inside and that

some preparations had been made. They then suggested the army camp in the woods nearby. Unfortunately, the doughty De Soto refused to heed his scouts' advice. While the army waited, the governor with his small party approached the town and its high walls. Just then a welcoming committee of painted warriors, clad in robes of skins and head-pieces with many feathers of very brilliant colors, came out to greet them. A group of young Indian maidens followed, dancing and singing to music played on rude instruments. The governor entered the town with Tuscaloosa, his son, and the cacique's entourage. Seven or eight men of his own guard plus four cavalrymen also accompanied him. They seated themselves in a piazza. From here, De Soto saw that there were only about eighty houses, but several of them large enough to hold one thousand to fifteen hundred people. Unknown to him, more than two thousand Indian warriors now stood in concealment behind these walls, waiting. After some of the chief men from the town joined him, Tuscaloosa withdrew a short distance from De Soto. With a severe look, he warned the governor and his party to leave at once. In attempting to regain custody of the chief, a tussle between a Spaniard and an Indian ignited an all-out war. Under a hail of arrows, De Soto and most of his men retreated from the village. The governor then ordered the town besieged. After a time, the Spaniards gained entry, set fire to the buildings, and conducted a massacre. According to Alvaro Fernandez, about two thousand five hundred Indians died that day, while only eighteen Spaniards fell. Among the Indian dead was Tuscaloosa's giant son and heir apparent. Tuscaloosa himself escaped. At the start of the battle, some of his chiefs, wanting to protect his life for the good of their nation, persuaded him to flee Mobile. Tuscaloosa reluctantly agreed, departing with twenty brave bodyguards soon after the battle began. (See Arizona Giants; California Giants; Cocopa Giants; Copafi; Coronado's Giant Discoveries; Florida Giants; Graveyards of the Giants; Horned Giants; Indiana Giants; Mississippi and Texas Giants; Montana's Giants; Ocala; Ohio Giants; San Francisco Giants; Seri Giants; Tuscaloosa; Yuman Giants; also see Barranc de Cobre Giants; Mexico's Giants; Quiname; Tlaxcala's Giants)

De Vaca and the Giants (See Florida Giants) Harassments by these Indian giants continued. So Narvaez decided to head south for the gulf coast and escape by the sea. Arriving there after much hardship, he and his men constructed five crude boats, in order to search along the coast for a Spanish settlement. Unfortunately, a sudden, fierce storm caught them some distance from land. The high winds drove all the boats, with all their men aboard, far out to sea. All were subsequently

lost except Cabeza de Vaca and three companions who managed to reach the shore. They walked across Texas and northern Mexico, finally reaching the Pacific coast where they linked up with Francisco Vazquez de Coronado in 1541. (See Arizona Giants; California Giants; Cocopa Giants; Copafi; Coronado's Giant Discoveries; De Soto's Encounters with Giants; Graveyards of the Giants; Horned Giants; Indiana Giants; Mississippi and Texas Giants; Montana's Giants; Ocala; Ohio Giants; San Francisco Giants; Serf Giants; Tuscaloosa; Yuman Giants; also see Barranc de Cobre Giants; Mexico's Giants; Quiname; Tlaxcala's Giants)

Freeman, Charles Michigan-born Charles Freeman could lift fifteen hundred-weight, and "could throw an astounding number of somersaults in succession and run and jump like a deer."21 But he knew almost nothing about professional boxing. After gazing upon his seven-foot, sixinch frame and witnessing his feats of great strength and agility, one-time British prizefighter champion Ben Caunt decided that did not matter. He envisioned great things for Freeman in the ring and persuaded the young man to return with him to London. Before leaving, Caunt tipped the New York press. The writers, of course, pounced on the story. They built Freeman up, giving him a fictitious record, while the editors caught their readers' attention with headlines proclaiming that the huge American was crossing the Atlantic to lay claim to the "Championship of the World." On December 14,1842, near Sawbridgeworth, Freeman fought seventy rounds with William Perry, known as "The Tipton Slasher," but the bout "was adjourned due to darkness falling." Six days later they resumed the match, "but Perry fell before receiving a blow and was disqualified."22 Freeman gave up boxing for the stage. In early 1843, he appeared at the Olympia Theatre in The Son of the Desert and Demon Changeling, a piece written expressly for him. He also did a stint with the circus. "His great circus performance," according to a Hunterian Museum report, "was to ride two horses at a time, galloping around the arena, with his arms above his head balancing a man."23 Perhaps to make ends meet, he later became a barman at the Lion and Ball tavern in Red Lion Street, Holborn. The giant barman excited the Lion and Ball's regular crowd and attracted many new patrons, who got to see him for only the price of a whiskey.


