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Colegio de San Juan de Letran

College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking Final Period: MAJOR PROJECT Name: __________________________________________
(SURNAME, NAME M.I.)

Due date: 23 September 2013

Course & Year: ____________ Score: ____________

Date: ___/___/___ Class No. ________

Class-hour: ____________

ANSWER SHEET
GENERAL DIRECTIONS: Read the following statements carefully and answer each item accordingly. Strictly No Erasures on the space provided in each test item. [Total: 80 points] TEST I 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ TEST II 11. ____________ 12. ____________ 13. ____________ 14. ____________ 15. ____________ 16. ____________ 17. ____________ 18. ____________ 19. ____________ 20. ____________ TEST VI 51. ____________ 52. ____________ 53. ____________ 54. ____________ 55. ____________ 56. ____________ 57. ____________ 58. ____________ 59. ____________ 60. ____________ TEST III 21. ____________ 22. ____________ 23. ____________ 24. ____________ 25. ____________ 26. ____________ 27. ____________ 28. ____________ 29. ____________ 30. ____________ TEST VII 61. ____________ 62. ____________ 63. ____________ 64. ____________ 65. ____________ 66. ____________ 67. ____________ 68. ____________ 69. ____________ 70. ____________ TEST IV 31. ____________ 32. ____________ 33. ____________ 34. ____________ 35. ____________ 36. ____________ 37. ____________ 38. ____________ 39. ____________ 40. ____________ TEST VIII 71-72. ____________ 73-74. ____________ 75-76. ____________ 77-78. ____________ 79-80. ____________

10. ____________ TEST V 41. ____________ 42. ____________ 43. ____________ 44. ____________ 45. ____________ 46. ____________ 47. ____________ 48. ____________ 49. ____________ 50. ____________

TEST I: IDENTIFICATION. Ascertain the correct word/s in each question and write your answers on the space provided above. [10 points] 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. What is the statement which serves as the evidence or proof of an argument? What is the statement which follows form the evidence of an argument? What is the Aristotelian term for the word argument? Which among the four Figures where the middle terms are both found in the predicate column? How many possible combinations are there in Figure one? What particular rule number is violated when there are two exclusive premises? What type of categorical proposition wherein the subject and predicate are both distributed? Is this syllogistic form: EAE-3 valid or invalid? Which among these two syllogistic forms is valid: EAE-1 or AAA-4?

10. Using the Traditional Square of Opposition, if I-proposition is False, then what is its subaltern value? TEST II: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the correct logic concept being described in the following statements based on the given choices below. Write only the letter on the space provided above. [10 points] A. Affirmative term B. Argument C. Common Sense D. Conclusion E. Contradiction F. Contrary G. Deductive H. Fallacy I. Inductive J. Premises K. Proposition L. Sound M. Syllogistic Logic N. Universal term O. Valid

11. An argument is ____ if the premises claim to give conclusive grounds for the truth of the conclusion, or if the premises claim to support the conclusion with necessity. 12. An argument is ____ if it makes the milder claim that its premises support but do not guarantee its conclusion. 13. A ____ is a wrong method of argument, whether deductive or inductive. 14. When the reasoning in an argument is valid and all its premises are true, then it is called ____. 15. An ____ is not a quarrel or dispute, but an example of reasoning in which one or more statements are offered as support, justification, grounds, reasons, or evidence for another statement. 16. The statement being supported is the ____ of the argument. 17. The statements that support it are the ____ of the argument. 18. An argument is ____ if the truth of its premises guarantees the truth of its conclusion; or if the conclusion would necessarily be true on the assumption that all the premises were true 19. Aristotle's most famous achievement as logician is his theory of inference, traditionally called the ____. 20. In logical opposition, the pair consisting of an affirmation and its corresponding denial is called a ____. TEST III: CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS. Identify the type of categorical propositions (A, E, I, or O) in the following statements below. Write only the letter on the answer sheet above. [10 points] 21. Majority of those who will vote for the coming elections are young people. 22. Several of these young people are not serious voters. 23. Some lawyers are also running for senatorial positions. 24. The President of the Philippines is the head of the state. 25. Not all congressmen are worthy of praise and respect. 26. Only a few women are allowed in the government. 27. Student athletes need to maintain high grade for their scholarship. 28. All diligent students are rewarded with good grades. 29. This part of the quiz is definitely not an easy task. 30. I need to pass this final exam.

TEST IV: CATEGORICAL PROPOSITIONS. Identify the QUALITY, QUANTITY and DISTRIBUTION STATUS of the given proposition. Write only the letter on the space provided above. [10 points] A Affirmative, N Negative, U Universal, P Particular, D Distributed, UN Undistributed 31. What is the quality of the proposition, Not all giant people are sturdy? 32. What is the quantity of the proposition, All criminals are vicious? 33. What is the quality of the proposition, No politician is honest in his work? 34. What is the quantity of the proposition, This tree has a robust trunk? 35. What is the quality of the proposition, An honest person is always rewarded by God? 36. What is the value of the subject: Ants are like humans when they work together? 37. What is the value of the predicate: All dogs go to heaven? 38. What is the value of the subject: Nothing can be known outside reason? 39. What is the value of the predicate: Nearly all of us will be rewarded because of good deeds? 40. What is the value of the subject: A few of us can only understand logic? TEST V: LOGICAL OPPOSITION. Using the Traditional Square of Opposition, determine the given simple argument if it valid or invalid. If VALID, write the word valid; if INVALID, write letter X on the answer sheet above. [10 points] 41. All millionaires are generous people. Therefore, it is not true that some millionaires are not generous people. 42. No atheists are believers. Therefore, some atheists are not believers. 43. Some musicians are not pianists. Therefore, no musicians are pianists. 44. Some priests are militant advocates of radical social change. Therefore, it is false that all priests are militant advocates of radical social change. 45. All medieval scholars were pious monks living in monasteries. Therefore, it is not true that no medieval scholars were pious monks living in monasteries. 46. It is false that some political leaders of high reputation are scoundrels. Therefore, no political leaders of high reputation are scoundrels. 47. All pornographic films are menaces to civilization and human decency. Therefore, it is false that some pornographic films are menaces to civilization and human decency. 48. It is not true that some state employees are not public-spirited citizens. Therefore, all state employees are not public-spirited citizens. 49. A square circle is not possible. Therefore, it is false that all square circles are possible. 50. All public opinions are open to scrutiny and censure. Therefore, it is false that some public opinions are not open to scrutiny and censure. TEST VI: INFORMAL FALLACIES. Read carefully the following passages and identify the correct informal fallacies committed. Write only the letter on the space provided. [10 points] 51. More and more young people are attending high schools and colleges today than ever before. Yet there is more juvenile delinquency and more alienation among the young. This makes it clear that these young people are being corrupted by their education. A. Petitio Principii C. Complex Question B. False Cause D. Accident

