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INNOVATION MANAGEMENT AND GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS

Diploma thesis

2012

Bc. Kristna Kasalo !

ABST"ACT KASALOV, Kristna: Innovation management and global competitiveness. University of E onomi s in !ratislava" #nstit$te of international pro%rams &o " #n%" 'avol (oln)r, *S " !ratislava: +(' EU, ,-1,, ./p" 0he aim of the &iploma thesis is to resear h an& analy1e metho&s of innovation i&ea %atherin% on the pra ti al e2ample of real ompany" As the main reason of innovation is in rease of ompetitiveness, the aim is also to &etermine performa e of the ompany in omparison 3ith ompetitors an& fin& the lin4 3ith innovative approa h of the ompany" Ultimate %oal is to provi&e a set of re ommen&ation for the ompany 3hi h 3ill help the ompany to improve ompetitiveness thro$%h innovation an& innovation mana%ement" 0he 3or4 is &ivi&e& in 5 hapters" #t in l$&es , harts, , ta6les an& 1 appen&i2" 0he first hapter is fo $se& on metho&olo%ies of i&ea %atherin% an& overvie3 of mana%erial systems oriente& on i&ea %eneration an& %atherin%" #t tal4s also a6o$t pro ess of implementation of innovations into 6$siness pra ti e" #n the follo3in% part 7en4el ompany is analy1e& 3ith the fo $s on i&ea %eneration an& %atherin% te hni8$es $se& at the ompany" E2 ept for hara teristi s of 7en4el, a tivities of other ompetitors from the tar%et mar4ets are &es ri6e&" All the ompanies are analy1e& from the point of vie3 of finan ial performan e 6et3een ,--9 an& ,-11 an& a or&in% to 6en hmar4in% of innovation potential" 0he res$lt of the thesis is a set of re ommen&ations for 7en4el, 3hi h are to improve ompetitiveness of the ompany thro$%h innovations an& innovation mana%ement" K#$ %or&s' #nnovation mana%ement, innovations, ompetitiveness, 7en4el, so$r es of innovation

Ta(l# o) Cont#nts
1"1" #nnovation mana%ement"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""": 1"," Definition of innovation"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""": 1";" Definition of ompetitiveness"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""11"5" <elation 6et3een innovations, innovation mana%ement an& ompetitiveness"""""""""""""""1, 1"/" So$r es of innovation an& their environment"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""1, 1"9" #nnovation transfer an& o6sta les of innovation pro ess""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""1. 1"." 7o3 to over ome o6sta les of innovation""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""1: 1"=" 0ypes of innovation mana%ement &evelopment >#n?ho$se, Li ensin%, Open innovation@O$tso$r in%@*ro3&so$r in%A"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""",, 5"1" A6o$t 7en4el"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""";5 5"," #nternal innovation at 7en4el"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""";. 5";" Open innovation at 7en4el""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""";. 5"5" *ompetitiveness analysis""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""5/ 5"/" !est pra ti es an& re ommen&ations""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""/. !oo4 reso$r es""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""9: Online reso$r es"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""".-

Intro&*ction
Bro3in% %lo6ali1ation an& onstant &evelopment of te hnolo%ies infl$en es ompanies aro$n& the 3orl&" #nnovation is a m$st no3a&ays an& presents r$ ial point of s$rvival an& %ro3th of ompanies" E2 ept lo3 osts, %oo& &istri6$tion, mar4etin% an& reasona6le pri e, innovation is other &eterminant of s$ ess of ompany on the mar4et" 7o3ever, as this on ept is not entirely ne3, it has &evelope& as 3ell an& e2perien e sho3s that only ompanies 3hi h $se innovations systemati ally stay on top" innovation is represente& 6y innovation mana%ement" Development of innovation mana%ement means evol$tion of &ifferent styles an& approa hes to reation, n$rt$rin% an& &evelopment of innovative i&eas an& their implementation" As the n$m6er of these on epts is risin% an& inf$sin% 3ith ea h other, 3e feel it is ne essary to e2amine an& assess the $rrent tren&s an& on epts $se& an& their appli a6ility in real 6$siness sit$ation" 0herefore, 3e on&$ te& resear h on innovation an& innovation mana%ement on epts tar%ete& 6y a a&emi s an& 6$siness representatives in re ent years" !ase& on this st$&y 3e form$late& 8$estions an& aim to 6e ans3ere& in the se on& part of the thesis" 0he aim relates to the on epts of innovation mana%ement $se& in pra ti e an& their relation to ompetitiveness of the ompany" #n the main o6Ce t of o$r pra ti al resear h 3e fo $se& on 7en4el, %lo6al ompany pro&$ in% hemi al ons$mer %oo&s, s$ h as osmeti s, &eter%ents an& home are pro&$ ts" De assesse& the ompany from the point of vie3 of innovation approa h an& 6$siness performan e of the sele te& se%ments of ompany to eval$ate their ompetitiveness" As the last part of the thesis 3e voi e& 6est pra ti es an& s$%%estions for improvement of the ompany" Systemati al approa h to

1. C*rr#nt stat*s o) to+ic at ,o-# an& a(roa&


1.1. Inno ation -ana.#-#nt
Vl e4 in his 6oo4 EVal$e for $stomerF &efines innovation mana%ement as E omplete, inte%rate& mana%erial tool to mana%e effe tively innovation pro ess in entreprene$rship $nit"F1 7e f$rther a&&s that only ompetitive a&vanta%e in one fiel& is $rrently not eno$%h for s$ essf$l ompany" *ompanies sho$l& try to a hieve m$lti&imensional ompetitive a&vanta%e" As a mana%erial tool it %ives tools an& frame3or4 to &ifferent levels of mana%ers thro$%h the ompany" 0op mana%ement ta4es steps in innovation pro esses on strate%i level" (i&&le mana%ement mana%es preparation an& implementation of Operative a tivities are steere& 6y line mana%ers" omple2 innovations"

#nnovation mana%ement relates to many other fiel&s of st$&y &$e to its nat$re 3hi h onsists of 4no3le&%e in &ifferent fiel&s" #n 6roa& terms, nat$ral s ien es ena6les innovation mana%ement to $se s ientifi 4no3le&%e 6ase an& ivi s ien es offer information streams" #nnovation mana%ement has ti%hter relations 3ith other mana%ement fiel&s, espe ially 3ith %eneral mana%ement, mana%ement of han%e, mar4etin% mana%ement, strate%i mana%ement an& total 8$ality mana%ement" Vl e4 also &efines str$ t$re of innovation mana%ement: metho&olo%y of preparation an& implementation of innovations, mana%erial innovative a tivities, mana%erial innovative 6ehavior",

1.2. D#)inition o) inno ation


A or&in% to (olnar innovation is &efine& as Gevery han%e in the or%anism >pro&$ t, servi e, te hnolo%y, or%ani1ational str$ t$re, et "A in the ompany 3hi h ten&s to its ne3 sta%eE";
1 ,

VLHEK, <" ,--," Hodnota pro zkaznka" 'raha : (AIABE(EI0 '<ESS, ,--," p" 9:" #S!I =-?.,91?-9=?9 #6i&, p" 9: .," ; (oln)r, '" ,--5" Innovation management" !ratislava : E4onJm, ,--5" '" 11" #S!I =-?,,/?1=11?/"

Af$ah &efines innovation as Gthe $se of ne3 te hnolo%i al an& mar4et 4no3le&%e to offer a ne3 pro&$ t or servi e that $stomers 3ill 3ant"F5 0his approa h s$%%ests that there are t3o types of 4no3le&%e 3hi h &etermine innovations mar4et 4no3le&%e an& te hnolo%i al 4no3le&%e" 0e hnolo%i al 4no3le&%e is relate& to G omponents, lin4a%es 6et3een omponents, metho&s, pro esses, an& te hni8$esF 3hi h are em6e&&e& in pro&$ t or servi e"/ 7ao$r presents innovation as Einvention onverte& into a pro&$ t, an& in&$strial pro ess or a servi e for the mar4etpla e"F9 VlKe4 on entrates on Eval$e innovationsF 3hi h he &efines as han%es in so$r e or str$ t$re of e onomi s$6Ce ts 3hi h are fo $se& on ma2imi1ation val$e for $stomer in $rrent %ro3th of ompany val$e" 0hese innovations are rea he& $sin% t3o approa hes f$n tional an& val$e approa h" At the same time, VlKe4 a&&s that s$ essf$l innovations &o not nee& to ma2imi1e $tility for $stomer 6$t optimi1e it an& at the same time optimi1e total ost 3ith ten&en y to minimi1e them". 'itra &efines innovation as Ene3 3ay of $se of e2istin% so$r es of or%ani1ation in or&er to %ain ne3 entreprene$rial e2perien e to fin& ne3 opport$nities for in rease of profit from entreprene$rial a tivities"F=

1.3. D#)inition o) co-+#titi #n#ss


*ompanies nat$rally ten& to perform as %oo& as they an on the mar4et, amon% ompetitors" 0o a hieve this never?fa&in% %oal, firms $se &ifferent te hni8$es 3hi h assess their position an& a6ilities: SDO0 analysis, finan ial analysis, val$e theory, !*B matri2, BE
5

Af$ah, A" ,--;" Innovation Management: strategies, implementation, and profits, ,n& e&" Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--;" p" 5" #S!I -?1:?/15,;-?;"
/

#6i&", p" 1;"

7ao$r, B" ,--5" Resolving the Innovation Parado : !nhancing "ro#th in $echnolog% &ompanies" 7ampshire, Ie3 Lor4 : 'al%rave (a millan, ,--5" p" 1" #S!I 1?5-;:?19/5?;"
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VlKe4, <" ,--=" Management hodnotov'ch inovac. 'raha : (ana%ement 'ress, ,--=" p" 1./ 1.9" #S!I :.=?=-?.,91?195?/"
=

'itra, M" ,--9" Management inova(nch aktivit. 'raha : 'rofessional '$6lishin%, ,--9" p" ,9" #S!I =-?=9:59?1-?N"

matri2, AnsoffOs %ro3th mo&el, !alan e& s ore ar& an& many others, 3hi h sho$l& lea& to in rease in ompetitiveness": As the 3or& ompetitiveness itself tells $s, it is relate& to a6ility to ompete 3ith other players on the mar4et" A or&in% to Himo an& 'orter ompetitiveness onsists of i&entifi ation an& $se of ompetitive a&vanta%es in a 3ay that ta4es into onsi&eration i&iosyn rasies of national e onomy an& in&$stry of ompany a tivities"1'itra e2plains that a hievin% an& 4eepin% hi%h level of follo3in% a tions: 11 innovate re%$larly pro&$ ts an& servi e, mo&erni1e pro&$ tion te hnolo%ies, &istri6$tion hannels an& ompetitiveness re8$ires

effe tively $se omm$ni ation te hnolo%ies, innovate 6$siness pro esses 6y or%ani1ational ompany, an& ens$re 8$i 4 re?sto 4in% of missin% reso$r es an& ompany 6y Coinin% strate%i allian e" *ompany ompetitiveness is a res$lt of 6$siness &e isions of ompany mana%ement, 3hi h res$lt in ri%ht 6$siness strate%y" apa6ilities of han%es insi&e the

Himo, P" ,-1-" Inova(n' mana)ment" !ratislava : E4onJm, ,-1-" p" :" #S!I :.=?=-?,,/?;-/.?9

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#6i&, p" :" 'itra, M" ,--9" Management inova(nch aktivit. 'raha : 'rofessional '$6lishin%, ,--9" p" ;- ;1" #S!I =-?=9:59?1-?N"
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1.4. "#lation (#t%##n inno ations/ inno ation -ana.#-#nt an& co-+#titi #n#ss
As (olnar note&, G#nnovation, as it is $se& to&ay, in l$&es s$ essf$l si&e only" S$ ess on the mar4et is the only riterion of positive innovative pro esses"F1, 7ao$r onsi&ers innovation to 6e Ethe Life?6loo& of ompetitivenessF an& f$rther laims it is the opport$nity to stop &e reasin% %ains from pro&$ ts if only pro&$ tion effi ien y is involve&"1; 'itra states that Eeval$ation of s$ ess of $rrent 6$siness strate%y of or%ani1ation has to fo $s on ho3 han%es level of its ompetitiveness"F15 7en e, as 3e an see from these an& previo$s opinion on ompetitiveness from 'itra, innovations are onsi&ere& to 6e r$ ial part of 6$siness ompetitiveness" *$rrent mar4et sit$ation re8$ire $se of omple2 innovative strate%ies an& other initiatives relate& to innovative a tivities" (ana%in% s$ h a tivities is maCor role an& p$rpose of innovation mana%ement" 0herefore, innovation mana%ement, its tools an& te hni8$es sho$l& 6e a&opte& 6y any ompany hea&in% to s$ ee& on lo al or %lo6al mar4etpla e"

1.5. So*rc#s o) inno ation an& t,#ir #n iron-#nt

#nnovations &o not ome to the 6$siness 6y themselves" Qor s$ essf$l &evelopment an& implementation of innovation it is ne essary to prepare environment s$ita6le for %ro3in% an& &evelopin% innovational opport$nities" S$ h am6ient then 6oost resear h an& &evelopment an& $n&erlie f$t$re innovative i&eas" #n follo3in% te2t 3e 3o$l& li4e to fo $s on so$r es of innovation an& parts of
1,

(oln)r, '" ,--5" Innovation management" !ratislava : E4onJm, ,--5" p" 11" #S!I =-?,,/?1=11?/"

1;

7ao$r, B" ,--5" Resolving the Innovation Parado : !nhancing "ro#th in $echnolog% &ompanies" 7ampshire, Ie3 Lor4 : 'al%rave (a millan, ,--5" p" 1" #S!I 1?5-;:?19/5?;"
15

'itra, M" ,--9" Management inova(nch aktivit. 'raha : 'rofessional '$6lishin%, ,--9" p" ;-" #S!I =-?=9:59?1-?N"

ompany environment an& &es ri6e ho3 these an help an innovation to arise" Af$ah &istin%$ishes t3o maCor types of innovation so$r es: f$n tional an& ir $mstantial"1/

*.+.* ,-nctional so-rces


Q$n tional so$r es &es ri6e proper so$r e of the innovation or i&ea, 3hether it omes from insi&e or o$tsi&e of the ompany" 0hese so$r es may 6e a or&in% to him:19 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ompanyRs o3n internal val$e hain f$n tions, ompanyRs e2ternal val$e a&&e& hain of s$ppliers, $stomers an&

omplementary innovators, $niversity, %overnment, an& private la6oratories, ompetitors an& relate& in&$stries, other nations or re%ions"

Q$rther in this hapter 3e 3ill &is $ss these so$r es more &etaile&" 1.0.1.1 Int#rnal al*# c,ain as a so*rc# o) inno ation Val$e hain of a ompany is a on ept 3hi h means a tivities $n&erta4en in ompany to &eliver a pro&$ t to $stomer" #nnovations an 6e o6serve& an& fo$n& in every step of this hain an& later &evelope&" Us$ally, firms have also spe ial resear h an& &evelopment &epartments 3hi h sho$l& e2amine potential innovative i&eas an& prepare them for $se in pro&$ tion" 7o3ever, not all innovations rise $p there" (any innovations ome from improvin% i&eas from other &epartments an& are $se& &ire tly in their f$n tions to ren&er pro&$ tion or other pro esses more effe tive" 0hese innovations are also alle& pro ess innovations"1.

1/

Af$ah, A" ,--;" Innovation Management: strategies, implementation, and profits, ,n& e&" Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--;" p" 9:" #S!I -?1:?/15,;-?;"
19 1.

#6i&, p" 9:" #6i&, p" .-"

1.0.1.2 E1t#rnal inno ators

al*# c,ain o) s*++li#rs/ c*sto-#rs/ an& co-+l#-#ntar$

#nnovations often arise in i&eas of $stomers, s$ppliers or omplementary innovators 3ho see4 their o3n 6enefit" Altho$%h it mi%ht seem that their 6enefit an &ama%e 6enefits of the pro&$ in% ompany, sometimes these innovations help the ompany to move f$rther an& $p%ra&e their pro&$ ts" *$stomers $s$ally see4 for 6etter feat$res an& let 4no3 pro&$ er a6o$t these &eman&s" (an$fa t$rin% ompany an then 3or4 on &esi%n or servi e 3hi h satisfies these nee&s" S$ppliersO intention is to sell as m$ h their s$pplies as they an" 0herefore, they may ome $p 3ith i&eas 3hi h an s$pport 6oth &eman& for their pro&$ ts an& also in rease effe tiveness or enhan e feat$res of 6$yerRs pro&$ ts"1= 1.0.1.2 3ni #rsit$/ .o #rn-#nt/ an& +ri at# la(oratori#s 0hese fa ilities perform 6asi resear h 3hi h has to fin& ne3 hara teristi s an& relations amon% resear he& o6Ce ts in or&er to %ain s ientifi 4no3le&%e or for 4no3le&%eRs o3n sa4e" 0hese fin&in%s are later p$6lishe& in Co$rnal papers or intro&$ es on onferen es to %eneral 4no3le&%e" On s$ h fin&in%s is later 6ase& applie& resear h" #nstit$tions as $niversities, %overnment an& private la6oratories are involve& also in applie& resear h an& o?operate 3ith innovatin% ompanies in &evelopment an& pra ti al $se of the innovation"1: 1.0.1.4 Co-+#titors an& r#lat#& in&*stri#s #nnovational i&eas often may ome from a tivities of ompetitors an& inspire

ompanySs o3n innovations" S$ h sit$ation 3hen ompanies $se 4no3le&%e or pro ess a t$ally invente& 6y its ompetitor is alle& spillover" Qor ertain ompanies are spillovers main strate%y of a 8$irin% ne3 i&eas" 0hey ta4e innovations or i&eas of ompetitors an& to%ether 3ith o3n so$r es an& mar4et 4no3le&%e $se them for o3n sa4e" #t mi%ht arise 8$estion 3hether it is still profita6le for ompanies to perform their o3n resear h if ompetitors are a6o$t to $se their inventions" 7o3ever, imitatin% innovations &epen&s not
1=

Af$ah, A" ,--;" Innovation Management: strategies, implementation, and profits, ,n& e&" Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--;" p" .-" #S!I -?1:?/15,;-?;" 1: #6i&, p" .-"

1-

only on easiness of innovation, 6$t it is also Ea f$n tion of ho3 m$ h of the relate& 4no3le&%e it has, that is, it is a f$n tion of the firmSs a6sorptive apa ity"F,1.0.1.0 Ot,#r nations or r#.ions *ertain o$ntries an& re%ions are 4no3n for their %oo& innovation apa ities in some in&$stries" 0hese innovations are often 3orl&?reno3ne& an& later opie& an& imitate& 6y other ompanies" 0herefore, o6servation of these re%ions an& analy1in% their pro esses an& relations 6et3een parti $lar entities involve& in innovations an 6e very $sef$l so$r e of innovative i&eas",1

*.+.. &irc-mstantial so-rces of innovation


*ir $mstantial so$r es of innovation e2plore in 3hat sit$ations a ne3 i&ea an 6e fo$n& an& ho3 to e2ploit it at most" 0here also several s$6types of this so$r e 3hi h Af$ah mentions:,, 1. 2. 3. planne& firm a tivities, $ne2pe te& o $rren e, reative &estr$ tion"