Ivan T. Sanderson, a well-known zoologist and frequent guest on Johnny Carson's TONIGHT SHOW in the 1960s (usually with an exotic animal with a pangolin or a lemur), once related a story about a letter he received regarding an engineer who was stationed on the Aleutian island of Shemya during World War II. While building an airstrip, his crew bulldozed a group of hills and discovered under several sedimentary layers what appeared to be human remains. The Alaskan mound was in fact a graveyard of gigantic human remains, consisting of crania and long leg bones. The crania measured from 22 to 24 inches from base to crown. Since an adult skull normally measures about eight inches from back to front, such a large crania would imply an immense size for a normally proportioned human. Furthermore, every skull was said to have been neatly trepanned (a process of cutting a hole in the upper portion of the skull). In fact, the habit of flattening the skull of an infant and forcing it to grow in an elongated shape was a practice used by ancient Peruvians, the Mayas, and the Flathead Indians of Montana. Sanderson tried to gather further proof, eventually receiving a letter from another member of the unit who confirmed the report. The letters both indicated that the Smithsonian Institution had collected the remains, yet nothing else was heard. Arizona Click Here for More Information on Discoveries of Ancient Man in Arizona a Giant was unearthed in 1891, when workmen in Crittenden, Arizona excavated a huge stone coffine that had evidently once held the body of a man 12 feet tall. A carving on the granite case indicated tht he had six toes. The Arizona tracks. Tracks of a barefoot human child were found, in the late 1960s, alongside some dinosaur tracks. The location was the Moenkopi Wash, near the little Colorado River in northern Arizona In 1984, similar tracks were found not far from the Moenkopi site. Many human tracks, dinosaur tracks, and a handprint of a child that had fallen. More adult tracks were found in 1986. The Arizona tracks are located in the Glen Canyon geological Group, which is part of late Triassic to early Jurassic strata and supposedly 175 to 100 million years old. In addition to 300 tridactyle dinosaur tracks, sheep tracks, bivalve prints, large amphibian and lungfish marks have been found. Over 60 human tracks have been mapped and photographed.

ARKANSAS In 1921, an Arkansan named Rowlands was digging in one of the many gravel pits on a line of small hillocks known as Crowley's Ridge, located two miles north of Finch. At a depth of 10 feet, Rowlands' shovel suddenly struck something large and solid. The object appeared at first to be a boulder, but excavating around it, Rowlands soon discovered that it was a large rock-sculptured head of a man. It stood about 4 feet high, and the figure had a squared, protruding chin, small, tight-lipped mouth, a short nose, and a furrowed brow and stare accented by two flat "buttons" of inlaid gold for eyes. Two more gold discs ornamented the figure's ears, and a heart-shaped plug of copper was embedded in the chest. The top of the head was covered by a carved hood that draped down the nape, and attached to a piece around the neck. Near the head, and in the same layer, Rowlands dug up a number of smaller objects: a gold ring, a small coffer made of volcanic pumice (which does not exist in this region), and tiny carvings of men, animals, moons and stars. The head and artifacts soon became a local attraction, and the newspapers dubbed the glowering figure "King Crowley." Several investigators authenticated the find, though they could not explain its presence in the ten-foot layer of gravel - geologically dated at 175,000 years. The head and objects were sent to the Arkansas Natural History Museum in Little Rock. The museum curators, who also examined the artifacts and had double-checked and documented their discovery, were confident in the findings' authenticity to place them on public display. At the same time, however, some of the small carving samples were mailed to the Smithsonian in Washington. The Smithsonian - being a far more conservative institution -described the carvings as truly "unexplained items," but could not reconcile the antiquity of the strata in which they had been brought to light. Finally, after fifteen years of vacillating on the subject, orthodoxy triumphed: The Smithsonian concluded that the Crowley Ridge artifacts could not be 175,000 years old as this contradicted established theory on the age of human civilization, and therefore declared the artifacts fakes. Conforming to this prestigious conservative pronouncement, the Little Rock museum promptly took the stone head and other objects off display, and eventually sold them to unnamed private collectors. The "King Crowley" had was shipped off to California, and the rest of the collection was similarly scattered to the four winds. Today, the location of even a single object is unknown.

California The bones of a twelve foot tall man were dug up in 1833 by a group of soldiers at Lompock Rancho,California.The skeleton was surrounded by giant weapons, and the skull featured a double row of teeth.