52. Barbara remains in the hospital and needs blood donors for more transfusions. She is also having trouble sleeping and requests tapes of Pastor Jack's sermons. A. Division C. Amphiboly B. Composition D. Equivocation 53. In the 1880s, prosecutors in a Virginia court presented overwhelming proof that a boy was guilty of murdering his parents with an ax. The defense presented a "not-guilty" plea for on the grounds that the boy was now an orphan, with no one to look after his interests if the court was not lenient. A. Argumentum ad Misericordiam C. Argumentum ad Verecundiam B. Argumentum ad Populum D. Argumentum ad Baculum 54. Why should I believe the Bible? Because it's the inspired word of God. A. Converse Accident B. False Cause

C. Petitio Principii D. Accident

55. Reverend Jeremias claims that theft is wrong, but how can theft be wrong if Jeremias himself admits he stole objects when he was a child? A. Argumentum ad Baculum C. Argumentum ad Hominem Abusive B. Argumentum ad Hominem Tu Quoque D. Argumentum ad Hominem Circumstantial 56. Plato says, The end of a thing is its perfection; I say that death is the end of life; hence, death is the perfection of life. A. Division C. Equivocation B. Amphiboly D. Composition 57. Joan is scratched by a cat while visiting her friend. Two days later she comes down with a fever. Joan concludes that the cat's scratch must be the cause of her illness. A. Converse Accident C. Complex Question B. False Cause D. Petitio Principii 58. Im not a doctor, but I play one on the hit series Bimbos and Studmuffins in the OR. You can take it from me that when you need a fast, acting, effective and safe pain killer there is nothing better than MorphiDope 2000. That is my considered medical opinion. A. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam C. Argumentum ad Verecundiam B. Argumentum ad Populum D. Argumentum ad Misericordiam 59. Peter: Based on the arguments I have presented, it is evident that it is morally wrong to use animals for food or clothing. Bill: But you are wearing a leather jacket and you have a roast beef sandwich in your hand! How can you say that using animals for food and clothing is wrong! A. Argumentum ad Hominem Circumstantial C. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam B. Argumentum ad Hominem Tu Quoque D. Argumentum ad Hominem Abusive 60. I know that every action we perform is predetermined because no one has proved that we have free will. A. Argumentum ad Baculum C. Argumentum ad Ignorantiam B. Argumentum ad Hominem D. Argumentum ad Populum TEST VII: INFORMAL FALLACIES. Read carefully the following passages and choose from the Fallacies of Ambiguity (A) Equivocation, (B) Amphiboly, (C) Accent, (D) Composition, and (E) Division. Write only the letter on the space provided above. [10 points] 61. Absurd thinkers have senseless ideas. Life is absurd. Therefore, life is senseless. 62. A description of a candidate who is woefully inept: I most enthusiastically recommend this candidate with no qualifications whatsoever. 63. Although you have said you will give me no more of your time. I will not ask for any more of your time; I will just ask for the amount of time you have already given once more. 64. Each persons happiness is a good to the person, and the general happiness therefore, a good to the aggregate o f all persons. 65. Friendship needs a certain parallelism of life, a community of thought, a rivalry of aim.

66. I ought always to do what is right. I have a right to say what I think. Therefore, I ought always to say what I think. 67. Priests take a vow of poverty. The Church is a corporate body composed of priests. Therefore, the Church should not own property. 68. Since the average life span of an individual in developing countries is thirty years, the leaders in those countries grow old before they have time to learn the rudiments of good government. 69. Tell me, Diana, do you still love your boyfriend? I want to know now. 70. To burn always with this hard, gem-like flame, to maintain this ecstasy, is success in life. TEST VIII: CATEGORICAL SYLLOGISM. Analyze each question and answer them accordingly. [2 points each] 71. What is the mood of a standard-form categorical syllogism with a particular affirmative major premise, a universal negative minor premise, and a conclusion that only distributes its subject? 72. What is the figure of standard-form categorical syllogism if the minor term is the subject of the minor premise and the major term is the subject of the major premise? 73. What is the mood of a standard-form categorical syllogism with a universal negative minor premise, a particular negative major premise, and a conclusion that both distribute its term? 74. What is the figure of standard-form categorical syllogism if the major term is the subject of the major premise and the minor term is the predicate of the minor premise? 75. What is the mood of a standard-form categorical syllogism with a universal negative major premise, a universal affirmative minor premise, and a conclusion that only distributes its predicate?