1.0.2.1 Plann#& )ir- acti iti#s #nnovation as a planne& a tivity is $s$ally o$t ome of planne& resear h an& &evelopment pro esses, or other val$e an& &istri6$tion hain operations of pro&$ t",; 1.0.2.2 3n#1+#ct#& occ*rr#nc# An opposite to planne& firm a tivities to 6oost innovation is an $ne2pe te& o $rren e" Unforeseen ir $mstan e an then serve as a %reat so$r e of innovatin% i&eas, 3hi h an move the innovation to3ar&s ne3 &ire tions" Often fail$re is s$ h event, 3hi h helps innovators to thin4 a6o$t ne3 3ays of $se or pro ee&in%s",5
,-

Af$ah, A" ,--;" Innovation Management: strategies, implementation, and profits, ,n& e&" Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--;" p" .1" #S!I -?1:?/15,;-?;" ,1 #6i&" ,, #6i&, p" .5" ,; #6i&" ,5 Af$ah, A" ,--;" Innovation Management: strategies, implementation, and profits, ,n& e&" Ie3 Lor4 : O2for&

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1.0.2.2 Cr#ati # &#str*ction *han%in% sit$ation in e2ternal environment, 3hi h ompletely t$rns over previo$s stat$s an& or&er an 6e also e2 eptional %oo& so$r e of innovations" Qirms are for e& to a&C$st their pro&$ ts to these ne3 on&itions on mar4et" 0his means $p%ra&e pro&$ t to level &esire& 6y $stomers or a&& ne3 feat$res, or even invent ompletely ne3 pro&$ t 3ith ne3 te hnolo%y or to satisfy ne3 &eman&,/" #mportant thin% to remem6er is not only fo $s on ea h potential so$r e alone, 6$t also onsi&er their relations an& interse tions amon% them" S$ h points an then help to 6etter $n&erstan& an& e2ploit the so$r e in ompanySs 6est interest",9 Dr$ 4er also &istin%$eshes vario$s so$r es of innovation opport$nities:,. Une2pe te& #n on%r$ities 'ro ess Iee& #n&$stry an& (ar4et Str$ t$res Demo%raphi s *han%es in 'er eption Ie3 Kno3le&%e

University 'ress, ,--;" p" .5" #S!I -?1:?/15,;-?;" ,/ #6i&" ,9 #6i&", p" .; ? .5" ,. Dr$ 4er, '" ,--." Innovation and entreprene-rship: practice and principles" <evise& e&" O2for& : Elsevier !$t? ter3orth?7einemann, ,--." p" ;," #S!I :.=?-?./-9?=/-="

1,

1.6. Inno ation trans)#r an& o(stacl#s o) inno ation +roc#ss


#t is ne essary to e2amine potential of or%ani1ation to implement the innovation an& steer it to &esire& en&" 'ro ess of innovation an 6e also infl$en e& 6y &ifferent o6sta les 3hi h may interr$pt or even stop it, therefore, it is very important to &etermine an& analy1e them 6efore the pro ess 6e%in or in early sta%e in or&er to avoi& s$ h o $rren es or &iminish potential harm" Af$ah mentions t3o types of transfer 6ase& on type of 6o$n&aries 6ein% passe&" Ea h of this type then ontains n$m6er of 6o$n&aries, 3hi h sho$l& 6e onsi&ere& 3hen preparin% for an innovation",=

$%pes of bo-ndaries:
Q$n tional an& Or%ani1ational !o$n&aries ontain 6o$n&aries of a6sorptive an& transmission apa ities this 6o$n&ary relates to $rrent

4no3le&%e ompany possess in or&er to a6sor6 an& $se ne3 4no3le&%e" Also, it is tie& 3ith assets 3hi h ompany an $se for appropriate e2ploitation of ne3 i&ea" 0rasmittin% apa ities in l$&e &elivery a6ility too" #t means that for s$ essf$l intro&$ tion of an innovation is ne essary not only to have the ri%ht 4no3le&%e an& assets, 6$t also apa ity to e2plain an& ar%$ment the positives of an innovation",: &ifferen e in $lt$re in f$n tional approa h 3e tal4 a6o$t orporate $lt$re

an& s$6? $lt$re 3hi h shape attit$&es of employees to3ar&s ne3 i&eas" A &i hotomy 6et3een s$ h $lt$res an s$6stantially slo3 &o3n a&option of an innovation" 0herefore, it is ne essary to e2amine the $lt$re in ompany an& implement i&ea in a 3ay 3hi h is in harmony 3ith the $lt$re an& s$6 $lt$res"; nat$re of innovation 3hen implementin% innovation it is very important to a&apt the pro ess to type of the innovation" !asi 8$estion to as4 are 3hether innovation is
,=

Af$ah, A" ,--;" Innovation Management: strategies, implementation, and profits, ,n& e&" Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--;" p" ./" #S!I -?1:?/15,;-?;" ,: #6i&, p" ./ .9" ;#6i&, p" .9 .."

1;

ra&i al or in remental, 3hether it re8$ires 4no3le&%e or it is 6$l4 pro essin%" De also have to 4no3 if it is %oin% to 6e simple or more omple2 innovation an& ho3 ta it information it is nee&e& to &evelop it" Benerally, the more ta it 4no3le&%e is ne essary or more omple2 an innovation is, the to$%her transmission of innovation is" 7i%her amo$nt of 4no3le&%e is also slo3in% &o3n the pro ess as lots of a6sorptive apa ity is re8$ire&";1 0imin% it may seem that time is not as important 3hen tal4in% a6o$t

innovations an& implementation of ne3 i&eas" 7o3ever, it an play very important role in a&option of innovation on mar4etpla e" 0ime as a 6o$n&ary of innovation transfer is ti%htly lin4e& to events an& o $rren es in e2ternal environment of the ompany an& relates to a tions of other ompetitors" An innovative pro&$ t mi%ht 6e 6etter that the one ompetitors offer, 6$t if is &elivere& on the mar4et si%nifi antly later, $stomers perhaps 3ill not li4e to s3it h to it &$e to in onvenien e relate& to learnin% ne3 systems of $sa%e, the &ominant &esi%n 3as alrea&y esta6lishe&" 0imin% is onne te& to innovation life y le, in early sta%es there is a lot of $n ertainties relate& to innovation 3hi h may 6lo 4 the innovation transfer &$e to small amo$nt of information availa6le" Later the amo$nt of 4no3le&%e a6o$t the ne3 i&ea rises an& therefore also transfer is more effe tive than 6efore";, Iational !o$n&aries an 6rin% these o6sta les: &ifferen e in $lt$re orporate $lt$re is often &etermine& 6y national $lt$re"

Different $lt$res may have &ifferent approa hes to similar sit$ation an& these may $n&erline as 6o$n&ary to a&option of an innovational i&eas" 0herefore, for m$ltinational orporations sho$l& 6e e2amination of $lt$re &ifferen es 6et3een o$ntry of ori%in of innovation an& &estination o$ntry one of 6asi steps to ta4e";; a6sorptive an& transmission apa ities similar to f$n tional approa h, these apa ities lin4 to 4no3le&%e 3hi h is possi6le to possess in the o$ntry" 0he &ifferen es 6et3een e&$ ational systems, 8$ality of e&$ ation, 8$ality an& sta%e of &evelopment of mar4et an& mar4et relations, all these infl$en e transmission apa ities of o$ntries an& 6$il& the o6sta les of innovation in ase the &ifferen es are too hi%h in ertain fiel&s";5
;1 ;,

#6i&, p" .." Af$ah, A" ,--;" Innovation Management: strategies, implementation, and profits, ,n& e&" Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--;" p" .. ? .=" #S!I -?1:?/15,;-?;" ;; #6i&", p" .:" ;5 #6i&"

15

timin% in ase of rossin% national o6sta les of innovation means timin% of type of innovation as 3e mentione& in previo$s te2t, innovation may 6e

innovation life y le in &ifferent o$ntry,;/ ra&i al or in remental, ho3ever, sometimes happens that innovation is in remental in ertain o$ntries 3hereas ra&i al in other &$e to la 4 of investments an& relate& 4no3le&%e" 0his may 6e an o6sta le in innovation pro ess 6e a$se ra&i al innovations $s$ally re8$ire hi%her investments" 0h$s, s$ h innovations are some3hat less interestin% an& more ris4y for ompany in one o$ntry than in other o$ntries";9 o?opetitors ? o?opetitors are all the entities of the s$pply hain of the pro&$ t as

3ell as others 3ho help or other3ise infl$en e ompany an& its a6ility to a&opt innovations" Dhen transferrin% innovations thro$%h the national 6or&ers it is important to reali1e that mar4et an& entities e2istin% on it may f$n tion in ompletely &ifferent 3ay than in o$ntry of ori%in of innovation" E0he e2tent to 3hi h o?opetitors matter is a f$n tion of the omple2ity of innovation" >"""A 0he more omple2 the innovation, the more li4ely it is that o?opetitors 3ill play a riti al role in the re eivin% nation"F;. Sit$ations of sen&er an& re eiver of an innovation sho$l& 6e analy1e& an& ompare& in or&er to fin& similar an& &iverse

1.7. 5o% to o #rco-# o(stacl#s o) inno ation


#n previo$s hapter 3e &is $sse& many o6sta les that may arise in pro ess of

innovation" Io3 3e 3o$l& li4e to s$%%est some points 3hi h may help to avoi& fail$re of innovation implementation an& transfer" Af$ah s$%%ests that ompany Enee&s an or%ani1ational str$ t$re, strate%ies, systems, an& peopleF in or&er to f$lfill follo3in% f$n tions:;= 1. 2. entities, an&
;/ ;9

E8$i 4ly spot i&eas or innovations, 6oost the a6sorptive an& transmission apa ities of re eivin% an& transmittin%

#6i&", p" =Af$ah, A" ,--;" Innovation Management: strategies, implementation, and profits, ,n& e&" Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--;" p" =-" #S!I -?1:?/15,;-?;" ;. #6i&", p" =- =1" ;= #6i&", p" =1 ? =,"

1/

3.

re&$ e the impe&an e mismat h 6et3een transmitter an& re eiver that has 6een

reate& 6y physi al, $lt$ral, national, an& 4no3le&%e %aps 6et3een the t3o entities"F 0hese fa tors an 6e &esi%ne& on vario$s levels to %et res$lts:;: ross?f$n tional, ross?or%ani1ational, ross?national" han%es in

*ross?f$n tional &esi%n allo3s lo3er impe&iments of innovation 6y

f$n tions alon% the val$e hain of ompany" #t an ontain han%es in or%ani1ation str$ t$re an& on 3or4 pla e to ens$re proper sprea& of information a6o$t the pro&$ t innovate&" Other 3ays to fa ilitate innovation transfer tho$%h or%ani1ational f$n tions are motivation an& performan e mana%ement systems, an& information te hnolo%ies 3hi h ena6le 6etter omm$ni ation insi&e the ompany"5*ross?or%ani1ational &esi%n is a &esi%n 3hi h fo $ses on relations 3ith e2ternal environment of ompany an& 3ays to 4eep the transmission of information on hi%h level, espe ially the flo3 insi&e the firm" Us$ally, it is han&le& 6y esta6lishin% of position 3hi h ontrols an& sear he& information an& potential innovative i&eas, an& 6rin%s them insi&e the firm if relevant an& f$rther" Sometimes, s$ h servi es are s$pplie& 6y e2ternal ompanies 3hi h may have a&vanta%e of non?6iase& loo4 an& thin4in%, on the other han& it may 6e &iffi $lt to e2plain 3hat e2a tly ompany is loo4in% for an& there is also hi%h ris4 of tra&in% information to ompetitors"51 *ross?national &esi%n on this level there are several 3ay to re&$ e o6sta les of innovation" Either, employees of re eivin% ompany %et trainin% in the o$ntry of ori%in of the innovation, in or&er to learn an& 6$il& apa6ilities to a6sor6 in omin% i&eas" 0his trainin% 3o$l& also help to &evelop relations 3ith the $lt$re 3hi h pro&$ e& the i&ea" <e eiver also nee&s some 4in& of %ate4eeper 3ho $n&erstan&s 6oth lan%$a%es an& $lt$res an& ta4es are of apt$rin% an& &eliverin% innovative i&eas to the ompany"5,
;: 5-

#6i&", p" =, ? =; Af$ah, A" ,--;" Innovation Management: strategies, implementation, and profits, ,n& e&" Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--;" p" =," #S!I -?1:?/15,;-?;" 51 #6i&", p" =;" 5, #6i&", p" =; =5"

19

Other possi6ility to over ome ross?national o6sta les is to reate Coint?vent$res or other allian es 3here transmitter an& re eiver ompany 3o$l& meet" 0he transmission of innovation 3o$l& then ta4e pla e &$rin% the a t$al f$n tionin% of the 6$siness"5; Asheim an& Bertler55 ar%$e that lo ation, %eo%raphy of innovation is r$ ial for the s$ ess of innovation pro ess" 0his statement is 6ase& on o6servations an& resear hes 3hi h sho3e& that ompanies of relate& in&$stries ten& to %ro$p in ertain lo alities" #n s$ h pla es is after3ar&s easier transfer of ta it 4no3le&%e an& it lea&s to faster innovation in that fiel&" 0his phenomenon is very interestin% also from the point of vie3 of %lo6ali1ation" Opponents of this opinion laime& s$ h arran%ements 3o$l& &isappear 3ith sprea& of information an& tele omm$ni ation te hnolo%ies 3hi h ena6le omm$ni ation over lon% &istan es" 0his 3as a t$ally not proven in reality" Asheim an& Bertler mention t3o reasons for this:5/ 1" 0a it 4no3le&%e, 3hi h is r$ ial for many innovations, is &etermine& 6y the lo ation an& $lt$ral onte2t of lo ation 3here it ta4es pla e" S$ h 4no3le&%e is after3ar&s har& to 6e transferre& 3itho$t these &eterminants" ," #nnovations are often o$t omes of so ial intera tions an& learnin% from ea h other an& this is not possi6le if innovators are &istri6$te& in 6roa& areas" Even tho$%h this approa h is lo%i al an& o6vio$sly 3or4in%, no3a&ays ompanies annot remain isolate& an& 3or4 only 3ith innovations of their lo ation" *$rrent ompanies nee& to 3or4 also 3ith other so$r es of 4no3le&%e, altho$%h they mi%ht 6e less s$ essf$l in $tili1in% them than in ase of lo al 4no3le&%e an& innovation"59

5;

#6i&", p" =;"

55

Asheim, !" Bertler, ("S" ,--/" 0he Beo%raphy of #nnovation: <e%ional #nnovation Sys? tems" #n $he / ford Handbook of Innovation. Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--/" p" ,:1 ,:;" #S!I -?1:?:,95//?5"
5/

Asheim, !" Bertler, ("S" ,--/" 0he Beo%raphy of #nnovation: <e%ional #nnovation Systems" #n $he / ford Handbook of Innovation. Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--/" p" ,:;" #S!I -?1:?:,95//?5" 59 #6i&", p" ;1-"

1.

1.8. T$+#s o) inno ation -ana.#-#nt &# #lo+-#nt 6In7,o*s#/ Lic#nsin./ O+#n inno ation8O*tso*rcin.8Cro%&so*rcin.9 *.0.* In1ho-se development of innovations
0ra&itionally, 3hen ompany so$%ht for innovation of its pro&$ ts or pro esses it 3as a tas4 for internal resear h an& &evelopment &epartment" #nnovations are ti%htly onne te& 3ith resear h an& &evelopment, as $p%ra&es an& ne3 pro&$ ts reate& 6y the ompany internally provi&e ontrol over 3hole pro ess, &e rease the possi6ility of i&ea lea4a%e an& $se the $rrent 4no3?ho3 an& apa ities the ompany possesses alrea&y"5. #n?ho$se &evelopment of innovation has also histori al 6a 4%ro$n& from 1: th an& early ,-th ent$ry" At the time, in&$strial revol$tion 6ro$%ht n$m6er of ne3 i&eas an& on epts 3hi h o$l& 6e $se& in 6$siness an& man$fa t$rin%" 7o3ever, as the 4no3le&%e 3as 8$ite ne3, very fe3 people or ompanies 4ne3 ho3 to $se it in pra ti e" '$6li resear h an& $niversities 3ere hi%hly $n&erf$n&e&, so it 3as $p to ompanies to fin& o$t ho3 the ne3 4no3le&%e o$l& 6e $se& for their 6enefit" 0herefore, private resear h &epartments an& enters 3ere 6$ilt to provi&e orporations 3ith the 4no3le&%e to 6e $se& in pro&$ ts an& pro&$ tion" As 3e mentione& 6efore, this 4in& of resear h is e2pensive an& hen e i&eas an& 4no3le&%e omin% from internal resear h 3ere %$ar&e& an& often se ret"5= 0o the e2penses mentione& >time, f$n&s an& 4no3le&%eA it is ne essary to a&& also reso$r es in form of internal apa6ility of the ompany to a6sor6 ne3 4no3le&%e an& &evelop it f$rther" A&&itional osts may 6e those of ris4 of resear h 3hi h &oes not lea& to any potential innovation, therefore, f$n&s 3o$l& not 6e re overe& 6y mar4ete& pro&$ ts" 5: Dhen loo4in% for han%e in pro&$ t, these may 6e C$stifie& as ne essary, as pro&$ ts are relate& to later &ire t profit of the ompany" On the other han&, 3hen ompany nee&s pro ess han%e, investin% in resear h of ne3 &esi%n may 6e re%ar&e& as $nne essary as
5.