In 1833, soldiers digging at Lompock Rancho, California, discovered a male skeleton 12 feet tall. The skeleton was surrounded by caved shells, stone axes, other artifacts. The skeleton had double rows of upper and lower teeth. Unfortunately, this body was secretly buried because the local Indians became upset about the remains. Miners in Lovelock Cave, California, discovered a very tall, red-haired mummy In 1911 This mummy eventually went to a fraternal lodge where it was used for "initiation purposes." In 1931, skeletons from 8 to 10 feet long were found in the Humbolt lake bed in California A giant found off the California Coast on Santa Rosa Island in the 1800s was distinguished by its double rows of teeth

1851 that a businessman named Hiram de Witt had brought back with him from a trip to California a piece of auriferous quartz rock about the size of a man's fist, and that while showing the rock to a friend, it slipped from his hand and split open upon hitting the floor. There, in the center of the quartz, they discovered a cut-iron nail, six-penny size, slightly corroded but entirely straight, with a perfect head. the quartz was given an age of over one million years. California/Arizona/Mexico See Giants of California See Red haired mummies of united states the continent, at the same time that De Soto was blazing his famous trail, an expedition led by Coronado searched for the fabulously rich "Seven Cities of Cibola." Near Mexico's present-day border with California and Arizona they ran into several tribes of Indian giants. Starting out from Mexico City with some three hundred Spaniards and eight hundred native Indians, the Coronado expedition marched west to the Pacific Ocean. Then turning north-ward, they ascended the coast through regions that later became known as Sinaloa and Sonora. While this march was underway, Hemando de Alarcon set sail with two ships up the coast, transporting the baggage and supplies for the soldiers. The original plan called for Alarcon and the army to keep in frequent touch and to rendezvous at suitable harbors along the coast. So when the army reached the province of Senora, a force under Don Rodrigo Maldonado set out to find the harbor and scan the horizon for Alarcon's ships. Maldonado sighted no ships, but he did return with an Indian

who stood so tall as to astonish the Spaniards. Pedro de Castaneda, who accompanied Coronado and later wrote the most complete and factual history of the expedition, records this unusual event as follows: "Don Rodrigo Maldonado, who was captain of those who went in search of the ships, did not find them, but he brought back with him an Indian so large and tall that the best man in the army reached only to his chest. It was said that other Indians were even taller on the coast."8 This giant evidently belonged to the Seri. This great Indian tribe occupied the island of Tiburon and the adjacent Sonora coast on the Gulf of California. Historians testify to their tall stature. Soon after this, while still trying to establish contact with Alarcon, Captain Melchior Diaz came across another tribe of giants. Taking twenty-five of his "most efficient men" and some guides, Diaz struck out toward the north and west in search of the seacoast and the ships. "After goi

Minnesota Seven skeletons were found in a burial mound near Clearwater Minnesota, in 1888. They had double rows of teeth in the upper and lower jaws and had been buried in a sitting position, facing the lake. The foreheads were unusually low and sloping, with prominent brows. (St. Paul Pioneer Press, June 29, 1888). The Indians tell the story of the legends of Allegewi: The oral traditions of the Delaware and the Sioux Indians tell of a race of "great stature, but cowardly" with whom they entered into conflict. The Allegheny River and Mountains are named after the Allegewi, but the Iroquois Confederacy drove the giants out of their strong, walled cities, and the Sioux finished them off when they attempted to relocate in what is now Minnesota. Ten skeletons "of both sexes and of gigantic size" were taken from a mound at Warren, Minnesota, 1883. (St. Paul Pioneer Press, May 23, 1883) The skeleton of a huge man was uncovered at the Beckley farm, Lake Koronis, Minnesota; while at Moose Island and Pine City, bones of other giants came to light. (St. Paul Globe, Aug. 12, 1896). Misssissippi The Choctaw of Mississippi,has a legend of being invaded by a race of red and blond haired, white-skinned giants, who bore `sharp clubs' and axes and wore a extra thick skin, which made them impenetrable by their arrow, spears and war clubs. .The Indians called them Nahullo, or giants who had horns. When you put all the descriptions together, it seems like a race of giants may have been Norsemen wearing their tradition horned helmets and plates of armor THE DEEP DWELLERS (published online, in NEXUS magazine, and in CCCC),

MISSOURI On an outcrop of greyish-blue crinoidal limestone about 200 feet wide and extending along the west bank of the

