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Statics Notes Dr. Daniel C.

Deckler The University of Akron Wayne College

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Chapter 1 - Introduction Mechanics - the physical science which describes or predicts the conditions of rest or motion of bodies under the action of forces. A. Rigid bodies 1. statics 2. dynamics B. Deformable bodies C. luid Mechanics 1. compressible - gas 2. incompressible - li!uids "n #tatics we will assume the bodies to be perfectly rigid$ no deformation. %his is ne&er true in the real world$ e&erything deforms a little when a load is applied. %hese deformations are small and will not significantly affect the conditions of e!uilibrium or motion$ so we will neglect the deformations. Rigid body - a body is considered rigid when the relati&e mo&ement between its parts are negligible. Basic concepts' space$ time$ mass$ force 1. space - the geometric region occupied by bodies whose positions are described by linear and angular measurements relati&e to a coordinate system.

. Cartesian

2( time - the measure of the succession of e&ents )( mass - the measure oaf the inertia of a body$ which is its resistance to a change of motion. sometimes called *!uantity of matter* +( force - the action of one body on another ,ewton de&eloped the fundamentals of mechanics. %he concepts abo&e$ space$ time$ and mass are absolute$ independent of each other in ,ewtonian Mechanics.

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As an aside'

/amiltonian Mechanics - impulse and momentum 0angrangian Mechanics - energy ,ewtonian Mechanics - forces

Newton's 3 Fundamental Laws 1st 0aw 2nd 0aw A particle remains at rest or continues to mo&e in a straight line with a constant speed if there is no unbalanced force acting on it 1resultant force 2 3(. the acceleration of a particle is proportional to the resultant force acting on it and is in the direction of this force. F 2 ma 11( )rd 0aw the forces of action and reaction between interacting bodies are e!ual in magnitude$ opposite in direction$ and act along the same line of action 1Collinear(.

Newton's Law of Gravitation


Mm r2 F 2 mutual force of attraction between 2 particles G 2 uni&ersal constant 4nown as the constant of gra&itation M$ m 2 masses of the 2 particles r 2 distance between the 2 particles F =G

12(

r m M %his says that 2 particles of mass M and m are mutually attracted with e!ual and opposite forces. 5ne important case - the attraction of the earth on a particle located on its surface. 6hat am " tal4ing about7 6eight.

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"f we introduce the constant


g= GM r2

1)(

and let' M 2 mass of earth m 2 mass of a particle r 2 radius of earth g 2 acceleration of gra&ity at earth8s surface using 1)(
G= gr 2 M

substituting into 12(


F= gr 2 M Mm 2 r

F = mg W = mg or using F = ma at the surface of the 9arth

weight

g is dependent upon r. Most cases use

a=g F = mg W = mg

g 2 :.;1 m<s= 2 )2.2 ft< s= System of nits Base units are units of length$ mass and time. #" >nits 9nglish >nits orce' ,ewton 1,( 1 , 2 11 4g(11 m< s=( 1 ,ewton is the force re!uired to gi&e a mass of 1 4g an acceleration of 1 m< s=. 0ength Meter 1m( oot 1ft( Mass ?ilogram 14g( #lug 1slug( %ime #econd 1s( #econd 1s(

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6eight is a force. %he weight of 1 4g Mass is' W = mg W 2 11 4g(1:.;1 m< s=( W 2 :.;1 , @et to 4now #" prefi.es. >nits of Area and Aolume' Area has units 10ength(= Aolume has units 10ength() 0etBs go o&er the 9nglish #ystem' F = ma 1 lb 2 m 11 ft<s2( m 2 1 lb s2 <ft 2 1 slug 6hat is the mass of an obCect that weighs 1 pound7 F = mg 1 lb 2 m 1)2.2 ft< s=( m 2 1<)2.2 lb s2<ft 2 1<)2.2 slug %his is the difference between Mass and 6eight. 1 lb is the force re!uired to gi&e a mass of 1 slug an acceleration of 1 ft< s=. 1 lb is the force re!uired to gi&e a mass of 1<)2.2 slug an acceleration of )2.2 ft< s=. W = mg m = W<g 6hat is the weight of an obCect that has a mass of 1 slug7 W 2 11 lb s= < ft(1)2.2 ft< s=( W 2 )2.2 lbs W<g is often substituted for m$ especially in the 9nglish #ystem. orce is in DoundsE Mass is in #lugsE orget about the 1 lb mass stuff.

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Con&ersion from one #ystem of >nits to Another' 1 ft 2 3.)3+; m 1 lb 2 +.++; , 1 slug 2 1 lb s= <ft 2 1+.F: 4g ,umerical Accuracy' %he accuracy of the solution depends on' 1. Accuracy of gi&en data 2. Accuracy of computations 9.ample' gi&en 13.1$ :.;1$ and 13.2$ what is their a&erage7 13.2 G :.; G 13.2 2 ).31 AA@ 2 )3.11<) 2 13.)HHHI AA@ 2 13.+ CanBt get more accurate than the least accurate J. Method of Droblem #ol&ing' 1. 2. ). +. F. H. state the gi&en data state the results desired draw necessary diagrams 1free-body diagrams( de&elop e!uations sol&e the problem to obtain solution chec4 solution a. C/9C? >,"%#EE

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