*hes6ro$%h, 7. ,--;" Open innovation : ne# imperative for creating and profiting from technolog%" !os? ton : 7arvar& !$siness S hool 'ress, ,--;" p" ,1" #S!I 1?/.=/1?=;.?."
5=

#6i&", p" ,1 ,;" Af$ah, A" ,--;" Innovation Management: strategies, implementation, and profits, ,n& e&" Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--;" p" ::" #S!I -?1:?/15,;-?;"
5:

1=

pro ess han%es may 6e rea he& in rementally an& assesse& ontin$o$sly"/#n?ho$se innovations, on the other han& &o not ne essarily mean only resear h an& &evelopment alone" #n the re ent years, n$m6er of innovative on epts arose to help ompanies to in rease effe tiveness an& 8$ality of pro&$ tion an& pro&$ ts" S$ essf$l implementation of these on epts re8$ires ommitment from top mana%erial levels 3hi h is provi&e& in form of s$pport to strate%i frame3or4s that in l$&e innovation as maCor or at least si&e effe t of f$n tionin%" 0hese re8$irements an 6e f$lfille& 6y vario$s 6$siness strate%ies an& systems of pro esses 3hi h are also re%$latin% other pro esses in the firm an& hen e oor&inate 6oth ate%ories to 3or4 in 6alan e" L#an -ana.#-#nt 0erm lean mana%ement, as 3e 4no3 it to&ay, 3as intro&$ e& 6y 0oyota ompany in 1:.-Os 6y its 0oyota 'ro&$ tion System an& s$6se8$ently sprea& a ross their &istri6$tion system" Very simply e2plaine& ? man$fa t$rers sho$l& $se less reso$r e more effe tively to reate hi%her val$e for $stomer" 7o3ever, implementation of this system re8$ires sli%htly &iffi $lt tas4s to f$lfill an& pro esses to a&opt"/1 Qive ore on epts of lean systems:/, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. spe ify val$e thro$%h the eyes of the $stomer, i&entify the val$e stream an& eliminate 3aste, ma4e al$e flo3 6y the p$ll of the $stomer involve an& empo3er employees, ontin$o$sly improve in the p$rs$it of perfe tion"

Benerally, ompany a&optin% lean mana%ement strate%y sho$l& see itself as a part of s$pply hain" 0his lea&s to strate%i thin4in% 3hi h %oes over the 6o$n&aries of the ompany
/-

Af$ah, A" ,--;" Innovation Management: strategies, implementation, and profits, ,n& e&" Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--;" p" ::" #S!I -?1:?/15,;-?;" /1 Samson, D" ? Sin%h, '" P" ,--=" /perations Management: 2n integrated 2pproach. Ie3 Lor4 : *am6ri&%e University 'ress, ,--=" p" 59" #S!I :.=?-?/,1?.--..?1"
/,

#6i&", p" 5:"

1:

alone" *onse8$ently, all the or%ani1ations involve& nee& to step to ertain 4in& of a%reement re%ar&in% the ommon %oals, r$les an& 3aste mana%ement"/; 0he firm has to re o%ni1e 4ey val$e streams of the s$pply hain 3hi h flo3 thro$%h the ompany an& 6$il& the 3hole or%ani1ation aro$n& these"/5 0he 4ey point to onsi&er in lean man$fa t$rin% is val$e an& 3aste &efinition" #n man$fa t$rin% the term Eval$eF has sli%htly &ifferent meanin% than 3e are $s$ally $se& to in sales" #n man$fa t$rin%, it nee&s to 6e ta4en into a o$nt that only very small part of the man$fa t$rin% pro ess a t$ally enhan es the val$e for final $stomer" On e &eterminin% these val$e?fra tions, in lean mana%ement approa h, 3e an tar%et all other a tivities as a 3aste" Daste sho$l& 6e eliminate& in or&er to Eimprove pro&$ tivity an& $stomer servi eF"// #t so$n&s %reat an& easy, the implementation, ho3ever, is more &iffi $lt to e2e $te" #nstea& of internal a tivities 3hi h are or%ani1e& into s$ essive &epartments, these tas4s nee& to 6e re?or%ani1e& in a streamline& pro ess of val$e?a&&in% steps" I$m6er of instr$ments is $se& for se $rin% the ontin$o$s flo3" A tions are syn hroni1e& to move pro&$ t to3ar&s ne2t step only 3hen re8$ire&"/9 0his flo3 is a 4ey fa tor of lean pro&$ tion an& the 3hole on ept, as it refle ts the Epro%ressive a hievement of tas4s alon% the val$e streamF" 0he val$e sho$l&6e a&&e& as 8$i 4ly as possi6le, in or&er to not reatin% the 3aste, e"%" time ons$min%"/. Another 4ey fa tor is Ep$llF of the &eman&" #t means that Enothin% is &one $nless, an& $ntil, a &o3nstream pro ess re8$ires it"F 0his in fa t stops pro&$ tion 6ase& on pre&i tions, 6$t ma4es it rea tin% on the e2pli it &eman& from the $stomer an& it solves pro6lem of 8$e$es an& 6at hes, 3hi h ten& to hi&e the pro6lems insi&e an& let them %ro3 6i%" 0he on ept of lean pro&$ tion is to let the pro6lems sho3 as soon as they arise to &eal 3ith them imme&iately"/= Lean mana%ement an& pro&$ tion ontains lots of tools 3hi h are $se& in pro esses, most of them are in Papanese, &$e to ori%in of the system" 0hose relatin% to innovations an& innovation mana%ement at most are Ci&o4a, 4ai4a4$ an& 4ai1en"
/;

Samson, D" ? Sin%h, '" P" ,--=" /perations Management: 2n integrated 2pproach. Ie3 Lor4 : *am6ri&%e University 'ress, ,--=" p" 59" #S!I :.=?-?/,1?.--..?1" /5 #6i&" // #6i&", p" 5. /9 #6i&", p" 5. /. #6i&", p" 5=" /= #6i&"

,-

Pi&o4a is e2plaine& as h$man?a$tomati1e& pro ess 3hi h is imme&iately stoppe& in ase some error o $rs" 'ro6lem is solve& ri%ht a3ay an& people losest to the tas4 are involve& in sol$tion see4in%"/: Kai1en is alrea&y 3i&ely 4no3n term" #t means ontin$o$s in remental improvement of pro&$ ts 3hi h remain lon%?term 6ase& in ompany pro esses" S$ ess of 4ai1en is 6ase& on or%ani1ational $lt$re 3hi h promotes approa h of a tive sear h for 3aste re&$ tion an& elimination"9Kai4a4$ or 4ai1en 6lit1 is ra&i al han%e lea&in% to 3aste elimination" #t is a fo $se& a tion 3hi h involves ti%ht ooperation of people from one &epartment or tar%et area" 0o%ether they implement fast an& ra&i al han%e in pro ess" 91 0here are also other terms an& approa hes 3hi h help to $n&erstan& Lean mana%ement 6etter: Kan6an helps to ontrol an& monitor p$ll system of a lean ompany" #n stri t sense, 4an6an mean Esi%nal ar&F 3hi h si%nali1e that part of the system is rea&y to re eive inp$t" Io3a&ays, it mi%ht 6e also any other type of si%nal"9, ($&a means 3aste or a tivity 3hi h &oes not reate any val$e for the pro&$ t" #f 3e re&$ e these 3aste a tivities, it means 3e in rease profita6ility" 0here are ei%ht types of 3aste: &efe ts, overpro&$ in%, movement an& transportin%, 3aitin%, inventory, motion, over?pro essin% an& s4ills"9; 'o4a?yo4e is translate& as mista4e?proofin%" #t is $se& to prevent &efe ts in pro esses in man$fa t$rin%, 6$t also in other pro esses" 0he maCor i&ea is to ma4e pro ess 3itho$t mista4es 6y elimination of any opport$nity for mista4es"95 Dhen ompany &e i&es to han%e to lean or%ani1ation, it is ne essary to onsi&er vol$me an& variety of o$tp$ts" Vol$me means n$m6er of people, information an& omponents to 6e $se&" 7i%her vol$mes in&i ate mass pro&$ tion" Variety, on the other han&, means &ifferent types of re8$irements for o$tp$ts" 0herefore hi%her variety means $se of more s4ille& 3or4for e" Some ompanies $se 6oth approa hes in a hy6ri& system, 3hen they are apa6le of
/: 9-

#6i&", p" /1" #6i&", p" /," 91 #6i&", p" /1 ?/," 9, Samson, D" ? Sin%h, '" P" ,--=" /perations Management: 2n integrated 2pproach. Ie3 Lor4 : *am6ri&%e University 'ress, ,--=" p" /, ? /;" #S!I :.=?-?/,1?.--..?1" 9; #6i&", p" /5" 95 #6i&"

,1

mass pro&$ tion an& or&ers, 6$t also a ept or&ers for small n$m6er of pro&$ ts 3ith variations"9/ Or%ani1ational iss$es 3or4 losely 3ith employment an& approa h to employees" As employees have responsi6ility for 8$ality of pro&$ ts, it is ne essary to ma4e their 3or4 motivatin% an& appealin%" Some or%ani1ations $se ell$lar layo$t for smaller parts of the pro ess lines" #n this layo$t, several stations of the same pro ess is %ro$pe& to%ether an& employees may rotate amon% the stations" S$ h layo$t prevents people from fr$stration of the same type of 3or4 an& also provi&es sin%le employees 3ith overvie3 of other tas4s" Different people &oin% &ifferent tas4 provi&es also opport$nity for improvement i&eas from more so$r es"99 Another approa h to employees is empo3erment" Empo3erment %ives employees hi%her responsi6ility an& allo3s them ma4e &e isions relate& to their tas4" 0his is important step 3hi h enhan es ompany fle2i6ility" Employees performin% the Co6 have often more &etaile& 4no3le&%e of the pro6lem, therefore are assi%ne& to fin& sol$tions on pro6lems arisin% on their stations"9. Bl*# oc#an strat#.$ !l$e o ean strate%y is an approa h 3hi h fo $ses on ra&i al innovations 3hi h reate ne3 mar4ets for its pro&$ ers rather than ontin$o$sly ompete 3ith other rivals 3ithin the same mar4et" #n the 6l$e o ean terminolo%y, $s$al mar4etpla e 3here is h$%e n$m6er of ompetitors see4in% to at h the same $stomers is alle& re& o ean" 0he 6l$e o ean is reate& 3hen yo$ ma4e other ompetitors irrelevant, 6e a$se yo$ provi&e somethin% totally $ni8$e an& &ifferent from all the other players on the mar4et" 0his is %reat strate%y as it not only provi&es yo$ 3ith mar4et entirely for yo$, 6$t the $ni8$eness of the pro&$ ts allo3s yo$ to har%e hi%her pri es than yo$ o$l& on mar4et limite& 3ith other ompetitors" !asi ally, if s$ essf$l, !l$e o ean strate%y %ives yo$ temporally a&vanta%e of monopoly position on mar4et"9=
9/ 99

#6i&", p" /5 //" #6i&", p" // /9" 9. Samson, D" ? Sin%h, '" P" ,--=" /perations Management: 2n integrated 2pproach. Ie3 Lor4 : *am6ri&%e University 'ress, ,--=" p" /. ? /=" #S!I :.=?-?/,1?.--..?1" 9= Kim, D" *" ? (a$6or%ne, <" ,--." Val$e #nnovation: A Leap into the !l$e O ean" #n &rafting and ! ec-ting 3trateg%: $e t and readings" 1/th e&ition" Ie3 Lor4 : ( Bra3?7ill, ,--." p" /-, /-." #S!I :.=?-?-.?11-./9?="

,,

Altho$%h, it mi%ht 6e onsi&ere& only a orporate mana%ement strate%y, !l$e o ean strate%y int$itively 6rin%s yo$ to i&ea of innovations" As it 3as e2plaine& earlier, 6l$e o eans are reate& 6y &ifferin% from ompetitors an& s$ h &ifferen es are innovations on pro&$ ts or servi es" 0herefore, 3e an say that 6l$e o ean strate%y is hi%hly innovative an& re ommen&e& to mana%e innovations s$ essf$lly" T,#or$ o) Constraints #n 1:=/, Eli Bo&ratt intro&$ e& 6oo4 0he Boal 3ith the maCor on ept of 0heory of *onstraints"9:
.-

0his theory offers 4ey i&ea of 6$sinesses an& their res$lts 3hi h are affe te&

6y o$t omes of sin%le onstraints in operations" 0here are t3o $n&erlyin% on epts in theory of onstraints: System as hains this on ept sees system as olle tion of sin%le smaller a tions" 0hese a tions $se o$tp$ts from pre e&in% a tion as inp$ts an& &evelop then" Alto%ether, these a tions 3or4 to3ar&s hi%her %oal" 'ro6lem appears 3hen not all parts of hain are e8$ally stron% an& hen e the 3ea4est lin4 prevents 3hole hain from rea hin% 6etter res$lts" #f this lin4 is fi2e& an& 6e omes stron%er, 3hole hain 6e omes stron%er" 7o3ever, the ne3 stren%th is not $nlimite&" 0he 3ea4est point C$st moves to other part of hain an& reates ne3 onstraint".1 0hro$%hp$t, #nventory, an& Operatin% E2pense the se on& $n&erlyin% on ept fo $ses on three system meas$rements: in reasin% 0hro$%hp$t, an& &e reasin% #nventory an& Operatin% E2pense" As there is hi%her potential to in rease thro$%hp$t than the other t3o meas$rements, the on ept on entrates mainly on this i&ea" ., 0heory helps to a&&ress these main onstraints:
9:

EDhere is the onstraintT Dhat sho$l& 3e &o 3ith the onstraintT 7o3 &o 3e implement the han%eTF

!$siness E2 ellen e" ,--:" $heor% of &onstraints" UonlineVU*ite& 1: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on internet: http:@@333"6e2 ellen e"or%@0heory?of?*onstraints"html" .'inna le Strate%ies" $heor% of &onstraints 4 an /vervie#. UonlineVU*ite& 1: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on internet: http:@@333"pinna le?strate%ies" om@0heoryW,-ofW,-*onstraints"htm" .1 !$siness E2 ellen e" ,--:" 0heory of *onstraints" UonlineVU*ite& 1: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on internet: http:@@333"6e2 ellen e"or%@0heory?of?*onstraints"html" ., #6i&"

,;

0heory of onstraints ontains vario$s appli ations for $se in 6$sinesses" One of most important is series of five steps ne essary to fo $s on on%oin% improvement:.; .5 1. #&entify the systemSs onstraint ompany nee&s to i&entify 3ea4est point of the 3hole pro ess hain" 2. De i&e ho3 to e2ploit the systemSs onstraint &esi%n ho3 to $se 3hole onstrainin% point 6$t 3itho$t e2pensive han%es" 3. S$6or&inate everythin% else to the prior &e isions other parts of hain sho$l& 6e a&C$ste& to ena6le han%e& onstraint 3or4 at ma2im$m effi ien y" 4. Elevate the systemSs onstraint in ase that in steps , an& ; 3as not a hieve& ma2im$m effi ien y, these sho$l& 6e repeate&" #n ase the onstraint rea he& its hi%hest limit, ompany may s4ip this step an& pass to step /" 5. Bo 6a 4 to step one 3hen one onstraint is eliminate&, ompany may start to fo $s on the ne2t point 3hi h slo3s &o3n 3hole pro ess"

*.0.. 5icensing of innovations


(any ompanies no3a&ays annot affor& hi%hly ris4y investments into pro&$ ts an& pro ess innovations" 7o3ever, they $n&erstan& importan e of $p%ra&in% performan e an& intro&$ in% ne3 pro&$ ts" 0herefore, s$ h ompanies try to fin& a 3ay to 6alan e these t3o maCor onstraints" One of possi6le sol$tions is li ensin%" Li ensin% means a 8$irin% A li en e is permission or a%reement to $se intelle t$al property of one ompany 6y another one" As 3e are tal4in% a6o$t sit$ation 3here o$r ompany 6$ys li ense from other, this is alle& passive li ensin%, as 3e &o not are ash in ome from this transa tion".9 0he pro ess of implementin% innovation in form of li ense is hara teri1e& 6y hi%h e2penses in the first years of $se of the intelle t$al property" 7o3ever, $nli4e in?ho$se &evelope& innovations, the 6rea4?even point $s$ally omes earlier 3ith a 8$ire& 4no3le&%e"
.;

intelle t$al property from other so$r es an& $se it for innovative sol$tions"./

#6i&" 'inna le Strate%ies" $heor% of &onstraints 4 an /vervie#. UonlineVU*ite& 1: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on internet: http:@@333"pinna le?strate%ies" om@0heoryW,-ofW,-*onstraints"htm"
.5 ./

(oln)r, '" ,--5" Innovation management" !ratislava : E4onJm, ,--5" p" 9:" #S!I =-?,,/?1=11?/" #6i&"

.9

,5

Also in omes from sales of pro&$ ts res$ltin% from li ensin% rise faster an& rea h hi%her than avera%e of in?ho$se &evelope& innovations" 0his is a$se& mainly 6y the fa t, that ompanies a 8$ire li enses 3hi h are alrea&y proven as s$ essf$l" S$ h a tions also &iminish ris4 of $ns$ essf$l innovations an& instea& of ris4y e2pense in resear h an& &evelopment represent more or less investment for a 8$irin% ompany"..

*.0.6 /pen innovation, o-tso-rcing and cro#dso-rcing of innovations


#nnovative approa hes intro&$ e& in previo$s s$6? hapters are tra&itional an& have 6een $se& for $p&atin% pro&$ ts sin e the 6e%innin% of innovative initiatives" Altho$%h, o3n resear h an& &evelopment is ostly it provi&es $ni8$e o$t omes to resear her" Open innovation ho3ever tar%ets 6oth these iss$es 6y openin% the resear h pro ess to e2ternal partners 3hile &e reasin% osts" Open innovation is &efine& as om6ination of internal an& e2ternal i&eas an& paths to mar4et lea&in% to a&van e in ne3 te hnolo%ies".= 0here are several lo%i al reasons 3hi h le& to $se of open innovation: 1" Amo$nt of 4no3le&%e in the so iety rea he& level 3hi h is no lon%er possi6le to mana%e only 3ith internal reso$r es" As the ompanies an have a limite& n$m6er of employees 3hile the amo$nts of information in rease ontin$o$sly, the only 3ay for ompanies to stay innovative is to rea h an& involve these e2ternal i&eas into internal 4no3le&%e system of ompany".: ," Qinan in% options of vent$re apital in rease& a lot in re ent years 3orl&3i&e" One of interestin% 3ay to invest these spare money is to ta4e i&ea 3hi h 3as not &evelope& entirely 6y a ompany 6efore an& &evelop it e2ternally" =;" 0he role of sin%le parts of s$pply hain starte& to in rease" S$ppliers an& ons$mers are very important so$r e of information on mar4et an& hen e provi&e ne3 point of vie3 on pro&$ t an& pro ess improvement"=1

..