Mississippi for 3 miles just south of St. Louis, are a number of mantrack impressions which a century ago could be observed during low-water stages. The early French explorers along the river were the first to note their existence, and ever since they have created a heated controversy. The first scientific observation of the prints was reported by Henry Schooleraft in The American Journal of Science (volume V), for 1822, and he described them as, "strikingly natural, exhibiting every muscular impression, and the swell of the heel and toes, with a precision and faithfulness to nature I have not been able to copy." His colleagues dismissed the tracks as Indian petroglyphs, but Schooleraft was convinced of their natural origin: They had been impressed, he carefully noted, not carved into the limestone. Whoever had made them, Schooleraft also commented, had been of average size: The foot lengths were 10 1/2 inches; width across the outspread toes were 4 inches; and the heels were 2 1/2 inches wide. The American Antiquarian, volume 7, pages 364-367 (1885) gave the account of another find associated with the St. Louis footprints that is perhaps even more disturbing. Quoting from Priest's "American Antiquities," a particular set of tracks was described in detail. Then, "directly before the prints of these feet, within a few inches, is a wellimpressed and deep mark, having some resemblance to a scroll, or roll of parchment, two feet long by a foot in width." The squared impression was not a natural shape; neither were there scratch marks that would have indicated the patch had been carved. Rather, the evidence points to the parchment impression having been made when the rock was still in a plastic state - made at the same time as the footprints. What such a find suggests is that the prints' owners were not only men, but were men with the intelligence to produce some form of paper sheet - and perhaps write upon it. But as if this were not enough of a mystery, the limestone in which prints and paper appear, is dated to the Mississippian age 345 million years ago. Montana In Montana in 1903, Montana, Professor S. Farr unearthed the skeleton of a man about nine feet long. Next to him laid the bones of a woman, who had been almost as tall. Early in November of 1926, archaeologist J.C.F. Siegfriedt made a discovery in another mine, this one the Number Three shaft of the Mutual Coal Mine of Bear Creek, 55 miles southwest of Billings,Montana. What Siegfriedt found was a human tooth, in which the enamel had been replaced by carbon and the roots by iron, by seepage petrification. In an account published in the Carbon County News and dated November 11, 1926, Siegfriedt reported that he had meticulously preserved the mineral matrix that had been deposited around the tooth, and several dentists identified the mold created as being a human second lower molar. The tooth, however, came from the lower level of the mine - from an Eocene deposit dated at 30 million years old. Siegfriedt could generate no interest in his find among other specialists, and as far as is known, no one has done any further study of the mystery.

Massachusetts In the June, 1851 issue of Scientific American (volume 7, pages 298-299), a report was reprinted from the Boston Transcript about two parts of a metallic vase dynamited out of solid rock on Meeting House Hill, Dorchester, Massachusetts. When the two parts were put together, they formed a bellshaped vase, 4 1/2 inches high, 6 1/2 inches at the base, 2 1/2 inches at the top and an eighth of an inch thick. The metal of the vase was composed of an alloy of zinc and a considerable portion of silver. On the sides were six figures of a flower in bouquet arrangements, inlaid with pure silver, and around the lower part a vine, or wreath, also inlaid with silver. The chasing, carving, and inlaying are exquisitely done by the art of some unknown craftsman - yet this curiosity was blown out of solid pudding stone from 15 feet below the surface. Estimated age - 100,000 years. Unfortunately, the vase was circulated from museum to museum, and then disappeared. It is probably gathering dust in some curator's basement, its identity or source long forgotten.


The Choctaws preserve a dim tradition that, after crossing the Mississippi, they met a race of men whom they called the Na-hon-lo, tall in stature and of fair complexion, who had emigrated from the sunrise. They had once been a mighty people, but were then few in number, and soon disappeared after the incoming of the Choctaws. This race of men were, according to tradition, tillers of the soil and peacable. There had like wise been a race of cannibals, who feasted on the bodies of their enemies. They, too were giants, and utilized the mammoth as their burden bearers. They kept them closely herded, and as they devoured everything and broke down the forest, this was the orgin of praries Nevada In July, 1877, four prospectors were looking for gold and silver outcroppings in a desolate, hilly area near the head of Spring Valley, not far from Eureka, Nevada. Scanning the rocks, one of the men spotted something peculiar projecting from a high ledge. Climbing up to get a better look, the prospector was surprised to find a human leg bone and knee cap sticking out of solid rock. He called to his companions, and together they dislodged the oddity with picks. Realizing they had a most unusual find, the men brought it into Eureka, where it was placed on display. The stone in which the bones were embedded was a hard, dark red quartzite, and the bones themselves were almost black with carbonization - indicative of great age. When the surroundi

