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A link has fixed length and is joined to other links and also possibly to a fixed point. The relative velocity of end B regard to A is given by VBA = r = BA k( i x + j y) = BA ( i y + j x ) Vector r = i x + j y in two dimensions 1 A x with j y vBA B = x+jy BA i

Note AB is the counter clockwise direction angular velocity. The relative velocity is always perpendicular to the line joining the linkage ends, but Equation 1 can be seen by inspection. y Or note |VBA| = AB r . The i component is |VBA| sin = |VBA| r = AB y . This we have in Equation 1. The j component arises in a similar way. The relative acceleration has two components . One component is centripetal and the other azimuthal or, one might say, circumferential. There is no Coriolis acceleration since the "radius" or barlink length is constant. The centripetal acceleration of B w. r. t. A aBArad = ( r) = BA2(i x + j y) The azimuthal acceleration aABazim = = BA( i y +j x) aBA = aBArad + aABazim = BA 2(i x + j y) + BA ( i y + j x) = i ( BA2x BA y ) + j ( BA2 y + BA x ) 3 A 2 aBAazim = BA2 k(ix+jy) = BA2 (-iy+jx) j y aBArad = - BA2 (ix+jy) B = ix+jy BA, angular acceleration BA, angular velocity x i 0 0 Formally = k and r = x y 0 i j k

## Four bar linkages Example B 260 mm 100 mm 240 mm A 100 mm 80 mm O 60 mm 180 mm C 80 mm x i y j

OA is rotating at constant angular velocity o counterclockwise. Find all velocities and accelerations. Velocities Take AO. In eq. 1 x 60, y 80 The velocity of A w. r. t. O is vAO = o( i 80 +j(60) ) = o(i80 + j60) Similarly vBA = BA ( i 100 + j 240 ) 4 5

where BA is the ( at present unknown) counterclockwise angular velocity of BA And vCB = CB[ i(180) + j 0 )] = CB i180 6

where CB is the ( at present unknown) counterclockwise angular velocity of CB. Thus we can express the velocity of C which is zero as 0 = vCO = vAO + vBA + vCB = o(i80 + j60) + BA ( -i100 + j 240 ) + CB i180 Compare j components 0 = o60 + BA 240 BA = 4o 7

8 9 10

7 o Compare i components; 0 = o80 AB100 + CB 180 CB = 12 Finally vB = CB (180) = 105 o in x-direction as in the figure

B 260 mm 100 mm 240 mm A 100 mm 80 mm O 60 mm 180 mm C 80 mm x i y j

## aAO = o2( i 60 + j 80)

11

aBA = BA2 ( i 240+j100) + BA ( i 100+j 240) and aBC = BA2(ix + jy) + BA( iy + jx )

12

o Note that we have BA = 4 ; BA is yet to be determined. And aCB = CB2(j180) + CB [ 0 (- i180)] = i180 CB+ j180 CB2 Thus the acceleration of C , which is zero is given by 0 = aCO = aAO + aBA + aCB = o2( i60 j 80) BA2 ( i240+j100) + BA ( i100 + j 240) + j180 CB2 + i180 CB Compare j coefficients: 0 = 80 o2 100BA2 + 240BA + 180 CB2 whence 14 13

## 100 49 240BA = 80 o2 + 100BA2 80 CB2 = o2 80 + 180 144 16 5 and BA = 48 o2 15

Compare i coefficients: 0 = 60o2 240BA2 100 BA + 180 CB 100 69 240 49 0 = o2 60 16 +180 144 48 16 + 180 CB

## Four bar linkages 83 2 CB = 432 o

Thus

16

From the angular accelerations the linear accelerations follow fairly easily. To recap the data: o BA = 4 7 ; CB = 12o

5 83 BA = 48 o2 ; CB = 432 o2 From eq. 11 and we may write aAO = ( i 60 j 80)o2 aBC = aBO = i180 CB j 180 CB2 415 245 = i 12 j 4 = i 3458 j 6125
B 260 mm 100 mm A 80 mm O 180 mm C j y 80 mm x i

60 mm

Four bar linkages Alternative approach We may work directly with the diagrams for velocities and accelerations examining the geometry of each. Velocity Diagram
-125

g (ii)

vB
-80

(iv)
-60 -40

vCB
-20 -10

vBA vA
(i)

## -20 -30 -40 -50 -60

(iii) d

The angles and are taken from the geometry of the system. (iv) Whence vCB = 105 sin = 5; 13 cos =
12 ;tan 13