#6i&", p" .- ?.," Open#nnovation"e$" ,-1," What is Open Innovation? UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V" Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"openinnovation"e$@open?innovation@
.=
.: =-

#6i&" #6i&" =1 Open#nnovation"e$" ,-1," What is Open Innovation? UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V" Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"openinnovation"e$@open?innovation@

,/

O$tso$r in% is %enerally &efine& as $sin% e2ternal so$r es an& partners for e2e $tion of a tivities" OE*D &efines it as :Dele%atin% >part ofA a tivities to an o$tsi&e ontra tor"F=, >http:@@stats"oe &"or%@%lossary@&etail"aspT#DX5:/-Y ,:",",-1,A !asis for s$ h &e ision are $s$ally finan ial effe tiveness an& orientation on ore pro esses" <eso$r es are 4ey for ompanies an& therefore they try to $se them 3isely" O$tso$r in% offers sol$tion for these onstraints" As ompanies $s$ally have only fe3 ore a tivities, they ten& to $t ost on those not as important for them, espe ially in ase 3hen transa tion osts are lo3" O$tso$r in% is here one of option ho3 to save these osts an& fo $s more on pro esses 3hi h are for the ompany r$ ial" O$tso$r in% of pro esses an& non? ore a tivities is also relate& to ris4 mana%ement, as in many ases a tivities represent hi%h ris4 3hi h is not a epta6le for ompanies"=; *ro3&so$r in% is an innovation mo&el in 3hi h Co6 3hi h a tions tra&itionally performe& 6y one a%ent employee or sele te& o$tso$r in% ompany are o$tso$r e& in form of open all an& $n&efine& n$m6er of people may rea t on this all"=5 0erm ro3&so$r in% 3as intro&$ e& for the first time in ,--9 6y Peff 7o3e in a ti le E0he <ise of *ro3&so$r in%F p$6lishe& in Dire& ma%a1ine"=/ #n the arti le 7o3e points on shift from o$tso$r in% an& one 4no3n relia6le s$pplier to mo&els 3here $nlimite& n$m6er of s$ppliers may provi&e o3n servi es an& f$lfill the tas4" #t has $s$ally t3o main o6Ce tives pro6lem?solvin% or pro&$ t@servi e &esi%n" Altho$%h not 6ein% &es ri6e& earlier, the prin iple of ro3&so$r in% ha& 6een 4no3n earlier" 0he approa h 3as $se& mainly in in&$stries 6ase& on te hni al 4no3le&%e 3here reativity is $se& to fin& most appropriate sol$tions s$ h as en%ineerin% an& ar hite t$re, information te hnolo%ies, not?for?profit an& p$6li instit$tion ten&ers"=9 Io3a&ays, this mo&el is mostly $se& in information te hnolo%y in&$stries as it is
=,

OE*D",--," O$tso$r in%" #n Blossary of statisti al terms" UonlineV ,--," U*ite& ,: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@stats"oe &"or%@%lossary@&etail"aspT#DX5:/=; DVOZHEK, P" ? 0LLL, L" ,-1-" /-tso-rcing a offshoring podnikatelsk'ch (innost" 'raha : *" 7" !e 4, ,-1-" p" = ?1-" #S!I :.=?=-?.5--?-1-?," =5 *ro3so$r in%" om" ,-1-" *ro3so$r in% : a &efinition"UonlineV ,-1-" U*ite& ,: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@ ro3&so$r in%" om@ =/ 7o3e, P" ,--9" The Rise of Crowdsourcing" #n 7ired" ,--9, iss$e 15"-9" U*ite& ,9 Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Avail? a6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"3ire&" om@3ire&@ar hive@15"-9@ ro3&s"htmlTp%X1[topi X ro3&s[topi \set X" *hes6ro$%h, 7. ,--;" Open innovation : ne# imperative for creating and profiting from technolog%" !oston : 7arvar& !$siness S hool 'ress, ,--;" p" /, ? /;" #S!I 1?/.=/1?=;.?."
=9

,9

hi%hly onne te& 3ith $se of me&ia an& information te hnolo%ies" 7o3ever, %ra&$ally more an& more ompanies start to $se feat$res or 3hole &esi%ns of ro3&so$r in% also in other in&$stries an& other f$n tions"=. Altho$%h the on ept remains the same, there are many &esi%ns 3hi h may 6e $se& for the mo&el" 0he first &e ision to 6e fo $se& on is 3hether the ro3&so$r er 3ants to solve a pro6lem or improve $rrent stat$s of pro&$ t of servi e, er%o 3hether the pro6lem is 4no3n or not to the ompany" 0he ne2t &e ision relates to the ne essity 3hether to split the tas4 into smaller mi rotas4s, or offer it as a 3hole an& the omm$nity 3o$l& &eal 3ith it on their o3n"

=.

#6i&", p" 22viii"

,.

2. Ai- o) t,# t,#sis


#n the previo$s hapter 3e sa3 overvie3 of &evelopment of i&eas relate& to innovations an& innovation mana%ement" 0hro$%h the years evolve& many theories an& approa hes ho3 to &eal 3ith 3illin%ness or ne essity to innovate pro&$ ts an& pro esses in or&er to stay on the mar4et" 0his 3i&e s ale of theories too4 $s to 8$estion 3hether ompanies still $se s$ h many options for mana%in% their internal pro ess of innovation" 0herefore 3e &e i&e& to $n&erta4e e2amination of %lo6al ompany an& its 3ays of mana%in% innovations no3a&ays" #n follo3in% analysis 3e therefore fo $s on ertain ompany an& 3ays ho3 the ompany steers its innovation pipeline into s$ essf$lly mar4ete& pro&$ ts" De 3ant to assess a tivities of the ompany in fiel& of innovation an& i&ea %atherin%, 3ith spe ial attention to open innovation, an& lin4 it to presentation of performan e in finan ials terms an& 6en hmar4in% 3ith other %lo6al ompanies as a pro2y to esta6lish ompetitiveness of the ompany" 0hese finan ial analyses, ho3ever, 3o$l& 6e $seless $nless it 3o$l& not 6e set in onte2t of e2ternal ir $mstan es" 7en e, 3e aim to ompare finan ial performan e of sele te& ompany 3ith the &evelopment on the mar4et in %iven perio& of time" After s$ h meas$rement an& omparison 3e 3ill try to fin& relation 6et3een $se& innovation approa hes an& a t$al finan ial res$lts" Ultimate %oal of this 3or4 is to pi 4 6est pra ti es of the ompany 3hi h mi%ht help also other ompanies of similar fo $s to &evelop their innovation strate%y an& 6ein% ompetitive on the mar4et"

,=

2. M#t,o&olo.$ an& r#s#arc, -#t,o&s


#nformation $se& in the thesis 3ere %athere& from te2t 6oo4s, Co$rnals, ma%a1ines an& 3e6sites oriente& on topi of innovation, 8$ality mana%ement, strate%y an& open innovation" Different so$r es 3ere resear he& in or&er to a hieve familiarity 3ith the topi an& $rrent tren&s" !ase& on these, 3e after3ar&s esta6lishe& several topi s to 6e resear he& more &eeply an& their potential for &evelopment into thesis 3ith a&&e& val$e to s ientifi or mana%erial 4no3le&%e" #nformation for the analyti al part an& res$lts of resear h 3as o6taine& from p$6li so$r es a6o$t 7en4el, Unilever, 'ro tor [ Bam6le, <e 4itt !en 4iser an& *ol%ate?'almolive ompanies, $sin% 3e6sites, ann$al reports an& ne3spaper an& other internet arti les relate& to topi of interest" Qor omparison of mentione& ompanies 3e $se& 6en hmar4in% an& 6asi finan ial analysis in or&er to see tren&s of finan ial &evelopments" Qi%$res $se& in finan ial analysis 3ere olle te& from ann$al reports or offi ial 3e6sites of respe tive ompanies" Qor p$rpose of ompara6ility, ompanies 3ere assesse& from the point of vie3 of pro&$ t se%ments an& only finan ial res$lts for relevant an& ompara6le se%ments 3ere in l$&e& in analysis, e2 ept for &ata from <e 4itt !en 4iser ompany 3hi h &i& not provi&e information a6o$t reven$e &istri6$tion a or&in% to se%ments for all years ne essary" Ievertheless, the ompany is important ompetitor of 7en4el, therefore 3e &e i&e& to in l$&e it in 6en hmar4in% &espite the in onsisten y of meas$res" De $se& some3hat &ifferent metho&olo%y 3hen preparin% 6en hmar4in%" 0he main &ifferen e is in $se of &ata for sales of 3hole 6$siness not only for relevant part of portfolio" 0his 3as $se& 6e a$se of $navaila6ility of &ata on resear h an& &evelopment e2penses &ivi&e& 6y se%ments" 0h$s, as the <[D &ata ontain also f$n&s aime& to other 6$siness se%ments of ompanies, it 3o$l& 6e not ompara6le if sales overe& only part of 6$siness" 'art relate& to st$&ent ompetition 7en4el #nnovation *hallen%e 3as analy1e& a or&in% to information o6taine& either on internet pa%e of the ontest or 6y personal e2perien e of the a$thor of the thesis 3hile parti ipatin% in the ompetition as st$&ent appli ant" #n re ommen&ation part, 3e synthesi1e& information %aine& from previo$s analysis an& provi&e& opinion on res$lts of analysis" ,:

4. "#s*lts o) %or; an& &isc*ssion


4.1. A(o*t 5#n;#l
7en4el is a 3orl&3i&e operatin% ompany in fast movin% ons$mer %oo&s in&$stry, oriente& on hemi al in&$stry" 0he ompany 3as esta6lishe& in 1=.9 6y Qrit1 7en4el" #n more than 1;- years of history the ompany 3ent thro$%h &ifferent sta%es of &evelopment an& innovation approa hes" *$rrently, ompany fo $ses on three maCor 6$siness se tors: La$n&ry an& 7ome *are, !ea$ty, an& A&hesive 0e hnolo%ies" #n the thesis 3e 3ill analy1e in &etail only the t3o former se tors, 3hi h are s$ita6le for omparison 3ith other ompanies" #n these se tors, 7en4el mar4ets follo3in% types of pro&$ ts: la$n&ry &eter%ents >heavy &$ty, li%ht &$ty an& spe ialtyA, fa6ri softeners, la$n&ry performan e enhan ers >e"%" 'ersil, 'er3oll an& '$re2 6ran&sA, man$al an& a$tomati &ish3ashin% &eter%ents >'rill an& Somat 6ran&sA, an& 6ath, 4it hen an& other &omesti leaners in se tor of home are >!ref 6ran&A" Se tor of osmeti s@toiletries in l$&es &omesti an& professional hair osmeti s >S h3art14opf 6ran&sA, 6o&y are >Qa, Dial an& <i%ht %$ar& 6ran&sA, s4in are an& oral are >Va&eme $m 6ran&A" 0otal reven$es from the t3o se tors of o$r interest 3as .,9/ million EU<, after sli%ht &e rease a%ainst the previo$s year >see *hart 1A" Beo%raphi al overa%e of the ompany rea hes 1,/ o$ntries an& 5,W of reven$es ome from mar4ets of emer%in% e onomies"== =: 7istori ally, 7en4el has 6elon%e& to one of the lea&in% innovative ompanies in Bermany for more than 1;- years" As 3e may o6serve in overvie3 of ompany history >Appen&i2 AA, the ompany sho3e& stron% innovative potential from early years" #n the 6e%innin%, innovation 3as &riven 6y $stomer 3ants an& nee&s >e"%" sale of pre?pa 4a%e& 'ersilA" Later effe tiveness of reso$r es an& ra3 material ame to matter" So$r e material effe tiveness is pattern 3hi h repeats in story of 7en4el o$ple of times an& ea h time 6ro$%ht to life important in remental innovation" Io3a&ays, 7en4el la$n hes lean?mana%ement?li4e system of 0otal 'ro&$ tive (ana%ement" 0his system is parti $larly &esi%ne& to improve effi ien y of pro&$ tion plants an& &e rease of 3aste an& system
88

7en4el" ,-1," Innovation histor%. UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"hen4el" om@innovation@innovation?history?11.:9"htm" 89 7en4el" ,-1," 8o#nloads 9 Reports : 2nn-al reports *::; 1 .<**" UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http://www.henkel.com/investor-relations/downloads-archives-1189 .htm

;-

6rea4?&o3ns of ma hines 6y re%$lar maintenan e an& he 4s 3hi h &ete t possi6le &efe ts" 7o3ever, the system 3as implemente& only in plants pro&$ in% osmeti s so far, hen e the o$t omes relate& to these improvements are not rea hin% the potential yet":7en4el proves also lon% history of innovation thro$%h a 8$isition" (aCority of $rrent pro&$ ts in portfolio of the ompany 3ere initially &evelope& an& la$n he& 6y other ompanies 3hi h 3ere later a 8$ire& 6y 7en4el" Altho$%h the ompany too4 over several &o1ens of ompanies pro&$ in% similar or omplementin% pro&$ ts, they have 4ept many 6ran&s from a 8$ire& ompanies $n han%e& in or&er not to lose $stomers 3ho are $se& to familiar 6ran&s":1 Development of sales for 3hole ompany in last 9 years is &es ri6e& on hart" #t sho3s that ompany 3as affe te& 6y finan ial risis in ,--: 3hen reven$e &e line& 6y 5,1W a%ainst previo$s year" 7o3ever, the risis &i& not affe t all the se tors 3ith the same stren%th an& &$e to stron% A&hesive te hnolo%ies se tor, the reven$es of 7en4el %re3 alrea&y the follo3in% year a%ain" :,

!enkel. "#1".$nnual Report "#11. %n Downloads & Reports : Annual reports 1994 2011. &online' &Cited ( )e*ruar+ "#1"' $vaila*le on the %nternet: http://www.henkel.com/investor-relations/downloads-archives-1189 .htm 91 7en4el" ,-1," Innovation histor%" UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"hen4el" om@innovation@innovation?history?11.:9"htm" 9" !enkel. "#1". Downloads & Reports : Annual reports 1994 - 2011. &online' &Cited ( )e*ruar+ "#1"' $vaila*le on the %nternet: http://www.henkel.com/investor-relations/downloads-archives-1189 .htm
:-

;1

&hart *8evelopment of sales of Henkel .<<= 4 .<**, so-rce: Henkel 2nn-al reports .<<= 1 .<**

;,

4.2. Int#rnal inno ation at 5#n;#l


*ore of innovation at 7en4el is &efinitely innovation omin% from insi&e of the ompany" As a sta6le mar4et player 3ith lon%?term history on mar4et of hemi als, it is nat$ral that the maCor po3er to 6rin% ne3 i&eas has to ome 3ithin the ompany" 7en4el starte& to &evelop o3n resear h an& innovation enter in early years of operation an& 4eeps on emphasi1in% importan e of internal <[D" *$rrently 7en4el has : o3n resear h sites aro$n& the 3orl& 3here o3n resear h is on&$ te&" 0he ompany $rrently fo $ses on polymer resear h, s$rfa e mo&ifi ation an& innovative pa 4a%in%" 0hese iss$es are important for all three 6$siness se tors in 3hi h the ompany operates" 7o3ever, 7en4el en o$ra%es also employees from other &epartments to form$late their innovative i&eas an& improve either pro&$ ts or pro esses of the ompany"

4.3. O+#n inno ation at 5#n;#l


Qrom the history of ompany 3e may see, that 7en4el p$rs$e& stron% %ro3in% strate%y thro$%ho$t its 3hole history" At first, innovative i&eas 3ere so$r e& only internally, in stron% resear h &epartment" Later 3hen ompany 6e ame sta6le an& s$ essf$l on the mar4et, ne3 i&eas an& pro&$ ts 3ere a 8$ire& 3ith ne3 pro&$ tion fa ilities" Dith openin% mar4ets an& %lo6ali1ation, press$re on intro&$ in% onstantly ne3 pro&$ ts rose" 0his ne essity le& to start of ooperation 6et3een 7en4el an& e2ternal ompanies" E2ternali1e& resear h ha& 6een part of innovation strate%y of the ompany for a lon% time 6efore, 6$t only sin e ,--= 7en4el starts to $se term Eopen innovationF to a&&ress all the a tivities relate& to %ainin% i&eas an& on&$ tin% resear h o$tsi&e the ompany" :; :5Open innovation of 7en4el ontains lar%e s ale of a tivities:
:;

resear h an& &evelopment ooperation 3ith e2ternal 6$sinesses, resear h an& &evelopment ooperation 3ith $niversities an& resear h enters,

!enkel. "#1". $nnual report "##,. %n Downloads & Reports : Annual reports 1994 - 2011. &online' &Cited ( )e*ruar+ "#1"' $vaila*le on the %nternet: http://www.henkel.com/investor-relations/downloads-archives-1189 .htm :5 !enkel. "#1". $nnual report "##8. %n Downloads & Reports : Annual reports 1994 - 2011. &online' &Cited ( )e*ruar+ "#1"' $vaila*le on the %nternet: http://www.henkel.com/investor-relations/downloads-archives-1189 .htm

;;

&esi%n ooperation 3ith 6$sinesses, p$6li &esi%n ompetitions for ons$mer pro&$ ts, st$&ent ompetitions on pro&$ t innovation, en%a%ement of s$ppliers an& $stomers in innovation"

0he ompany also en o$ra%es its s$pply hain partners to spea4 $p if they see potential for improvement s$ita6le for 6oth parties an&@or for $stomers" Sele te& partners are ann$ally invite& for meetin% 3here innovation ompati6ility 6et3een them an& 7en4el is so$%ht" #n follo3in% parts 3e 3ill 6riefly &es ri6e some of mentione& a tivities an& their e2e $tion in onte2t of 7en4el" Iot all a tivities are possi6le to 6e analy1e& in &etail $nless information from ompanies involve&" 0his is often s$6Ce t of tra&e se ret an& therefore it is not &ire tly availa6le"

;.6.* Research and development cooperation #ith e ternal b-sinesses


!ase& on lon%?term presen e on the mar4et an& 4no3le&%e of o3n mar4et, 7en4el esta6lishe& ooperation 3ith other 6$sinesses 3hi h mi%ht help to resear h an& &evelop innovations $sef$l for 6oth parties" 7o3ever, open innovation in this ase is not a6o$t lettin% everyone intereste& 4no3 3hat 3e have an& 3hat 3e 3ant or nee& to resear h" De ision to innovate thro$%h e2ternal 6$sinesses re8$ires &eep 4no3le&%e of 6$sinesses involve&" #t is ne essary to ma4e lear 3hether level of 4no3le&%e relate& to the iss$e is similar on 6oth si&es" #n a&&ition, altho$%h 4no3le&%e relate& to innovation mi%ht 6e on the same level, a6sorptive apa6ility of one or another ompany mi%ht 6e &ifferent an& 6lo 4 potential ooperation":/ 0here are several 3ays of on&$ t of s$ h ooperation &epen&in% sta%e of resear h" #n some ases, innovative i&ea is alrea&y 4no3n an& it is ne essary only to fin& $se for it or s$%%est ho3 to implement innovation into $rrent pro&$ t or systems" Qin&in% the ri%ht 3ay
!enkel. "#1". $nnual report "#11. %n Downloads & Reports : Annual reports 1994 - 2011. &online' &Cited ( )e*ruar+ "#1"' $vaila*le on the %nternet: http://www.henkel.com/investor-relations/downloads-archives-1189 .htm
:/

;5

of $se an& implementin% of innovation into systems an& pro&$ ts 3hi h 3ere alrea&y set re8$ires lot of 4no3le&%e on 6oth si&es" 0herefore, 7en4el pro ee&s very aref$lly 3hen hoosin% the partner for ooperation" Amon% the most s$ essf$l ones 6elon% ooperation 3ith Do3 #n ", !ASQ an& other %lo6al players in hemi al in&$stry" 0he ooperation $s$ally fo $ses on ertain in%re&ient or part of the pro&$ t, not on a 3hole pro&$ t":9

;.6.. 8esign cooperation #ith b-sinesses


'ro&$ t &esi%n is no3a&ays one of r$ ial fa tors 3hi h &etermine 3hether $stomer 6$ys pro&$ t or not" On the other han&, in ase &esi%n is attra tive 6$t in onvenient for $se &$e to any reason, it may 6e a very e2pensive for the ompany, &$e to &evelopment an& pro&$ tion e2pense 3hi h 3o$l& 6e not overe& from sales" 0herefore, pro&$ ts for home $se, espe ially for leanin%, are only rarely &esi%ne& 3ith other p$rpose than hy%iene an& easiness of $se" #n ,--/, 7en4el teame& $p 3ith &esi%ner ompany Alessi an& la$n he& ompletely ne3 on ept for mar4et of toilet leaners an& 6lo 4s" Alessi is one of reno3ne& &esi%ner ho$ses in #taly an& 7en4el assi%ne& it to &evelop pa 4a%e for D* 6lo 4 !ref 3hi h 3o$l& 6e attra tive an& $sef$l at the same time" Alessi ame 3ith i&ea of s$rfer" 0he 6lo 4 onsiste& of t3o parts >as other re%$lar D* 6lo 4s from 7en4el portfolioA, ea h fille& 3ith li8$i& of &ifferent olor an& f$n tion" 7o3ever, the 6lo 4 3as not in tra&itional re tan%$lar shape" One part presente& a s$rfer an& the other 3as his sail" 0he 6lo 4 3as la$n he& on retail mar4et in ,--/ an& sales an& mar4et fi%$res for the ,--9 sho3e& very %oo& performan e in the se%ment of home are pro&$ ts":.