OHIO Ohio and the Mound Builders 38 pound copper ax was found in one of the Hopewell mounds of Ohio. Estimates of the number of moundworks in Ohio aloneat the end of the Colonial periodtopped ten thousand. Today, less than one-twentieth of these exist in reconstructed form. , There were mounds situated in the eastern part of the village of Conneaut and an extensive burying-ground near the Presbyterian church, which appear to have had no connection with the burying-places of the Indians. Among the human bones found in the mounds were some belonging to men of gigantic structure. Some of the skulls were of sufficient capacity to admit the head of an ordinary man, and jaw bones that might have been fitted on over the face with equal facility; the other bones were proportionately large. The burying-ground referred to contained about four acres, and with the exception of a slight angle in conformity with the natural contour of the ground was in the form of an oblong square. It appeared to have been accurately surveyed into lots running from north to south, and exhibited all the order and propriety of arrangement deemed necessary to constitute Christian burial... Historical Collections of Ohio in Two Volumes by Henry Howe, LL.D. (1888) The first record of giants in Ohio can be traced back to 1829. A near by mound was being used to furnish the material to build a hotel in Chesterville. As they dug into the mounds, the workers dug up a large human skeleton. The local physician examining the skeleton said that the skull could have easily fit over a normal man's head with no difficulty. Another pecularity of the skeleton was the additonal teeth it had compared to modern man. In the Ohio River Valley, Indian Mounds abound. In 1872,Seneca Township, Noble County, Ohio, in what is now called 'Bates' Mound three skeletons wre found. All three skeletons unearthed were at the very least eight feet tall in heighth with bone structure proportional to their height. Another amazing discovery about these skeletons is that they all had double rows of teeth.

Later, in 1878, another discovery in the county of Ashtabula County, Ohio. Mounds were excavated on land belonging to Peleg Sweet, a man of large features. In the first mound, theyt unearthed a skull and jaw which were of such size that the skull would cover Sweet's head and the jaw could be easily slipped over his face. Excavating further, they discovered these mounds contained the graves estimated between two and three thousand. Many of the skeletons found were of gigantic proportions. According to Indian Legend there were two different races of strange humans that pre-existed their culture. One was the Archaic people who had slender bodies with long narrow heads.. The other group was the Adena people who had a massive bone structure with a short head. The Archaics were living in the Ohio River Valley prior to the Adenas. In what is assumed to be around 1000 BC, the Adenas moved into the area , coming up from the South, to claim dominion over the land. After a great war, the Archaics were destroyed by this more advanced and powerful race. From the Adenas the art of mound building was established . David Cusic, a Tuscorora by birth, wrote in 1825 that among the legends of the ancient people there was a powerful tribe called Ronnongwetowanca. They were giants, and had a "considerable habitation." He states that when the Great Spirit made the people, some of them became giants. They made themselves feared by attacking when most unexpected. After having endured the outrages of these giants for a great long time, the people banded together to destroy them. With a final force of about 800 warriors, they successfully annihilated the abhorrent Ronnongwetowanca. There were no giants anywhere after this, it was said. This was supposed to have happened around 2,500 winters before Columbus arrived in America, i.e. circa 1,000 B.C.-the time that the Adena seem to have arrived in the Ohio Valley. Modern day archaeology and anthropology have literallly sealed the doors to the true history of our ancestors. Archeological discoveries have become a one way door. What was discovered went to the Smithsonian Institute and others like it where the contents have been virtually sealed off to all but the elite few. But by digging through the archives of old newspapers, remaining documents, diaries and Indian legends we can form some idea as to what laid in our past. The Scientific American, in 1883, published the following account: Two miles from Mandan, on the bluffs near the junction of the Hart and Missouri Rivers, says the local newspaper, the Pioneer, is an old Cemetery of fully 100 acres in extent filled with bones of a giant race. This vast city of the dead lies just east of the Fort Lincoln road. The ground has the appearance of having been filled with trenches piled full of dead bodies, both man and beast, and covered with several feet of earth. In many places mounds from 8 to 10 feet high, and some of them 100 feet or more in length, have been thrown up and are filled with bones, broken pottery, vases of various bright colored flint, and agates ... showing the work of a people skilled in the arts and possessed of a high state of civilization. This has evidently been a grand battlefield, where thousands of men ... have fallen. ...Five miles above Mandan, on the opposite side of the Missouri, is another vast cemetery, as yet unexplored. We asked an aged Indian what his people knew of these ancient grave yards. He answered: "Me know nothing about them. They were here before the red man." From the Ironton Register, a small Ohio River town newspaper, dated 5 May 1892,: Where Proctorville now stands was one day part of a well paved city, but I think the greatest part of it is now in the Ohio river. Only a few mounds, there; one of which was near the C. Wilgus mansion and contained a skeleton of a very large person, all double teeth, and sound, in a jaw bone that would go over the jaw with the flesh on, of a large man; The common burying ground was well filled with skeletons at a depth of about 6 feet. Part of the pavement was of boulder stone and part of well preserved brick. ----------------------------------------------------Evidence for the occupation of this region before the appearance of the red man and the white race is to be found in almost every part of the county, as well as through the northwest generally. In removing the gravel bluffs, which are numerous and deep, for the construction and repair of roads, and in excavating cellars, hundreds of human skeletons, some of them of giant form, have been found. A citizen of Marion County estimates that there were