5 = 12

6013 60 We have vBA = cos = 12 = 65 mm s1 Since the length of AB is 260 mm BA = 65 1 260 = 025 rad s

sin = 4 ; cos = 3 5 5 (i) We may enter vA at the angle as shown and with o = 1 using mm s1 as units. Or take vA with component 80 vertically and 60 horizontally. (ii) vBA is at an angle as shown and since vB has only a horizontal component the length cg = 60 5 (iii) Now tan = 12 then 5 c-d = 12 60 = 25

## Similarly the angular velocity of BC BC = 105 7 1 180 = 12 rad s .

Four bar linkages Acceleration Diagram As before the angles and are taken from the geometry of the system. sin = 5 ; cos = 12 13 13 sin =4 ; 5 cos =
3 5 -20

(vii) 415/12
f

g
50 60

10

20

30

40

245/4 (iv)
-40

The order of steps is shown by roman numerals on the diagram. (i) We may put in aA straight off and enter the 80 dimension gaA( setting o = 1)

(ii) & (iii)aA e is the radial acceleration of B towards A and this we get knowing AB. a A e = 260 ( o / 4 ) 2. Hence the dimensions aA b and bc. -60 (iv) The length f-e is the radial acceleration of B w. r. t. C We have CB = 7/12 and so -80 f-e = 245/4 (v) So, knowing the dimensions on the right we find de = 25. (vi)Since c-e is the transverse acceleration to B w. r. t. A and we have the angle and can compute the dimension d-c. (vii) Whence fO follows . The diagram is solved. To get the angular accelerations, BC = 25 (v)

80 (i)

aB
d c

aA
b

25/4 (ii)

125/12 (vi)

15 (iii)

## f- O 415 83 2 = = BC 12 180 432 rad s clockwise : see diagram.

ce 325 5 AB = 260 = 12 260 = 48 rad s2 counter clockwise : see diagram. This process could be done approximately with a ruler and pencil. It does not always happen that the numbers come in as convenient integers as they do here.

## Slider and Crank & Connecting Rod A 0 c r

j i

x The slider B moves only horizontally. It is as if B were on the end on an infinitely long rod whose fixed end was at . Velocities. vA = o( i c sin + j c cos) = o c ( i sin + j cos ) vBA = BA ( i r (sin) + j r cos ) = BA r ( i sin+ j cos) 1 2

Thus vB = vA + vBA = i( c sin + r sin) + j ( o c cos + AB r sin) 3 Since the vertical or j component of vB = 0 we get c cos BA = o r cos and c sin Note tan = xc cos so vB = i o c( sin cos tan) vB = i o c = i o x sin + c sin cos c sin cos x c cos c x sin x c cos 6 4 5

We could have arrived at the last expression by using the cosine rule and the geometry of the connections: r2 = c2 + x2 2 c x cos Take the derivative w. r. t. time: or since o = The velocity diagram is shown below.
' ' 2cx ' cos + 2 c x sin 0 = 0 + 2x x '

## o co c osin( + ) vB sin(+) = cos ; vb = cos 9

which agrees with equation 5 above. Note that there are various other ways of approaching this analysis: look carefully at the problem. For example we could use the sine rule on the original geometry sin sin c = r Take the derivative w. r. t. : so r : sin = c sin

## c cos ' c cos ' = AB = r cos = o r cos : which is eq. 4

Acceleration A 0 c r

j i

x We suppose that the crank OA is going at constant speed so OA = 0 aA = o2( i c cos + j c sin) = o2c ( i cos + j sin) And aBA = BA2( i r cos j r sin) + BA( i (r sin) + j r cos) = BA2 r ( i cos + j sin) + BA r ( i sin + j cos) and aB = aA + aBA = i( o2c cos BA2 r cos+ BA r sin) + j ( o2c sin+ BA2 r sin + BA r cos) Since B moves only horizontally the j component of acceleration is zero and 0 = o2c sin+ BA2 r sin + BA r cos so Since 1 BA = r cos ( o2c sin BA2 r sin) BA = o c cos r cos

o2 c BA = 2 3 ( r sin cos2 c sin cos2) r cos and aB = o2 c r cos2 r (sin tan cos) c cos3

This can hardly be counted as a simple expression. For particular cases the solutions may be simpler. In any event the complexity of the formula suggests either to use a computer or to insert numerical values early in the analysis.