;.6.6 P-blic design competitions for cons-mer prod-cts


Similarly to previo$s part, 7en4el $ses also sin%le $stomers to so$r e i&eas of potential &esi%n innovation" S$ h ompetitions are hel& mostly on internet, 3here stan&?alone 3e6site is reate& for the spe ifi ontest" De6site often serves as a main omm$ni ation tool for ontestants an& the ompany" 'arti ipants are re8$ire& to re%ister an& s$6mit their i&eas"
!enkel. "#1". $nnual report "#11. %n Downloads & Reports : Annual reports 1994 - 2011. &online' &Cited ( )e*ruar+ "#1"' $vaila*le on the %nternet: http://www.henkel.com/investor-relations/downloads-archives-1189 .htm 9, 7en4el" ,--." Henkel contin-es its co-rse of s-ccess" UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nter? net: http:@@333"hen4el" om@press@,--.?1;//1?hen4el? ontin$es?its? o$rse?of?s$ ess?1-559"htm
:9

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Depen&in% on parti $lar type of the ontest, proposals are revie3e& 6y the ompany, 6$t in many ases also 6y other parti ipants to provi&e fee&6a 4" #n more simple alternative, revie3ers may not %ive fee&6a 4 on the options, ho3ever, they are en o$ra%e& to vote for interestin% an& attra tive i&eas" 0his is very important part of s$ h a ompetition, as it &oes not provi&e only pool of ne3 i&eas an& sol$tions, 6$t it an also tests 3hether the i&ea 3o$l& 6e s$ essf$l on the mar4et" 03o most interestin% e2amples of p$6li &esi%n ompetitions at 7en4el are 'ril ontest an& 'a 4 &esi%n ontest" (ein 'ril (ein Stil >(y 'ril (y StyleA ontest too4 pla e in ,-11" 0he i&ea 6ehin& 3as to let $stomers reate o3n &esi%n >the vi%netteA of the 'ril &ish 3ashin% &eter%ent 6ottle an& vote for the 6est one" 0he top ten &esi%ns 3o$l& 6e assesse& 6y the C$ry from 7en4el an& the t3o 3innin% &esi%ns 3o$l& 6e after3ar&s $se& for 'ril in sale to a limite& e&ition of the &eter%ent":= All the i&eas %athere& on 3e6pa%e of the pro&$ t an& anyone o$l& vote for his or her favorite &esi%n" *ontroversy of the ontest appeare& 3hen $ne2pe te& an& some3hat inappropriate &esi%ns 3ere a&&e& to the %allery of proposals, s$ h as E'ril 0aste of *hi 4enF 3ith l$msy pi t$re of roaste& hi 4en, or E'ril 7ermannOs Brill SeasonF 3ith sa$sa%e pi t$re& in similar manner as the hi 4en" 0hese 6e ame very pop$lar on the so ial me&ia an& their votes starte& to rise rapi&ly" 7en4el, $nsatisfie& 3ith the &evelopment of ontest, rea te& han%e& terms an& on&itions of the %ame, an& intro&$ e& he 4s to all s$6mitte& proposals" Any ne3 i&ea o$l& not 6e p$6lishe& 3itho$t onsent of 7en4el sin e then" Votin% 3as also a&C$ste& to &e rease s$ h an e2treme prevalen e of sin%le proposals" 0his reate& maCor 6$11 amon% the voters an& parti ipants, as the n$m6er of votes han%e& s$&&enly an& the &ifferen e 6et3een the hi%hest ones an& the follo3in% 3as not so 6i% anymore" 'eople involve& in the %ame starte& to &eri&e the ontest an& ompany alone for their ina6ility to ope 3ith the sit$ation" Qinally, 7en4el hose t3o &esi%ns 3hi h 3ere pro&$ e& an& sol& in limite& n$m6er" 7o3ever, voters &isapprove it &$e to res$lts of the vote a or&in% to 3hi h the hosen &esi%ns a o$nte& for appro2imately /,,-- votes alto%ether, 3hile the 3innin% &esi%n a o$nte& for more than ;/,--- votes" 7en4el trie& o$t also a very small limite&
98

7en4el" ,-11" (ain 'ril (ein Stil" UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"pril"&e@mar4e@meinpril@

;9

e&ition of the 3innin% >inappropriateA &esi%n, as an e2periment, 3hi h &i& not en& $p 3ell" 0otal amo$nt of s$6mitte& &esi%ns 3as hi%her than /-,---" :: 1-On the other han& is an e2ample of hi%hly ela6orate& ans s$6se8$ently s$ essf$l ontest is the 'a 4 &esi%n ontest, 3hi h too4 pla e on the 3e6site: http:@@333"pa 4&esi%n? ontest" om" 0he aim of the ontest 3as to %ather i&eas on a&hesive pa 4a%in% &esi%n" 'arti ipants an& revie3ers re%istere& on the 3e6site in or&er to s$6mit, %ive fee& 6a 4 an& vote for their favorite i&eas" 0he &esi%n to 6e s$6mitte& nee&e& to fit in one of fo$r ate%ories: 1" A&hesive Dosa%e [ Appli ation ," ,?*omponent?A&hesives [ (i2in% ;" Openin% an& *los$re 5" Other 'a 4 &esi%n ontest re8$ire& ontestants to provi&e m$ h more &etaile& information on propose& i&ea" As the &esi%n may 6e totally ne3 or $p%ra&e of any $rrently $se& &esi%n, parti ipants 3ere s$ppose& to s$6mit pi t$re or %raphi al s heme of &esi%n" Ea h entry sho$l& 6e entitle& an& f$n tional an& $sa%e information provi&e& 6y the a$thor, as 3ell as information on te hnolo%ies an& materials $se& for pro&$ tion" 0he proposal sho$l& also in l$&e s$mmary of 6enefits of the &esi%n for f$t$re $sers"1-1 Unli4e (ain 'ril (ein Stil ompetition, this ontest not only provi&e& ontestants 3ith more &etail an& information on the %ame, it also offere& ash pri1es for the three 6est i&eas a or&in% to C$ry >;,---, 1,/-- an& /-- EU<A an& non?monetary pri1e for the most

99

S hollmeyer, P" ,-11" 7hen cro#dso-rcing gets o-t of control" UonlineV ,-11 U*ite& 1- Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@1---hea&s" om@,-11@-5@3hen? ro3&so$r in%?%ets?o$t?of? ontrol@
1##

7o3 to &o" om" ,-11" Henkel has tro-ble #ith Pril &ompetition on ,acebook UonlineV ,-11 U*ite& 1Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@ho3?to&ot om"6lo%spot" om@,-11@-/@hen4el?has?tro$6le?3ith?pril"html" 1#1 7en4el" ,-11" 2dhesive packaging design contest" UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"pa 4&esi%n? ontest" om@start"php

;.

val$a6le parti ipant" 0he pri1es 3ere to in rease attra tiveness of s$6mittin% of i&eas an& provi&in% fee&6a 4 an& omments to other proposals" Another &ifferen e relate& to the votes all s$6missions 3ere assesse& 6y fello3 parti ipant an& C$ry on s ale from 1 to / >/ 6ein% the 6est oneA in follo3in% &imensions1-,: 1" S$staina6ility: (aterial, 0ransport, Stora%e, <e y le@<e$se ," #nnovativeness: 0e hni al sol$tion ;" *onvenien e: 7ealth [ Safety, Easy to $se, Self e2plainin% 5" 'erforman e: *ontri6$tion to sol$tion /" Aestheti al appeal: Attra tiveness >for p$r haseA 0his ontest en&e& s$ essf$lly an& 3itho$t any ontroversies" 0he 3inners of the three 6est &esi%ns 3ere pi 4e& 6y voters an& C$ry, an& a3ar&e& 3ith monetary pri1e" 0he pri1e for most val$a6le parti ipant of the ontest 3as a3ar&e& t3i e &$e to very hi%h en%a%ement of the t3o parti ipants" 0he non?monetary pri1es in l$&e& Apple i'a& an& Boo&ie !a% from 7en4el" 1-;

;.6.; 3t-dent competitions on prod-ct innovation


Amon% the open innovation a tivities 7en4el la$n he&, st$&ent ompetitions are the most 4no3n ones" Espe ially 7en4el #nnovation *hallen%e ontest &evelope& rapi&ly in / years of its e2isten e an& rea he& not only E$rope, 6$t also #n&ia, Vietnam, (e2i o an& Iorth Ameri a" De 3ill e2plain pro ess of the ontest in this hapter in &etail" 7en4el #nnovation *hallen%e >7#*A is a ompetition oriente& on st$&ents of olle%es an& $niversities" 0he ompetition has ta4en pla e for five years alrea&y an& sin e the 6e%innin% has provi&e& a&&e& val$e to parti ipatin% st$&ents as 3ell as to the ompany an& parti ipatin% 6ran hes" 0he %ame provi&es parti ipatin% 6ran hes of 7en4el not only fresh i&eas relate& to pro&$ t an& te hnolo%y &evelopment, 6$t also aims on i&entifi ation of 4ey

1#"

7en4el" ,-11" 2dhesive packaging design contest" UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"pa 4&esi%n? ontest" om@start"php 1##6i&"

;=

talents for f$t$re re r$itment"1-5 0he ompetition is tar%ete& on $niversity st$&ents of any maCor" 0hey reate teams of t3o an& ompete 3ith their vision of 7en4el pro&$ t in year ,-;-" 0here is not set 3hi h 4in& of pro&$ t or pro&$ t line sho$l& 6e innovate&, ho3ever, it sho$l& 6e &efinitely 6ase& on $rrently $se& pro&$ t or tar%et nee& 3hi h is $rrently satisfie& 6y other 7en4el pro&$ t"1-/ 0he ompetition onsists of three ro$n&s: 11 11 11 S$6mission Iational finals #nternational finals

#n ,-11@,-1,, s$6mission ro$n& too4 pla e from Septem6er to De em6er ,-11" D$rin% this perio& teams, alle& tan&ems in 7#* terminolo%y, are free to form$late an& s$6mit i&eas of pro&$ t or te hnolo%y $se& in ,-;- a or&in% to their e2pe tations" 0he re%istration form provi&es o$tline for pro ess of innovation 6y as4in% %$i&e 8$estions" 0hese serve as frame3or4 3hi h lea&s parti ipant thro$%h omple2ity of innovations an& into reation of ompa t pi t$re of f$t$re"1-9 0he 8$estions in this ro$n& are: ) E0ell $s yo$r vision of life in ,-;-: 3hat f$t$re tren&s &o yo$ e2pe tT ) Dhat 3ill the mar4et nee&s 6e in ,-;- a or&in% to yo$r visionT ) Dhat is yo$r innovationT Des ri6e yo$r i&ea for a 7en4el pro&$ t or te hnolo%y" ) 7o3 &oes yo$r i&ea ontri6$te to promotin% s$staina6le &evelopment in at least one fo al areaT ) 'lease
1#

state

yo$r

motivation

to

parti ipate"F1-.

7en4el" ,-11 ,-1," Henkel Innovation &hallenge" UonlineV U*ite& ,; Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"hen4el" om@ ps@r&e@2 h%@hen4el\hi @hs"2sl@in&e2"htm "

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7en4el #nnovation *hallen%e" ,-11 ,-1," UonlineV U*ite& ,; Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"hen4el" om@ ps@r&e@2 h%@hen4el\hi @hs"2sl@in&e2"htm 1-9 #6i&" 1-. 7en4el #nnovation *hallen%e" ,-11 ,-1," UonlineV U*ite& ,; Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"hen4el" om@ ps@r&e@2 h%@hen4el\hi @hs"2sl@in&e2"htm

;:

0op teams 3hi h provi&e& most interestin% an& ela6orate& i&ea in s$6mission ro$n& are sele te& an& invite& for national finals" 7en4el offers to these teams opport$nity to onta t a mentor 3ho s$pports them 3ith preparation for final presentation an& 3hole i&ea onsisten y" (entors are $s$ally mana%ers of 6$siness $nits in the o$ntry an& there are several of them" (entors are asso iate& 3ith teams a or&in% to relevan y of i&ea to the 6$siness $nit of mentor" #t means that team s$%%estin% innovation for toiletries 3o$l& 6e mentore& 6y mana%er from this &epartment" Ea h team may $se $p to t3o personal meetin%s 3ith mentor for ma2im$m of 9min$tes or similar e8$ivalent" #n ase of $navaila6ility to meet in person, for e2ample &$e to &istant lo ation of parti ipants, mentors are 3illin% to onta t an& oa h mentees via ele troni &evi es, s$ h as S4ype or Boo%le tal4" Despite the fa t that parti ipants are provi&e& 3ith only t3o ho$r?lon% meetin%s, mentors are often very helpf$l an& 3illin% to help a6ove the promise& e2ten& via email omm$ni ation or over the phone to ons$lt iss$es in more &etail" 0eams are re8$ire& to prepare a presentation of their innovative i&ea an& present their vie3 of life an& ons$mer tren&s in ,-;-" Dhole presentation sho$l& not e2 ee& 1min$tes" 'arti ipants are en o$ra%e& to $se s$pportin% materials 3hi h help to sho3 the i&ea or pers$a&e the C$ry" After these C$ry an& a$&ien e may as4 8$estions in or&er to lear $p any matter 3hi h they fin& va%$e or 3hi h nee&s more e2planation"1-= (ost s$ essf$l teams from all parti ipatin% o$ntries an& 7en4el 6ran hes aro$n& the 3orl& ta4e part in international finals in 'olan&" As this part is hi%hly presti%io$s, all the sele te& teams re eive also spe ial trainin% an& mentorin% from senior e2e $tives of the ompany" 0he finals represent also 3on&erf$l opport$nity for st$&ents to meet other li4e?min&e& in&ivi&$als, share e2perien e an& net3or4 &$rin% three &ay session"1-: Qor 3inners of international final is prepare& attra tive pri1e in ,-1, it is ti 4et for Co$rney aro$n& the 3orl& an& po 4et money for ea h of 3innin% team mem6ers" A&&itionally, the top three teams 3ill meet *EO of the ompany an& spen& &ay at 7en4el hea&8$arters in D]ssel&orf in Bermany"11-

1-=

7en4el #nnovation *hallen%e" ,-11 ,-1," UonlineV U*ite& ,; Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"hen4el" om@ ps@r&e@2 h%@hen4el\hi @hs"2sl@in&e2"htm
1-: 11-

#6i&" #6i&"

5-

4.4. Co-+#titi #n#ss anal$sis

Qor analysis of ompetitiveness of &eter%ents an& osmeti s &ivision of 7en4el, it is ne essary to esta6lish &rivin% fa tors of the in&$stries, main ompetitors an& then ompetitive position of 7en4el amon% these"

;.;.* 8riving factors of cosmetics and home detergents ind-stries


4.4.1.1. D#-o.ra+,ics *han%e in str$ t$re of so iety, in rease of avera%e a%e an& so ial tren&s infl$en e very m$ h ons$mer 6ehavior of tar%et mar4et" As osmeti is lar%ely re%ar&e& as 6ea$ty item, it is m$ h more infl$en e& 6y any s$6 tren&s arisin% from &emo%raphi s than &eter%ents an& home are pro&$ ts" 111 *osmeti in&$stry is parti $larly &riven 6y press$re to feel yo$n% an& vital, reC$venatin% an& anti?a%e treatments" #nnovative a tions are therefore aime& to ome $p 3ith ne3 form$las emphasi1in% slo3?&o3n of a%ein%" *$rrent tren&s in E$rope an& Iorth Ameri a evolve also more to3ar&s intro&$ in% osmeti pro&$ ts espe ially for men" #t is a s$6 tren& of yo$n% an& vital press$re, as men starte& to a ept $se of osmeti s not only for sa4e of hy%iene 6$t also a &istin%$ishin% fa tor of their ima%e" Loosenin% of so ial roles allo3e& to 6e a epta6le also for men to $se reams an& spe ial treatments in s4in are, as 3ell as 3omen" 11,
11;

Another shapin% tren& in osmeti s is nee& for l$2$ry an& 3ell?6ein%" *osmeti s are more a essi6le to people 3ith lo3er in ome, ho3ever, these re8$ire as m$ h are as 6etter sit$ate& $stomers" 0herefore, man$fa t$rers nee& to offer pro&$ ts 3hi h satisfy this ne essity, ontainin% e2oti , spe ial or rare in%re&ients at onvenient pri e" #n fa t, pri e is not the only fa tor to 6e han%e& 3ith this tren&, as &istri6$tion an& omm$ni ation also has to 6e
111

Deter%ents [ Soaps" om ,-1-" ,-t-re o-tlook" UonlineV ,-1- U*ite& 19 (ar h ,-1,V on the #nternet: http:@@333"&eter%entsan&soaps" om@f$t$re?o$tloo4"html
11,

Arti le 1; 0he <esonsi6le !$siness E2pert" ,--," $he >at-ral $rend in the &osmetics Ind-str%" UonlineV ,--," U*ite& 19 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"arti le1;" om@A1;\*ontentList"aspT strA tionXBet'$6li ation['I#DX1:1 11; #6i&"

51

han%e& to rea h these &ifferent types of ons$mers" #t is important to ma4e 6oth %ro$ps feel important an& omm$ni ate them 3ith means 3hi h are familiar an& onvenient to them" 7en e, sear h for ost?effe tiveness om6ine& 3ith hi%h $stomer attra tiveness is a m$st"115 #n &eter%ent in&$stry, ons$mer loo4s for easiness of $se" Io6o&y 3ants to &o &iffi $lt meas$rements an& pro esses 3hen havin% la$n&ry 3ashe& or 3hen &oin% leanin% aro$n& the ho$se" *ompanies therefore ten& to offer ons$mers sol$tions 3hi h ma4e 3ashin% an& leanin% pro ess as easy as it an 6e" Dashin% &eter%ents improvements %o to rea&y?to?$se pa 4a%in% 3hi h &oes not nee& to 6e meas$re&, e"%" in ta6s or small pa 4a%es of li8$i& &eter%ent" 7i%her effe tiveness of 3ashin% is also stan&ar& as maCority of &eter%ents is a6le to 3ash properly at very lo3 temperat$res"11/ 4.4.1.2 Glo(ali<ation an& #cono-ic .ro%t, Blo6ali1ation inter onne te& people an& mar4ets all aro$n& the 3orl& in last t3o or three &e a&es an& this means ne3 hallen%es also for in&$stries of osmeti s an& &eter%ents" E onomi %ro3th also ren&ers osmeti s availa6le to hi%her n$m6er of people, allo3in% them to ta4e are of themselves more than 6efore" 0his &evelopment s$%%ests %ro3th of mar4ets, espe ially in $rrently lo3?in ome o$ntries 3hi h are hi%h at pop$lation" 119 Developin% mar4ets sometimes present nee&s 3hi h are not overe& 6y $rrent portfolio of %lo6al ompanies at all, 3hat offers potential for ne3 pro&$ ts an& servi e" Ie3 &estinations provi&e ne3 nee&s to 6e fo $se& on, s$ h as &ifferent taste in flavors, pa 4a%in% an& $se of pro&$ t"11. Similarly as in osmeti s, $sin% artifi ial &eter%ents is more a essi6le than ever 6efore" 0herefore, it is ne essary to tar%et lar%er ons$mer %ro$ps 3ith 3i&er portfolio of pro&$ ts"11=