about as many human skeletons in the knolls of Marion County as there are white inhabitants at present! The History of Marion County, Ohio 1883 compiled from past accounts, published in 1883 ---------------------------------------------------------Mastodonic remains are occasionally unearthed, and, from time to time, discoveries of the remains of Indian settlements are indicated by the appearance of gigantic skeletons, with the high cheek bones, powerful jaws and massive frames peculiar of the red man, who left these as the only record with which to form a clew to the history of past ages. The History of Brown County, Ohio (complied from past accounts, published in 1883) -----------------------------------------------------------------She said also that three skeletons were found at the mouth of the Paw Paw Creek many years later, while Nim (Nimrod) Satterfield was justice of the peace. Jim Dean and some men were digging for a bridge foundation and found these bones at the lower end of the old buffalo wallow. She thought it was Dr. Kidwell, of Fairmont, who examined them and said they were very old, perhaps thousands of years old. She said that when the skeletons were exposed to the weather for a few days, their bones turned black and began to crumble, that Squire Satterfield had them buried in the Joliffe graveyard (Rivesville). All these skeletons, she said, were measured, and found to be about eight feet long. Now and Long Ago-A History of the Marion County Area by Glen Lough (1969) (This citation on West Virginia courtesy Dave Cain.) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Collected Accounts of James Mooney (1861-1921), tells of the visit of very tall people from the west: James Wafford, of the western Cherokee, who was born in Georgia in 1806, says that his grandmother, who must have been born about the middle of the last century, told him that she had heard from the old people that long before her time a party of giants had once come to visit the Cherokee. They were nearly twice as tall as common men, and had their eyes set slanting in their heads, so that the Cherokee called them Tsunil kalu, "the Slanteyed people," because they looked like the giant hunter Tsul kalu. They said that these giants lived far away in the direction in which the sun goes down. The Cherokee received them as friends, and they stayed some time, and then returned to their home in the west... ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

A document dated March 3 1880 records an excavation in Brush Creek Township, Muskingurn County. A site was excavated on the farm of J.M. Baughman. In this particular muond was discovered the bones of men and women, buried in couples . The length of their skeletons exceeding eight and even nine feet! The excavation was started in early December 1870. What is most interesting and IMPORTANT here is the discovery of a large stone tablet inscribed with an ancient eastern form of writing. These are what is now refered to as the Brush Creek Tablets. *See Morman Tablets

Modern anthropologists have put forward the theory that once the giants existed in great number, and were the dominant race prior to the advent of modem and smaller races of men and women. Being warlike, they diminished their number in great wars (as the thousands of mound burials in the Ohio River Valley attest), and were eventually subjugated by the smaller, but more numerous races. Although the giants of yesteryears may have

been destroyed, the genes still rise in modern man ie. children born with 6 toes or fingers, double rows of teeth and giant sizes such as shown in the picture at the top of the page. Click below to see the Ohio Mounds Presentation We can find another example of the existence of giant 'bearded' men, through the tradition of the Chippewa, Sandusky, and Tawa tribes., "In this connection I would say that Mr. Jonathan Brooks, now living in town, stated to me, that his father, Benjamin Brooks, who lived with the Indians fourteen years, and was well-acquainted with their language and traditions, told him and others that it was a tradition of the Indians that the first tribe occupying this whole country, was a blackbearded race, very large in size, and subsequently a red bearded race or tribe came and killed or drove off all the black beards, as they called them." The Firelands Pioneer (1858) A mound near Toledo, Ohio, held 20 skeletons, seated and facing east with jaws and teeth "twice as large as those of present day people," and besides each was a large bowl with "curiously wrought hieroglyphic figures." (Chicago Record, Oct. 24, 1895; cited by Ron G. Dobbins, NEARA Journal, v13, fall 1978) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------In 1826, a well dug near the Ohio river in north Cincinnati failed to produce water, but did produce the unexpected. From a level 94 feet down, a buried tree stump was brought to the surface which showed the marks of an ax. The marks were deep and well-cut, indicating the use of a sharp and durable blade.The suspicion that the ax had been made of metal was confirmed when, embedded in the top of the stump, an advanced oxidized wedge of iron was found. The layer from which the stump came was estimated to be between 50,000 and 75,000 years old nearly 10 times the accepted age of the supposed first metal usage. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------The Los Angeles News of December 17, 1869 printed an account supplied to the paper by a correspondent of the Cleveland Herald, writing from Wellsville, Ohio. The account described how in the autumn of the year, at a coal mine operated by a Captain Lacey of Hammondville, a miner named James Parsons was loosening a large mass at a depth of 100 feet, when he suddenly exposed a smooth slate wall covered with strange alphabetic writing. The letters were raised and well defined. The coal that had covered the wall bore their distinct impression - which means the letters date to a time when the coal was in a vegetable state, and had molded itself against the wall. Each sign was three-quarters of an inch in size, and arranged in rows precisely spaced 3 inches apart. The first line of letters contained 25. Local teachers and ministers examined the find, but could offer no explanations. Unfortunately, just before a number of university professors arrived to verify the discovery, the slate surface disintegrated from exposure to air, and the script was lost. Nevertheless, the find was well-documented, and attested to by several reliable witnesses. But the most disturbing fact about the mysterious slate wall and its glyphs was their undeniable presence in coal - coal from the Carboniferous era, well over 200 million years old.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------OKLAHOMA In 1912, two employees of the Municipal Electric Plant of Thomas, Oklahoma, were shoveling coal into the plant furnaces, using fuel which had been mined near neighboring Wilberton. One chunk of coal was too large to handle, so the workmen took a sledge hammer to it. Once it broke open, however, the workmen found that the chunk contained an iron pot, and upon its removal, the two coal halves bore the "mold" of the pot in its interiors. Both employees signed affidavits testifying to the authenticity of the discovery, and the iron pot was subsequently examined by several experts - every one of which was most reluctant to comment on the pot, and the circumstances surrounding its discovery. This was most understandable, since the object came from coal dated from 300 to 325 million years