115

Deter%ents [ Soaps" om ,-1-" ,-t-re o-tlook" UonlineV ,-1- U*ite& 19 (ar h ,-1,V on the #nternet: http:@@333"&eter%entsan&soaps" om@f$t$re?o$tloo4"html
11/ 119

#6i&" Deter%ents [ Soaps" om ,-1-" ,-t-re o-tlook" UonlineV ,-1- U*ite& 19 (ar h ,-1,V on the #nternet: http:@@333"&eter%entsan&soaps" om@f$t$re?o$tloo4"html 11. #6i&" 11= 0he hi%h lo3" om" ,-1-" "reen trends: Is la-ndr% detergent necessar%? UonlineV ,-1-" U*ite& 19 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@thehi%hlo3" om@,-1-@11@%reen?tren&s?is?la$n&ry?&eter%ent?ne essary@

5,

4.4.1.2 Ecolo.$ an& .r##n +ro&*cts a%ar#n#ss *ons$mers are in reasin%ly a3are of &eterioratin% environment, as a rea tion, they rea h for pro&$ ts 3hi h are man$fa t$re& 3ith re%ar& to this iss$e" *ompanies pro&$ in% s$ h pro&$ ts &oes not have only %oo& ons$mer 6ase, $sin% pro esses an& man$fa t$rin% lines 3hi h save environment is onvenient also for the ompanies alone as environmental iss$es are often stron%ly ta2e& an& other3ise 6$r&ene& 6y la3" 11: Deter%ents are $n&er even hi%her press$re in e olo%i al tren&s, as they are $s$ally 6ase& on heavy hemi als" *ontin$o$s innovation to3ar&s li%hter, lo3er 6$r&en on 3ater, air poll$tion an& soil is a m$st either in pro&$ tion as 3ell as 3hile $se& at home or in 6$sinesses" Us$ally 3ashin% &eter%ents are aime& to 6e $se& at lo3er temperat$res, lo3er amo$nt of &eter%ent $se&, re&$ in% nee& to rinse la$n&ry repeatin%ly" Benerally, $se of nat$ral in%re&ients an& their nat$ral effe t in leansers an& &eter%ents is risin% an& provi&es spa e for n$mero$s innovations"1,- 1,1 #n 6oth ases, osmeti s an& &eter%ents, pro&$ t itself is not only a matter of environmental on ern, also pa 4a%in% nee&s to 6e a&C$ste& to this tren& in or&er not to onf$se ons$mers 6y t3o?&ire tion messa%es" #t means preferen e to3ar&s pa 4a%in% from re y le& materials or easily re y la6le, &e rease amo$nt of poll$tion from pa 4a%in% >&$rin% pro&$ tion an& $seA, lessenin% 3ei%ht an& si1e of pa 4a%in% to fa ilitate transport of hi%her n$m6er of pro&$ ts, hen e &e reasin% transport a$se& poll$tion" Alrea&y &ama%e& environment provi&es also another hallen%e for 6oth in&$stries people are more sensitive to ertain in%re&ients or effe ts" 0hese on&itions, in parti $lar if 8$ite ommon in so iety, are %oo& tar%et for innovative initiatives"

11:

Deter%ents [ Soaps" om ,-1-" ,-t-re o-tlook" UonlineV ,-1- U*ite& 19 (ar h ,-1,V on the #nternet: http:@@333"&eter%entsan&soaps" om@f$t$re?o$tloo4"html 1,0he hi%h lo3" om" ,-1-" "reen trends: Is la-ndr% detergent necessar%? UonlineV ,-1-" U*ite& 19 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@thehi%hlo3" om@,-1-@11@%reen?tren&s?is?la$n&ry?&eter%ent?ne essary@
1,1

E$romonitor Blo6al (ar4et <esear h !lo%" ,-11" In redients !rends in "owder Deter ents: A #ri ht $lean %uture UonlineV ,-11" U*ite& 19 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@6lo%"e$romonitor" om@,-11@1-@in%re&ients?tren&s?in?po3&er?&eter%ents?a?6ri%ht? lean?f$t$re"html

5;

;.;.. &ompetitors
4.4.2.1 Col.at#7Pal-oli # *ol%ate?'almolive is a %lo6al player, 3hose history rea hes 6a 4 to 1=-9" (an$fa t$rin% of the ompany is &ivi&e& into 5 maCor &ivisions: Oral are, 'ersonal are, 7ome are an& 'et n$trition" Qor 7en4el, the main ompetitive pro&$ ts 6elon% to the first three ate%ories" 0he ompany fo $ses on tooth paste an& other oral are pro&$ ts >*ol%ate 6ran&A, &eo&orants >Spee& Sti 4A, 6o&y 3ash, li8$i& an& 6ar soaps, &ish3ashers >'almolive an& ACa2 !ran&A, an& fa6ri on&itioners" *ompany has operations in ./ o$ntries aro$n& the 3orl&, rea hin% ,-- o$ntries 3ith their pro&$ ts" <even$es for ,-1- 3ere 1/,/95 million USD" (ore than ./W of ompany reven$es ome from o$tsi&e the US, more than /-W are from emer%in% mar4ets"1,, 1,; #nnovation in *ol%ate?'almolive fo $ses on &e reasin% environmental 6$r&en, promotin% s$staina6ility an& safety" *ompany has strate%y 6$il& on s$staina6ility" Strate%i %oals in l$&e 3ater prote tion, re&$ tion of limate an& environmental impa t, an& promotion of healthy lifestyle an& omm$nity in l$sion" As of open innovation initiatives, ompany see4s i&eas an& patents from e2ternal ontri6$tors via its 3e6site 1,5Y onne ts 3ith e2ternal partners an& s$ppliersY an& en%a%e $stomers" *ol%ate?'almolive also promotes i&ea of employee ontri6$tion to innovation no matter 3hat is the position of the employee"1,/ 1,9
1,,

*ol%ate?'almolive" ,-1," 2nn-al reports .<<+ 4 .<**" UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@investor" ol%ate" om@ann$al" fm
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*ol%ate?'almolive" ,-1-" &olgate #orld factsheet" UonlineV ,-1-" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #n? ternet: http:@@files"sharehol&er" om@&o3nloa&s@*L@1./=,9;9952-259.,5=@. 1a-5.?eaa-?5=ff?a.=1?==;--=5=f: 5@*' Dorl&\QL,-11\/\a"p&f
1,5

*ol%ate?'almolive" ,-1," Innovation and Prod-ct Ideas" UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333" ol%ate" om@app@*ol%ate@US@*orp@#nnovation"srv
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Lin&e%aar&, S" ,-1-. @-ilding @locks for /pen Innovation: 5essons from &olgate1Palmolive" UonlineV ,-1-" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@%a6riel atalano" om@,-1-@-;@-5@6$il&in%?6lo 4s?for?open?innovation?lessons?from? ol%ate?palmolive@ 1,9 Arnol&, '" ,--. ,-1," Method to "et ,l-oride Po#der into $oothpaste $-bes" UonlineV ,--. ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"i&ea onne tion" om@open?innovation?s$ ess@(etho&?to?Bet?Ql$ori&e?'o3&er?into?0oothpaste?0$6e s?---/."html

55

4.4.2.2 Proctor = Ga-(l# 'ro tor [ Bam6le is one of the 6i%%est %lo6al players in fast movin% ons$mer %oo&s in&$stry, espe ially in personal an& home are se%ments" Esta6lishe& in 1=;., reven$e for ,-11 rea he& =,,9 6illion USD" 0he ompany has operations in appro2imately =- o$ntries an& pro&$ ts rea h $p to 1=- o$ntries" 51W of reven$es ome from Iorth Ameri a, 3hile a6o$t ;/W ome from emer%in% o$ntries" 'ro tor [ Bam6le serves follo3in% se%ments ompetitive to 7en4el: 6ea$ty in l$&in% &eo&orants, hair are >7ea& [ Sho$l&ers, 'antene an& Della 6ran&sA, s4in are an& personal are pro&$ tsY fa6ri 6ran&sA, s$rfa e are an& &ish are"1,. 1,= #nnovation is &rivin% for e of the ompany" 'ro tor [ Bam6le 3as amon% the first one to a&&ress ne essity of open innovation approa h thro$%ho$t the ompany" #nnovation $lt$re is hi%hly s$pporte& from top e2e $tives an& 6$il&e& for more than 1- years" *ompany promotes so ial an& environmental responsi6ility 6y settin% %oals relate& to re&$ tion of 3aste, ol& 3ater 3ashin%, in rease amo$nt of rene3a6le so$r e material $se& in As the pioneer, 'ro tor [ Bam6le $ses 3hole s ale of open innovation tools to attra t innovations" 0his ompany provi&es a$tonomo$s 3e6site to over the topi for potential s$6mission of innovative i&eas" 0he 3e6site ontain information on ho3 to pro ee&, areas of interest of the ompany, as 3ell as information on reso$r es 3hi h is availa6le for e2ternal partners to li ense or f$rther ooperate on" As s$ h, the ompany s$pports any form of open innovation initiative employee an& $stomer en%a%ements, s$ppliers an& partner man$fa t$rin% an& re&$ tion of tr$ 4 transportation"1,: 1;are an& home are in l$&in% la$n&ry a&&itives, air are, fa6ri enha ers, la$n&ry &eter%ents >Ariel an& 0i&e

1,.

'ro tor [ Bam6le" ,-1," 2nn-al reports *::: 1 .<** UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"p%" om@en\US@investors@finan ial\reportin%@ann$al\reports"shtml
1,=

'ro tor [ Bam6le" ,-1," Media kit. UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet http:@@ne3s"p%" om@sites@p%"ne3sh8"6$siness3ire" om@files@press\4it@file@;-1/\'B\(e&ia\Kit\,-11\QA"p&f
1,:

Lafley, A"B" ,--=" '[BSs #nnovation *$lt$re: 7o3 3e 6$ilt a 3orl&? lass or%ani %ro3th en%ine 6y investin% in people. #n 3trateg% A b-siness" UonlineV ,--=, Io" /,, A$t$mn ,--=" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"strate%y?6$siness" om@arti le@-=;-5Tp%Xall
1;-

7al&i, 0*" ,--=" Innovation at Proctor 9 "amble" Uvi&eo onlineV ,--=" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@6lo%s"h6r"or%@ s@,--=@-9@innovation\at\pro ter\%am6le"html

5/

ooperation on innovation, also p$6li is en o$ra%e& to spea4 $p their i&eas ho3 to improve any pro ess or pro&$ t"1;1 1;, 4.4.2.2 3nil# #r Unilever serves $stomers in 1.- o$ntries an& has operations in more than 1-- of them too" Ann$al reven$es for ,-11 rea he& 59,/ 6illion EU<" A6o$t half of the reven$e omes from o$ntries in emer%in% mar4ets, i"e" Asia, *entral an& Eastern E$rope an& So$th Ameri a" Unilever mar4ets more than 5-- 6ran&s in several se%ments" (aCor ompetition for 7en4el represents these se%ments: personal are in l$&in% &eo&orants ><e2ona 6ran&A, 6o&y 3ash an& li8$i& soaps >A2e, Dove, <a&o2 6ran&A, hair are >S$nsil4 6ran&A, 6ar soaps >L$2 6ran&A, oral are >Si%nal 6ran&A, s4in are >L$2 6ran&AY home are se%ment ontains home leaners >*if, Domestos 6ran&sA, fa6ri &eter%ents, %arment treatment"1;; 1;5 Altho$%h 6ein% very 4een on open innovation, Unilever emphasi1es also importan e of internal resear h an& &evelopment pipeline" #n open innovation, the ompany see4s ooperation mostly 3ith $niversities, s ientists, lar%e an& small ompanies an& entreprene$rs" Similarly to the other ompanies, Unilever provi&es opport$nity to share patent or innovative i&ea via its 3e6site too" 1;/ 1;9
1;1

on&itioners, la$n&ry &eter%ents, &ish3ashin%

'ro tor [ Bam6le" ,-1,"7hat is connect A develop? UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: https:@@se $re;"verti ali"net@p%? onne tion?portal@ t2@noa$th@-\-\1\5\=;\5\;"&o
1;,

7$ston, L" Sa44a6, I" ,--9" *onne t an& Develop: #nsi&e 'ro ter [ Bam6leRs Ie3 (o&el for #nnovation" #n Harvard @-siness Revie#" UonlineV Vol" =5, Io" ;, (ar h ,--9" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nter? net: http:@@h6r"or%@pro&$ t@ onne t?an&?&evelop?insi&e?pro ter?%am6le?s?ne3?mo@an@<-9-;*?'DQ?EIB
1;;

Unilever" ,-1," 2nn-al report .<**" UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@$nilever" om@investorrelations@ann$al\reports@Ann$al<eportan&A o$nts,-11@
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Unilever" ,-1," &harts .<<. 4 .<**" UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@$nilever" om@ima%es@ir\Unilever\ harts\,--,?,-11\t m1;?,=;559"p&f
1;/

#&ea*onne tion" om" ,--. ,-1," Bnilever -ses &ollaboration to 8evelop &lean 7ater 3ol-tion" UonlineV ,--. ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"i&ea onne tion" om@open?innovation?s$ ess@Unilever?$ses?*olla6oration?to?Develop?*lean?Dater? So?--1.,"html
1;9

'<Ie3s3ire" ,-1," Bnilever 5a-nches >e# /pen Innovation 3pace to 3-pport 3-stainable "ro#th. UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"prne3s3ire" om@ne3s?releases@$nilever?la$n hes?ne3?open?innovation?spa e?to?s$pport?s$staina6le?

59

4.4.2.4 "#c;itt B#nc;is#r <oots of <e 4itt !en 4iser %o 6a 4 to 1=,; 3hen !en 4iser ompany 3as esta6lishe&" !y no3, it is servin% $stomers in almost ,-- o$ntries 3orl&3i&e an& hol&s operatin% fa ilities in over 9- o$ntries" Iet reven$es for ,-11 3ere :,=5/ 6illion B!', from these ,,W omes from &evelopin% o$ntries" 0he ompany serves follo3in% se%ments 3hi h are ompetitive 3ith 7en4el: 7y%iene in l$&in% &isinfe tant leaners an& antisepti li8$i&s >Dettol 6ran&A, lavatory are, a$tomati &ish3ashin% >Qinish 6ran&A, s4in are, an& 7ome se%ment 3hi h in l$&es air are >Air Di 4 6ran&A, fa6ri treatment >Vanish 6ran&A, 3ater softeners >*al%on 6ran&A an& %arment are >Doolite 6ran&A" Stron% part of ompany 6$siness represents so? alle& 'o3er6ran&s se%ment" 0hese 6ran&s are the fla% ships of the ompany an& pro&$ e hi%her reven$e 6y p$rs$in% strate%y of 6ein% first or se on& in the mar4et share terms"1;. #n area of innovation, <e 4itt !en 4iser $ses three 3ay approa h: 1" a tively see4s for ne3 innovative i&eas an& potential for olla6oratin% in te hnolo%y, ," loo4s for li enses from e2ternal ompanies 3hi h mi%ht 6e imme&iately p$r hase& an& $se& in ommer ial or man$fa t$rin% pro esses, ;" offers o3n pro&$ ts@6ran&s to 6e li ense& to mar4ets 3ith a&&e& val$e for 6ran&s" <e 4itt !en 4iser $ses spe ial 3e6site to tar%et open innovation initiatives" 7o3ever, $nli4e other ompetitors, this ompany &oes not en%a%e $stomers &ire tly into innovation pro ess" 0hey rather $se omm$ni ation approa h 3here people omm$ni ate their e2perien es an& feelin%s, 6$t it is $p the ompany to ome $p 3ith sol$tions to their $nsatisfa tory e2perien e"1;= 1;:

%ro3th?15;55;=-9"html
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<e 4ett !en 4iser" ,-1," Investor information" UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nter? net: http:@@333"r6" om@#nvestors?me&ia@#nvestor?information
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Open 6$siness" " ,-1-" <e 4ett !en 4iser profile" UonlineV ,-1-" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"open6$siness" @,-1-@-1@-/@re 4itt?an&?6en 4iser@
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<e 4ett !en 4iser" ,--=" Innovating for s-ccess" UonlineV ,--=" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nter? net: http:@@333"r6" om@#nnovators@'eople

5.

;.;.6 Performance of competitors in cosmetics, personal and home care ind-str%


After hara teri1in% sin%le ompetitors, 3e assesse& their performan e in sele te& in&$stries" !ase& on information state& in previo$s s$6 hapters an& other information &is lose& from mentione& ompanies, 3e prepare& 6en hmar4in% of potential for innovation an& open innovation" #n the analysis 3e 3ant to 6en hmar4 several points relate& to innovational a6ility of ompanies an& &etermine stron% an& 3ea4 points of 7en4el in omparison 3ith other ompetitors" Qollo3in% ta6le an& hart &es ri6e &evelopment of sales for the %iven se tors from ,--/ to ,-11:

$able *: 2nn-al sales of maCor competitors in selected ind-stries, .<<+ 1 .<** O6vio$sly, 'ro tor [ Bam6le is mar4et lea&er in these in&$stries in terms of sales" 0heir performan e is t3i e as %oo& as the se on& 6est player Unilever, an& more than fo$r times 6etter than ne2t t3o rivals" 7o3ever, as is 6etter visi6le from the follo3in% hart, 'ro tor [ Bam6le per eive only sta6le an& slo3 %ro3th, ann$al %ro3th ration never rea hes 1-W a year" 0his may 6e a$se& 6y stron% presen e on mat$re mar4ets 3hi h &o not present s$ h a stron% %ro3th as &evelopin% o$ntries in re ent years" Altho$%h a6o$t one thir& of reven$es ome from emer%in% e onomies, these may not 6e as stron% mar4ets as those in Iorth Ameri a or E$rope yet" #nterestin% performan e 3as sho3n 6y <e 4itt !en 4iser 3hi h 3as the least ompany in terms of sales in ,--/" Dhile 7en4el has %ro3n only ne%li%i6le, <e 4itt !en 4iser has 4ept hi%h %ro3th rates thro$%ho$t the perio&" Dhen onsi&erin% this, 3e nee& to ta4e into a o$nt orporate strate%y of <e 4itt !en 4iser, 3hi h fo $ses on stron% 6ran&s" 0his strate%y in orrelation 3ith mo&est presen e on &evelopin% mar4ets reates interestin% mi2t$re to follo3" 7en4el, at last, has sho3n only small %ro3th rates" As the ompany is servin% the smallest %eo%raphi al area, it is a epta6le" 0he volatility of %ro3th is a$se& 6y stron% presen e of analy1e& se%ments on mat$re mar4ets of Iorth Ameri a an& Destern E$rope 3hi h 3ere hit 6y the finan ial risis at most" 5=

&hart .: "ro#th of sales for relevant part of portfolioin .<<= 1 .<** B#nc,-ar;in. o) o+#n inno ation a-on. co-+#titors 0a6le sho3s omparison of several in&i ators of innovative a tivities: Beo%raphi al overa%e >n$m6er of o$ntries serve&A 0otal sales for ,-11 >in mil" EU<A <[D e2penses >in mil" EU<A <[D e2penses as a W of reven$es #ntan%i6les >in mil" EU<A #ntan%i6les as W of sales *ooperation 3ith $stomers >s ale 1?;, ; 6ein% the 6est oneA 'artnerin% 3ith e2ternal ompanies >s ale 1?;, ; 6ein% the 6est oneA Li ensin% >s ale 1?;, ; 6ein% the 6est oneA Employee en%a%ement in innovation >s ale 1?;, ; 6ein% the 6est oneA Desi%n o$tso$r in% >s ale 1?;, ; 6ein% the 6est oneA #n the 6en hmar4in% of last five parameters 3e $se& s ale of 1 to ; on 3hi h ; is the 5:

6est" 0his s ale is $se& to hara teri1e state of %iven parameter in the ompany" 1 means only sli%htly &evelope& parameter, , avera%e, not so %oo& &evelope& parameter, an& ; stan&s for the most &evelope& option" As res$lts, 3e o6serve mi2e& s$ ess of 7en4el in %iven riteria" #n the first o$ntries

parameter, 7en4el is the least one, 3ith the %eo%raphi al share of only 1,/

3orl&3i&e" 7o3ever, this &oes not refle t in the reven$es of the ompany 3hi h is thir& in the ran4in%, 3hile ompanies &oin% 6$siness in appro2imately ,-- o$ntries ran4e& lo3er in this riterion" S$ h a stron% performan e on mar4et smaller 6y ;.,/W is very interestin% an& o$l& prove stron% 6ran&s, ho3ever, as 3e ompare these res$lts 3ith the 0a6le 1, 3e an see that only a6o$t half of the reven$es omes from se%ments relevant to o$r analysis" #n terms of sales for the relevant part of portfolio is 7en4el the least one" E2penses on resear h an& &evelopment provi&e interestin% insi%ht" #n <[D to e2penses ration, 7en4el 6eats almost all the ompetitors e2 ept for 'ro tor [ Bam6le, 3hi h f$n&s resear h only 6y -,-5 per enta%e points more in avera%e" #n spite of all the ratios 6ein% very small, in a6sol$te n$m6ers it is lear that 7en4el spen&s more than t3i e as m$ h on resear h an& &evelopment than <e 4itt !en 4iser or *ol%ate?'almolive" 0his ill$strates hi%h ommitment for innovation of 7en4el an& 3illin%ness to over ome ompetitors thro$%h innovations" #n intan%i6les 6en hmar4in%, 3e meas$re& val$e of intan%i6le property in l$&in% patents, ri%hts an& 4no3?ho3, as 3ell as %oo&3ill 3hi h 3e onsi&er to 6e refle tion of mar4et s$ ess an& appropriate $se of innovation for in rease of ompany val$e" Also in this omparison 7en4el &i& 3ell, as it ran4s on thir& pla e in the relative parameter, after the t3o pre e&in% 6ein% of the same val$e" -,-9W of sales is investe& in intan%i6les 3hat similarly to <[D e2pen&it$res s$%%ests that 7en4el tries har& to 6$il& o3n 6ase of 4no3le&%e"

/-

$able .: @enchmarking of selected factors of innovation potential, 3o-rce: o#n research

/1

#n the terms of $stomer ooperation, the hi%hest val$e means fre8$ent a tivities to3ar&s $stomers an& ons$mers oriente& on en%a%in% them in innovation pro ess, en o$ra%in% them to share their opinion, 3ants an& nee&s" As all of the ompanies $se some 4in& of similar a tivities, the val$e stan&s more for fre8$en y an& s$ ess of s$ h a tivities" 7en4el an& Unilever &i& 3ell in this area 3hi h means their initiatives 3ere re o%ni1e& an& a epte& 6y p$6li , re eive& hi%h overa%e in me&ia an& positive a laim" 'artnerin% 3ith e2ternal ompanies is one of the m$sts of this in&$stry, as hemi al te hnolo%ies &evelop 3ith in re&i6le spee&" All of the ompanies $se e2ternal partners to &evelop innovations" *ol%ate?'almolive as the only ompany sho3s someho3 ol&er approa h to3ar&s &evelopment of s$ h net3or4 than the other ompetitors" Li ensin% of patents is the only 3ea4ness of 7en4el in open innovation portfolio" As all the ompetitors are loo4in% for similar patents, 7en4el^s mo&el of s$6mission form on the 3e6site is not ompetitive eno$%h" 'ro tor [ Bam6le, Unilever an& <e 4itt !en 4iser a&&ress this iss$e 3ith spe ial 3e6sites 3hi h e2plain 3hole pro ess an& not inter onne te& an& th$s non rea ha6le for $nfamiliar visitor" Employee en%a%ement is one of the most sprea& an& onvenient tools for open innovation" Employee innovation pro%ram is most easily e2e $ta6le an& &oes not re8$ire hi%h initial investments" <e 4itt !en 4iser is the only ompany 3hi h ran4e& lo3er in this parameter, as they prefer innovations to 6e treate& 6y professional resear h employees rather than $stomers" Desi%n ompetitions are the 6est a&vanta%e 7en4el has ha& so far" 0he other players have ha& some tries in this fiel& as 3ell, ho3ever, no one has rea he& s$ h a positive a laim as 7en4el" At the en&, 3e o6serve& that altho$%h innovation e2pense an& intan%i6les mi%ht 6e important in&i ator of innovative apa6ility of the ompany, the relation 6et3een them an& mar4et performan e it is not lear an& &ire t" As it 3as mentione& in the first part of the thesis, innovation mana%ement is lin4e& 3ith many other mana%ement areas" 7en e, 3e an s$ppose this onne tion is a$se& 6y other areas of mana%ement" De 3o$l& nee& to assess these areas in more &etail to provi&e omprehensive information" 7en4el &i& 3ell in this omparison" Altho$%h it is the smallest ompany from the /, ompany 6a 4%ro$n&" #t is tr$e that similar information may 6e fo$n& on 7en4el site as 3ell, they are

hosen ones in terms of total sales an& mar4ets serve&, in overall ran4in% rea hes thir& pla e" #n the 6en hmar4in% is learly visi6le stron% portfolio of a tivities relate& to open innovation, an& hi%h stan&ar& of these" Dhen omparin% n$m6er of o$ntries in 3hi h ea h ompany operates an& e2penses on resear h an& &evelopment, 3e o6serve that 7en4el has %reat potential to &evelop its strate%ies f$rther an& pro6a6ly s$ essf$lly if $sin% all the tools alrea&y in $se"

4.5. B#st +ractic#s an& r#co--#n&ations


De analy1e& pra ti es $se& in 7en4el an& other ompetitors in fiel& of innovation" #n follo3in% s$mmary 3e 3ill on l$&e 3hat 3e fo$n& an& ho3 7en4el an pro ee& in or&er to 6oost innovation an& in rease ompetitiveness of the ompany"

Dariet% of innovative activities


7en4el $ses 3i&e variety of open innovation tools to mana%e inflo3 an& &evelopment of innovations into the ompany" Di&e s ale of a tivities 3ill not only %enerate %reat amo$nt of i&eas to 6e assesse&, it also ertainly reates p$6li ity for the ompany, espe ially in ase of $stomer or st$&ent ompetitions" 7o3ever, 3e nee& to emphasi1e that it is r$ ial to prepare an& &evelop all 4in&s of a tivities at similar stan&ar&" *ompetitions an& all for innovation 3hi h are not e2e $te& at ertain stan&ar& may have &ama%in% effe t on innovative o$t omes of s$ h alls an& ontest" Dhile &isor%ani1e& ontest may reate a 6it of me&ia 6$11 >s$ h as in ase of 'rill ompetitionA, 3hi h o$l& 6e onsi&ere& as %oo&, the e2pe te& o$t omes may 6e serio$sly h$rt 6y ne%ative p$6li ity of the ontest an& therefore the investment for 3hole ompetition may 6e vain" Dhat 3e miss is the fa t that 7en4el &oes not promote at all li enses for te hnolo%y an& 4no3le&%e the ompany possess" Unli4e Unilever or <e 4itt !en 4iser, 7en4el &oes not offer o3n 4no3le&%e to 6e li ense& or sol& to other s$6Ce ts" 0his mi%ht also help to esta6lish ompany operations in ne3 o$ntries an& rea h these ne3 so$r es of innovative i&eas" At the same time it is %reat 3ay of in reasin% in ome 6y li ensin% 4no3?ho3 3hi h is o6solete in maCor &evelope& mar4ets 3hile s$ita6le for other &evelopin% mar4ets" Li ensin% of 4no3?ho3 sho$l& 6e &efinitely re onsi&ere& 6y 7en4el" /;

@alance bet#een open and closed innovation


7en4el $ses 3i&e variety of innovation te hni8$es an& approa hes, ho3ever, this alone is not eno$%h to ma4e the 3hole innovation system 3or4" Altho$%h open innovation offers fast an& &iverse sol$tions to innovation nee&s an& pro6lems arisin%, on the other han&, relyin% too m$ h on innovation from o$tsi&e may 6e $nhealthy for the ompany" 0he a&&e& val$e of internal innovation an& tra&itional approa h is in the a6ility to ome $p 3ith sol$tions 3hi h are not p$6li ly availa6le 6e a$se of hi%h osts of resear h" Also &evelopment of a6sorptive apa ities for innovative i&eas omin% from e2ternal environment nee&s to 6e overe& 6y a6ilities of internal innovation an& potential 3hi h is hi&&en in it"

8esign competitions
As 6en hmar4in% has sho3n, 7en4el is the mar4et lea&er in terms of &esi%n ompetitions" 0his stren%th sho$l& not stay $n$se&, rather 3isely n$rt$re& an& &evelope& $p to perfe tion" As the previo$s e2perien e has traine& the ompany in terms of 3ell an& 6a& mana%e& ontest, 3e 6elieve this 3ill help them to orre t the last errors of the mo&el" Dhat is important to reali1e is that &esi%n ompetitions, similar to any other open innovation a tivity, are relatively easily opie&, hen e it is ne essary to $se this a&vanta%e 3hile the ompetitors have not fo$n& ho3" Another reason 3hy to fo $s on &esi%n ompetitions is relative lo3 ost of la$n hin%, 3hile no spe ial preparation has to 6e &one in a&van e" 0here are many pro&$ ts on the mar4et an& ea h of them mi%ht 6e s$6Ce t of s$ h ontest" #n fa t, all the topi s an& pro&$ ts may 6e assesse& in a&van e an& appropriate ontest may 6e la$n he& virt$ally anytime, or 3ithin short time, for e2ample as a rea tion to ampai%n from ompetition"

&aref-l preparation of open innovation calls and risk management


Open innovation is ertainly a m$st in this in&$stry" As 3e o6serve& in the 6en hmar4in%, not a sin%le ompetitor an affor& not to $se it" #f it is so, then it is ne essary to o6tain as m$ h from ea h initiative as possi6le" 7o3ever, potential of open innovation all mi%ht 6e &e rease& 6y $nprepare& or 6a&ly?mana%e& alls" #n (y 'ril (y Style ontest 3e sa3 an e2ample of all 3hi h 3as not mana%e& orre tly 3hen the ompetition too4 &ire tion $n&esire& 6y the ompany" (any of the ris4s arisin% from s$ h alls o$l& 6e foreseen" Qor s$ h ases, ompany sho$l& prepare at least %eneral ris4 mana%ement plan or /5 risis

omm$ni ation set" <is4 mana%ement plan or risis omm$ni ation set 3o$l& lea& the ompany thro$%h the pro6lem 3ith sta6le o6Ce tives in min& an& 3itho$t onf$sion relate& to $npre&i te& sit$ation an& 8$i 4, pre?mat$re &e isions as a rea tion"

!mphasis on strong branding


#n spite of 7en4el 6ein% one of the %lo6al players in the fiel& of hemi al pro&$ ts for ons$mers, 3hat 3e per eive& stron%ly as an anti?innovation fa tor is the la 4 of %lo6al 6ran&in% initiatives" 0hro$%ho$t the years 7en4el a 8$ire& h$%e n$m6er of smaller an& 6i%%er ompanies aro$n& the 3orl& in or&er to enter ne3 mar4ets, ta4e over ompetition, 6roa&en portfolio or improve 8$ality of s$pplies" 7en4el promotes i&ea of 4eepin% lo al 6ran&s on lo al mar4ets 3hat is &efinitely %oo& strate%y" 7o3ever, 3hat 3e miss is the $m6rella or entral point 3hi h 3o$l& lin4 all the similar pro&$ ts to ea h other" 0he 6ran&s mi%ht remain &ifferent in &ifferent o$ntries, 6$t the lo%o an& &esi%n 3o$l& 6e $nifie& an& 3ell?re o%ni1a6le" S$ h arran%ement 3o$l& reate m$ h hi%her o$t omes in ompetitiveness if innovation is intro&$ e&" Also the internal pipeline 3o$l& 6e easier to han&le if there 3o$l& 6e fe3er 6ran&s to 6e mana%e&" 0his strate%y is $se& 6y Unilever 3hi h $ses similar &esi%n for &ifferent 6ran&s aro$n& the 3orl&" Similarly, <e 4itt !en 4iser fo $ses only on maCor 6ran&s in its portfolio 3hi h are improve& an& enhan e&" 0his allo3s <e 4itt !en 4iser to p$rs$e sta6le %ro3th 3ith m$ h smaller portfolio an& <[D investments"

Bse of managerial s%stem s-pporting innovation


0he innovative i&eas of 7en4el from 6e%innin% an& mi& of ,-th ent$ry s$%%est int$itive $se of lean mana%ement on epts an& $rrently are systemati ally &evelope&" 7en4el $ses 0otal 'ro&$ tion (ana%ement system to improve effi ien y of plants" 7o3ever, the $se is limite& to osmeti s plants only so far" As the positive o$t omes of $se lean mana%ement on epts 3ere &emonstrate& n$m6er of times, as 3ell as other similar on epts for 8$ality mana%ement" Stea&y implementation of s$ h on epts sho$l& 6e priority %oal of in remental pro ess innovation" Of o$rse, s$ h an investment is not to 6e rolle& o$t imme&iately, ho3ever, fo $sin% on this iss$e mi%ht s$pport &evelopments in other f$n tional areas an& in&ire tly 6oost ost effe tiveness an& reven$e in rease thro$%h hi%h?8$ality pro&$ ts" //

Innovation c-lt-re
!en hmar4in% 3ith ompetitors 6ro$%ht i&ea of innovation $lt$re 3hi h is &evelope& onstantly a ross the ompany an& it is hi%hly s$pporte& 6y top mana%ement" Altho$%h 7en4el &oes not perform 6a&ly in this 6en hmar4in%, there is still lar%e potential for improvement" As an e2ample may 3or4 'ro tor [ Bam6le orporation, 3hi h is very pro$& of o3n $lt$re oriente& on innovation" 0hey p$t innovation a6ove any other val$e in the ompany an& re?6$ilt everythin% aro$n& to s$pport innovative thin4in% an& a tions" On the other han&, 7en4el emphasi1es innovation as 3ell, 6$t there are also many other priorities, 3hi h are 6efore it" #n its vision an& val$es statement innovation is mentione& only in&ire tly" #nnovation $lt$re is riti al point in or&er to a hieve hi%h performan e as it omprises en%a%ement of employees an& innovative attit$&e of ompany as a 3hole"

/9

Concl*sion
#n this thesis 3e 3ante& to assess an& analy1e $se of &ifferent on epts an& approa hes of innovation mana%ement in sele te& ompany an& the ties of these to the ompetitive a6ility of part of 7en4el ompany" After resear h an& analysis 3e ma&e on 7en4el an& its fo$r maCor %lo6al ompetitors, 3e on l$&e that innovative a6ility of the ompany is very %oo&, altho$%h it has some potential to %ro3 in f$t$re" 7en4el $ses open innovation te hni8$es in om6ination 3ith tra&itional innovative metho&s of lose& innovation para&i%m" 0his mi2 is 3ell?6alan e& an& provi&es sta6le environment to 6e &evelope& f$rther" 7en4el has stron% ompetitive a&vanta%e in &esi%n ompetition 4no3?ho3, as 3ell as other open innovation approa hes" On the other han&, the ompany &oes not $se several &imensions of its potential $p to ma2im$m an& therefore the ompetitive position is not as %oo& as it o$l& 6e" As the e2pe te& o$t ome of the 3or4 sho$l& 6e assessment of ompetitive position, an& provi&in% s$mmary of 6est pra ti es an& re ommen&ations for 7en4el" De re 4on that 4eepin% 6alan e& ratio of internal an& e2ternal &riven innovations s$pporte& 6y ris4 mana%ement strate%y an& risis plan, apitali1in% on open innovation in form of &esi%n ontests, e2ten&e& $se of strate%i innovation mana%ement te hni8$es, an& implementation of innovation $lt$re into the orporate $lt$re of the ompany, are the maCor thin%s to 6e onsi&ere& 6y 7en4el in or&er to improve $rrent ompetitive position"

/.