On June 27,1969, workmen cutting into a rock shelf situated on the Broadway Extension of 122nd Street, between Edmond and Oklahoma City, came upon a find that was to create much controversy among the experts. The find was an inlaid tile floor, found 3 feet below the surface, and covering several thousand square feet. Durwood Pate, an Oklahoma City geologist, commented on the floor in the Edmond Booster of July 3, 1969: "I am sure this was man-made because the stones are placed in perfect sets of parallel lines which intersect to form a diamond shape, all pointing to the east. We found post holes which measure a perfect two rods from the other two. The top of the stone is very smooth, and if you lift one of them, you will find it is very jagged, which indicates wear on the surface. Everything is too well placed to be a natural formation." Pate also discovered a form of mortar between the tiles. He believes now that the tile surface served as a common floor for several human shelters over a wide area. Delbert Smith, a geologist and president of the Oklahoma Seismograph Company, summed up the mystery concerning the tile floor in the Tulsa World of June 29, 1969: "There is no question about it. It had been laid there, but I have no idea by whom." Yet another facet of the mystery involved the question of age. There are some differing opinions as to the geology involved, but the best estimate places the tiles at 200,000 years old. TENNESSEE In the early spring of 1891, a farmer named J.H. Hooper was examining a wooded ridge on his property, located in Bradley County, 13 miles from Cleveland, Tennessee. A peculiar stone caught his attention, which he first took to be a grave marker. But digging around it, he soon discovered that the stone was only a surface projection of a subterranean structure that extended into the depths below. Hopper spent the next several weeks in an attempt to uncover his unusual find: A length of wall, traced for a thousand feet, on the average 2 feet thick and 8 feet high, with numerous projections - like the first one - spaced along the top every 25 to 30 feet. The wall ran roughly at an angle of 15 to 20 degrees east. The structure continues on beyond the section exposed, in both directions, following the crest of a ridge that extends from the Hiawassee river north of Chattanooga southward, where it dips beneath the Tennessee river. Its position dates it geologically to near the beginning of the Quaternary - well over a million years old. The wall is composed of red sandstone blocks constructed in three courses, cemented together with a dark red clay mixed with salt, and in numerous places is plastered over with red, slate and yellow clays. Along one stretch of wall, near the northern end a distance of 16 feet, Hooper made without a doubt the most important discovery: Hidden beneath the outer clay plasterings, a number of the sandstone block surfaces were covered with the hieroglyphs of a lost language. The letters were arranged in wavy, parallel and diagonal lines, interspersed with small pictures of strange animals, many unidentifiable. there were other symbols too, of the sun and crescent moon, which appear to have some astronomical significance. All together, 872 individual characters were made out, many repeated - suggesting the script is a form of pictographic writing, like Chinese. Despite the implications of the wall, and the challenge of the discovery of an unknown writing, the find was met by the scientific community with overwhelming apathy. A short notice on the Tennessee mystery wall appeared in the Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences (11:26-29), written by A.L. Rawson, who examined the structure and script first-hand, as well as published copies he had made of some of the glyphs and pictures. But that was all; no further study was ever made.


A week later, Ottinger returned to the plateau with Dr. J.P. Marwitt, professor of anthropology at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City, several photographers, a news reporter, and a number of observers. With cameras recording the event, Dr. Marwitt carefully removed the lower halves of two human skeletons. The bones were articulated - that is, laid out naturally - showing the bodies had not fallen or been washed into the stratum in which they were situated. These and other factors revealed the bones to be as old as the layer in which they were found. The one problem was, the layer is Lower Dakota and Upper Morrison formations -over 100 million years of age, according to uniformitarian geologists. Yet, as Marwitt noted, the bones were not simian or even half-ape: They were fully human and modern-looking. The skeletons were taken by Marwitt back with him to the University of Utah, to run laboratory er run, there was no official confirmation. One gets the impression they were, and that the findings were too disturbing for conservative thinking. Marwitt suddenly became "disinterested" in the project, and left Utah to take up a teaching position elsewhere. After a year waiting for results, Ottinger recovered the bones - and that ended the scientific inquiry.

West Virgina Ancient European Skeleton Recovered In West Virginia Cave Cave Skeleton is European, 1,300 Years Old, Man Says Sept. 29, 2002 MORGANTOWN - The man who first advanced the theory that markings carved on in a Wyoming County cave are actually characters from an ancient Irish alphabet has found human remains at the site, which tests indicate are European in origin and date back to A.D. 710, he maintains. Robert Pyle of Morgantown says that a DNA analysis of material from the skeleton's teeth roots was conducted by Brigham Young University. That analysis, he says, shows that the skeleton's DNA, when compared to samples from Native American groups and an array of European sources, most closely matches samples from the British Isles. Pyle says the DNA test, plus a radiocarbon test that dates the skeleton to 710, suggest the presence of a European visitor to the North American continent nearly 800 years before the arrival of Columbus, and nearly 300 years before Viking Leif Erickson

The American Anthropologist, volume IX (1896), page 66, describes the finding of a perfect human imprint in stone about 4 miles north of Parkersburg, on the West Virginia side of the Ohio river. The track was 14 1/2 inches long, and was found embedded in a large stone. Though few specifics were given, one expert has calculated from the type of rock depicted, and its position on the river's edge, that the track must be at least 150 million years old, according to modern geologic dating..

WISCONSIN GIANTS Wisconsin a stone ax was discovered, twenty-eight inches long, fourteen inches wide, eleven inches thick, and weighing three hundred pounds. Makes you want to re-think the Paul Bunyan stories doesn't it! -----------------------------Excerpt from 1823 manuscript prepared by Stephen H. Long, Major USTE by order of the Hon. J.C. Calhoun, Secretary of War. There are at present but few Indians in the immediate vicinity of the fort, and none can give an account of the works which are so abundantly scattered over the country. They say that the only means by which they can account for them is to suppose that the country was probably inhabited, at a period anterior to the most remote traditions, by a race of white men, similar to those of European origin,and that they were cut off by their forefathers. This supposition is grounded upon the circumstance of their having found human bones buried in the earth at a much greater depth than that, at which they are accustomed to inter their dead; and in graves which differ from theirs, inasmuch as they are unaccompanied by instruments of any kind, whereas they never omit depositing the arms, &c. with the corpse of the deceased. It is also said that tomahawks of brass (?) and other implements differing from those in common use among the present Indians, have likewise been found under the surface of the ground.. The fortifications appear to them likewise to be a proof of the correctness of their opinion, as none of the Indians are in the habit of constructing works of a similar character, and as indeed they are unacquainted with the utility of them. "Mr. Brisbois, who has been for a long time a resident of Prairie du Chien, informed me that he saw the skeletons of eight persons, that were found, in digging a cellar near his house, lying side by side. They were of a gigantic size, measuring about eight feet from head to foot. He added that he took a leg bone of one of them and placed it by the side of his own leg, in order compare the length of the two; the bone of the skeleton extended six inches above his knee. None of these bones could be preserved as they crumbled to dust soon after they were exposed to the atmosphere."* [Note : * Major Long's MS. No. 2, folio 25.] We saw a number of Indian graves on the prairie, but as they were modern they offered nothing peculiar. They resemble the graves of white men, but the sod over them is covered with boards or bark, secured to stakes driven into the ground, so as to form a sort of roof over the grave; at the head, poles were erected for the purpose of supporting flags; a few tatters of one of these still waved over the grave. An upright post was also fixed near the head, and upon this the deeds of the deceased, whether in the way of hunting or fighting, were inscribed with red or black paint. The graves were placed upon mounds in the prairie, this situation having doubtless been selected as being the highest and least likely to be overflowed. From a series of observations, taken at this place, it results that Fort Crawford is situated in latitude 43 3' 31' north, and longitude 90 52' 30' west. The magnetic variation amounts here to 8 48' 52' east.