"#s*->

slo #ns;o- ?a<$;*

Ino a@nA -anaB-#nt a .lo(!lna ;on;*r#nci#sc,o+nosC


#nov) ia Ce &efinovan) a4o nov) my_lien4a $ve&en) &o po&ni4atels4eC pra2e, 4tor) 1lep_$Ce vlastnosti e2ist$C` eho pro&$4t$ ale6o $v)&1a na trh pro&$ t `plne nova, 4tora ne6ol &otera1 1n)my" #nov) ie a i h $v)&1anie &o po&ni4oveC _tr$4t`ry vy$bvaC` post$py vy h)&1C` e 1 ina h ve&e 4a h &is ipln a tento post$p o1naK$Ceme inovaKna manabment" #&e o n)roKna pro es, 4tora Ce v1)Comne prepoCena s inami ria&ia imi pro esmi vo vn`tri spoloKnosti, napr4la& v_eo6e nam, strate%i 4am, proCe4tovam, 1nalostnam a mar4etin%ovam manabmentom, ale aC ria&enm 1mien, 4vality a c$&s4a h 1&roCov" 'o&ni4y sa priro&1ene $sil$C` o &osiahn$tie Ko mobno naClep_eC po1 ie na trh$ a vy$bvaC` pritom rd1ne te hni4y pos`&enia i h va4on$, napr" SDO0 anala1a, !*B a BE mati a, !alan e& S ore *ar& a po&o6ne" #&e)lny stav Ce &osiahn$ta vte&y, a4 firma &ispon$Ce Ce&ineKno$ vlastnoseo$, 4tor) Ce $platnitecn) na trh$ a4o 4on4$renKn) vaho&a, 4tor) $mobf$Ce spoloKnosti &osahovae lep_ie vasle&4y a4o 4on4$ren ia" 0a4to $platneng 4on4$renKn) vaho&a Ce prv4om 4on4$ren ies hopnosti firmy na trh$" Kon4$ren ies hopnose Ce te&a s hopnose firmy vy$bvae svoCe Ce&ineKng vlastnosti a 1&roCe ta4, a6y &osiahla Ko naClep_i$ po1 i$ na trh$" 0o$to Ce&ineKno$ vlastnoseo$ mdb$ 6ye pr)ve pro&$4ty, pro esy ale6o 1&roCe, 4torg s` lep_ie a4o m) 4 &ispo1 i 4on4$ren ia" #nov) ie a i h manabment potom priamo pom)haC` vytvorie ta4`to vlastnose, s` te&a &dlebito$ s`Kaseo$ 6$&ovania 4on4$ren ie hopnosti po&ni4ov" #nov) ie s` 1naKne ovplyvneng prostre&m 4&e v1ni4aC` a 1&roCmi 1 a4a h novg my_lien4y po h)&1aC`" Allan Af$ah hara4teri1oval tieto po&mien4y pre v1ni4 inov) i a4o f$n4Kng a 1)visia e o& o4olnost" (e&1i f$n4Kng 1&roCe inov) i patria: 1. vn`torng ho&noto?tvorng f$n4 ie spoloKnosti, 2. von4aC ho&notova reea1e tvorena &o&)vatecmi a 1)4a1n4mi, 3. $nive1itna, _t)tny a s`4romna vas4$m, 4. 4on4$renti a spria1neng o&vetvia, 5. ing n)ro&y a re%iJny" SpoloKnosti sa pri vyhca&)van inovatvny h my_lieno4 1ameriavaC` na mobno1ti /=

vylep_enia pro&$4tov, pro esov a sl$bie6 na 1)4la&e inform) i 1o spomen$ta h 1&roCov" Vaho&o$ ta hto 1&roCov Ce i h st)la &ost$pnose a te&a nepretrbit) mobnose 1s4avania nova h my_lieno4" Iaro1&iel o& toho, 1&roCe 1)visia e o& o4olnost pre&stav$C` 1&roC len v prpa&e von4aC_ h $&alost, 4torg ovplyvnia ho& po&ni4$" +loho$ manabment$ a manabgra inov) i v po&ni4$ Ce potom anala1a ta hto $&alost a i h vy$bitie na 1va_enie 4on4$ren ies hopnosti firmy" Af$ah ro1&elil tieto 1&roCe na po&ca toho, Ki po h)&1aC` 1: 1" 'l)novana h a4tivt po&ni4$, ," IeoKa4)vana h $&alost, ;" 0voriveC &e_tr$4 ie 'o 1s4an nova h my_lieno4, po&ni4 m$s previese n)pa&y &o pra2e" Mave&enie inov) i &o firemna h pro esov v_a4 mdbe 6ye spomaleng pre4)b4ami v inovaKnom pro ese" 'reto Ce potre6ng po1nae mobng pre4)b4y, a6y 6olo mobng i h vyho&notie a vKas 1a hytie ale6o sa im vyhn`e" 'o&ni4 mdbe mae pro6lgm s f$n4Knami a or%ani1aKnami limitmi spoloKnosti, pre 4torg ne&o4)be a6sor6ovae nov` inov) i$ 4vdli ne&ostat4$ ve&omost o &anom pro6lgme ale6o my_lien4e" 'ro6lemati 4ami mdb$ 6ye aC ro1&iely vo firemneC 4$lt`re pdvo& $ inov) i a implement)tora, ale6o v samotneC povahe inov) ie, 4tor) Ce ne1l$Kitecn) s &oteraC_mi ve&omoseami firmy, a preto nie Ce mobng C$ $platnie" 'dso6enie na %lo6)lnom trh$ prin)_a 4 vymenovanam pre4)b4am hal_ie, vy h)&1aC` e 1 $platfovania inov) i v me&1in)ro&na h po&mien4a h" K tamto pre4)b4am patria: ro1&ielnose 4$lt`r 4raCiny pdvo&$ inov) ie a prCmaC` eC 4raCiny a a6sor6Kn) s hopnose prCmaC` eC 4raCiny, napr" ro1&ielna `rovef v1&elania ale6o 1relosti trh$" V o6o h prpa&o h hr) &dlebit` `loh$ naKasovanie 1ave&enia inov) ie &o pra2e, 4ehbe po&mief$Ce hal_ie po&mien4y, a4o napr" potre6ng 1nalosti, _t)&i$m bivotngho y4l$ inov) ie a po&o6ne" A4o sme spomen$li, po&ni4y vy$bvaC` veca mobnost na 1s4avanie nova h po&netov na inov) ie" 0ieto mobnosti ro1&el$Ceme &o tro h 4ate%Jri na 1)4la&e pdvo& $ inov) ie na: Vn`tropo&ni4ovg Li en ie Otvoreng inov) ie, o$tso$r in% a ro3&so$r in% inov) i

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Vn`tropo&ni4ovg inov) ie hca&aC` mobnosti 1lep_enia vo vn`torna h pro eso h firmy, ale6o vha4a vy$biti$ interna h vas4$mna h 4apa t" Iaro1&iel o& toho, li en ie s` inov) ie po h)1&aC` e 1 von4aC_ieho prostre&ia, 4torg $b 6oli `spe_ne apli4ovang v inom po&ni4$ a 6$&` len prispdso6eng po&mien4am 4$p$C` eho po&ni4$" O4rem vas4$m$ po&ni4y vybvaC` na vn`tropo&ni4ovg inov) ie manabgrs4e systgmy, 4torg pon`4aC` post$py vho&ng na 1a hyt)vanie poten i)lny h inov) i, napr" _thla varo6a a manabment >Lean man$fa t$rin%, lean mana%ementA, stetg%ia mo&rgho o e)n$ >!l$e o ean strate%yA ale6o teJria o6me&1en >0heory of onstraintsA" Li en ie inov) i s` finanKne meneC n)roKng a4o vlastna vas4$m a pos4yt$C` men_ie ri1i4o ne`spe h$, 1)rovef v_a4 ta4to vytvoreng 4no3?ho3 nie Ce Ce&ineKng a4o 6y mohlo 6ye v prpa&e vn`tropo&ni4oveC inov) ie" Otvoreng inov) ie a o$tso$r in% pre&stav$C` treti$ alternative, 4tor) &o isteC miery 4om6in$Ce &otera1 spomen$tg mobnosti" #&e o 1s4avanie inov) i 1 von4aC_ h 1&roCov, 4torg s` v_a4 vytv)rang firme na mier$" 0)to alternativa sa 1aKala presa&1ovae a4o &dsle&o4 ve&e 4gho ro1ma h$, 4e&y $b nie Ce v sil) h Ce&neC firmy o6siahn$e v_et4y ve&omosti 1 o&6or$" ipe iali1) ia sa te&a $platf$Ce aC v inov) i) h a firmy vy$bvaC` rd1ne prostrie&4y na 1s4anie 4on4rgtneC inov) ie" 'o&ni4y vy$bvaC` spol$pr) $ na vas4$me s inami po&ni4mi, o$tso$r in% vas4$m$ na mier$ ineC spoloKnosti, ale6o 1a&) im pro6lem, 4tora Ce potre6ng vyrie_ie" ro3&so$r in% s4$pinova o$tso$r in%, 4eh po&ni4 oslov vereCnam &opytom _ir_i$ s4$pin$ c$&, o&6orn4ov aC lai4ov a #novatvne n)pa&y, 4torg po&ni4 1s4a o$tso$r in%om ale6o ro3&so$r in%om s` pripraveng na mier$ a 1)rovef mdb$ o6sahovae Kiast4ovg rie_enia, 4torg 6oli po$bitg v ina h po&ni4o h av_a4 prispdso6eng 4on4rgtnem$ &opyt$ a re)liam" *iecom pr) e Ce pres4`mae a analy1ovae po$bitie ta hto mobnost v pra2i" Ma$Cma n)s, Ki spoloKnosti vy$bvaC` ta4`to _iro4` _4)l$ prostrie&4ov na 1s4avanie inov) i a i h prpa&ng v1)Comng prepoCenie" 0oto 1ho&notenie vy4on)me na pr4la&e 4on4rgtneC firmy" Ke&be hlavnam &dvo&om $v)&1ania inov) i Ce 4on4$ren ies hopnose po&ni4$ na trh$, h eme 1istie aC to, a4o Ce analy1ovan) spoloKnose `spe_n) me&1i svoCimi 4on4$rentmi a &o a4eC miery Ce to 1)vislg o& inovatvnosti spoloKnosti" KoneKnam vasle&4om ta4eCto anala1y 6$&e 1hrn$tie a &opor$Kenia vy6raneC spoloKnosti, 4torg 6y po&nietili 1lep_enie 4on4$ren ies hopnosti pomo o$ inov) i" 'ri vypra ovan pr) e sme vy$bvali vereCne 9-

&ost$png materi)ly spoloKnost 7en4el, Unilever, 'ro tor [ Bam6le, <e 4itt !en 4iser a *ol%ate?'almolive, i_lo naCmj o varoKng spr)vy, 3e6ovg str)n4y a Kl)n4y na internetova h port)lo h venovana h pro6lemati4e inov) i" Ia 1)4la&e ta hto sme str$Kne analy1ovali Ce&notlivg 4on4$renKng po&ni4y a pripravili prehca& finanKna h $4a1ovatecov v o6&o6 ,--9 ,-11 v o&vetvia h 4o1meti4y a starostlivosti o &om) nose" V pr) i sme ta4tieb 1ostavili 6en hmar4in%, v 4torom sme porovnali va4ony Ce&notliva h 4on4$rentov 1a elg spoloKnosti" 0)to o&li_nose v meto&i4e 6ola 1volen) na 1)4la&e ne&ost$pnosti potre6na h `&aCov len 1a 4on4rgtne se%menty, preto 6y vasle&4y 6oli s4resleng" 'o spra ovan ta hto anala1 sme po$bili metJ&$ syntg1y a na 1)4la&e Ce&notliva h vasle&4ov navrhli $ eleng opatre6ia, 4torg 6y spoloKnose 7en4el mala $platnie a6y 1lep_ila svoC$ 4on4$renKn` po1 i$" 7en4el Ce %lo6)lne pdso6ia a spoloKnose vyr)6aC` a 4o1meti4$, varo64y pre starostlivose o &om) nose a lepi&l) a te hnolJ%ie na `prav$ povr h$" SpoloKnose v1ni4la v ro4$ 1=.9, 4eh Qrit1 7en4el 1aKal vyr)6ae a pre&)vae pra pr)_o4 v o&v)bena h 6alenia h" V s`Kasnosti 7en4el o6sl$h$Ce trhy v 1,/ 4raCin) h , priKom 5,W prCmov po h)&1a 1 ro1vCaC` i h sa trhov" V &iplomoveC pr) i sa 1ameriavame naCma na se4tory 4o1meti4y a starostlivosti o &om) nose, 4torg v ro4$ ,-11 &osiahli prCmy vo va_4e .,9/ miliJnov EU<" 7en4el poKas svoCeC histJrie 6$&oval po1 i$ poKetnami inov) iami" O& 1aKiat4$ vy$bval svoCe vlastng vas4$mng entr$m, 4torg malo 1a `loh$ n)Cse novg mobnosti v spomnana h po&o&vetvia h hemi 4gho priemysl$" Veca inov) i 6olo tieb vasle&4om snahy o 1efe4tvnenie varo6y ale6o vy$bitie o&pa&$ 1 varo6y, po&o6ne 6oli $pravovang@inovovang varo64y poKas voCny, 4eh ne6olo &ostato4 s$rovn na varo6$ 6ebna h pro&$4tov" 0)to snaha o efe4tn$ varo6$ sa nes4or transformovala na systgm 1alobena na prin po h _thleC varo6y 0otal 'ro&$ tive (ana%ement, av_a4 tento systgm Ce 1atiac 1ave&ena len v tov)rfa h na varo6$ 4o1meti 4a h varo64ov" #nami mobnoseami 1s4avania inovatvny h my_lieno4 Ce i h n)4$p spol$ s a4vi1 io$ spoloKnosti" Vec4) Kase s`Kasngho portfolio firmy patrila pdvo&ne inam firm)m, 4torg v_a4 7en4el 4`pil a post$pne priKlenil 4 svoCim po&ni4om" Qirma sa ta4to nielen 16avovala 4on4$ren ie ale6o 1lep_ovala &o&)v4y, Kasto i_lo aC o mobnose &ostae sa a4vi1 io$ na nova, eab4o &osiahn$tecna trh" V prpa&e a4vi1 i firma 1vyKaCne pone h)va 1naK4y 4l`Kova h pro&$4tov ne1meneng, a6y si 1a hovala 1)4a1n4ov" Otvoreng inov) ie maC` v 7en4eli sta6ilng miesto" SpoloKnose po&por$Ce v_et4y &r$hy otvorena h inovaKna h a4tivt: 91

Spol$pr) a na vas4$me a vavoCi s inami spoloKnoseami, spol$pr) a na vas4$me a vavoCi s $niver1itami a vas4$mnami entrami, spol$pr) a na &i1aCne s inami spoloKnoseami, s`eabe o &i1aCne pre vereCnose, _t$&ents4g s`eabe s tgmo$ pro&$4tova h inov) i, 1apoCenie &o&)vatecov a 1)4a1n4ov &o inov) i" 7en4el m) s tamito a4tivitami 1mie_ang `spe hy" 'ri spol$pr) i s inami po&ni4mi

ale6o vas4$mnami entrami i&e vjK_ino$ o `14$ spol$pr) $, 4toreC pre& h)&1a n)roKng ho&notenie 1ho&nosti o6o h 1`Kastnena h str)n, a6y sa pre&i_lo nes4or_m ne&oro1$meniam a patovam sit$) iam" 0a4gto spol$pr) e preto vjK_ino$ 4onKia `spe_ne, Ki $b i&e o spoloKna vas4$m ale6o o spol$pr) $ na &i1aCne" Kompli4ovaC_ie s` spol$pr) e s vereCnoseo$, 4ehbe i&e o meneC 4ontrolovatecn` s4$pin$" Ie%atvn$ s4`senose m) 7en4el pri &i1aCnoveC s`eabi pre vereCnose (ein 'ril (ein Stil, 4&e sa 1aKali mnobie n)vrhy, 4torg ne6oli svoCim o6sahom vho&ng, ale hlasovanie po$bvatecov Qa e6oo4$ tieto n)vrhy va&atne po&porilo" 7en4el sa snabil 6r)nie a s`eab $pravie, v 4oneKnom &dsle&4$ m$ tieto snahy e_te via $_4o&ili" Av_a4 v ina h s`eabia h pre vereCnose a _t$&entov m)va spoloKnose `spe h, napr4la& v 7en4el #nnovation *hallen%e sa 4ab&am ro4om ro1rast) poKet 1`Kastnena h 4raCn" V teCto s`eabi _t$&enti navrh$C` svoC$ v1i$ ro4$ ,-;- a po&o6$ varo64$ o& 7en4l$" Iavrhn$ta varo6o4 m$s patrie &o nie4torgho 1o se%mentov, na 4torg sa spoloKnose orient$Ce a tieb rie_ie Ce&n$ 1 fo4)lny h o6last na 4torg sa 7en4el &lho&o6o 1ameriava" I)vrhy 4torg preC&` prvotnam pos`&enm s` pre1entovang pre& poroto$ 1loben` 1 o&6orn4ov 1 firmy" 0)to s`eab m) vyso4a inovatvny poten i)l, ho i 7en4el C$ povab$Ce s4dr 1a n)stroC 1s4avania a4tvny h _t$&entov a4o 1&roC inov) i" V anala1e 4on4$ren ies hopnosti spoloKnosti 7en4el sme naCprv &efinovali hy6ng sily &vo h vy6rana h o&vetv 4o1meti 4gho a starostlivosti o &om) nose" V o6o h prpa&o h 1ohr)vaC` vec4` `loh$ nasle&ovng fa4tory: Demo%rafia Blo6ali1) ia a e4onomi 4a rast E4olJ%ia a pove&omie o 1elena h pro&$4to h 0ieto tren&y sa prelnaC` naCmj v ot)14e 1&ravgho bivotngho _tal$, &opyt$ po 4valite a 9,

l$2$se a tieb vjK_eC &ost$pnosti a `bit4ovosti varo64ov pri 1a hovan ale6o 1nben &opa&$ na bivotng prostre&ie" I)sle&ne sme analy1ovali po1 ie hlavna h 4on4$rentov 7en4l$ na svetovom trh$: *ol%ate?'almolive, 'ro tor [ Bam6le, Unilever a <e 4itt !en 4iser" Spome&1i ni h Ce Casnam l&rom 'ro tor [ Bam6le, 4tora Ce naCvjK_ v o6rate aC 1is4$" Peho silno$ str)n4o$ Ce o4rem _iro4gho portfolio aC 6$&ovanie po&ni4oveC 4$lt`ry, 4tor) po&por$Ce inov) ie, 6a priamo i h vyba&$Ce o& 4ab&gho 1o 1amestnan ov" 7o i aC hal_ie analy1ovang spoloKnosti, vr)tane 7en4l$, po&por$C` inovatvn$ 4$lt`r$, bia&na 1 ni h C$ nepo&por$Ce ta4 &lho a4o 'ro tor [ Bam6le a nem) ta4e vara1ng vasle&4y sp)Cang pr)ve s tamto fa4torom" Unilever, <e 4itt !en 4iser a *ol%ate?'almolive ta4tieb pr1v$4$C` potre6$ otvoreneC inov) ie, po&o6ne a4o 7en4el, spol$pra $C` s $niver1itami, vas4$mnami entrami, von4aC_mi firemnami partnermi aC 1)4a1n4mi" V_et4y firmy vyhca&)vaC` 1a$Cmavg li en ie, 4torg $b s` opatreng o hrano$ &$_evngho vlastn tva a vy1avaC` i h tvor ov ale6o maCitecov na spol$pr) $" Unilever a <e 4itt !en 4iser o4rem vyhca&)vania nova h li en i pon`4aC` aC svoCe 4no3?ho3 na li en ovanie, v prpa&e be i&e o 1a$Cmava trh ale6o o 4no3?ho3, 4torg $b pre spoloKnose nie Ce 4c`Kovg" V 6en hmar4in%$, 4tora sme spra ovali sme sa 1amerali na invest ie &o vas4$m$ a vavoCa, nehmotna maCeto4 spoloKnost a i h `spe_nose v o6lasti otvoreneC inov) ie" 7en4el v tomto 6en hmar4in%$ &opa&ol &o6re, naCmj v o6lasti otvoreneC inov) ie, 4&e 6ol na porovnatecneC ale6o lep_eC `rovni a4o 4on4$renti a ta4tieb v po&iele invest i &o vas4$m$ 4 el4ovam pre&aCom firmy, 4&e 6ol na &r$hom mieste naprie4 vy__m o6ratom ostatna h 4on4$rentov" Ia_e o&por`Kania s` na 1)4la&e ta hto anala1 ta4 4r)t4o&o6g a4o aC &lho&o6g" M 4r)t4o&o6a h o&por`Kame po4raKovae v _iro4om spe4tre a4tivt na 1s4anie inov) i, naCmj v s`eabia h v &i1aCne, 4torg s` $ 4on4$ren ie prtomng v oveca men_eC miere" V tomto smere Ce v_a4 potre6a sa 1amerae na &dsle&n` i&entifi4) i$ a manabment ri14, a6y sa spoloKnose vyhla nevho&ngm$ vy`steni$ s`eabe a4o tom$ 6olo v prpa&e (ein 'ril (ein Stil" V &lho&oom hori1onte 6y sa mala spoloKnose 7en4el 1amerae na posilnenie _thleC varo6y vo v_et4a h pro&$4Kna h miesta h, nielen v 4o1meti 4a h tov)rfa h, posilnie a 1Ce&notie %lo6)lne 1naK4y, a6y si 1)4a1n i na elom svete ve&eli prira&ie 4 1naK4e a varo64$ &an` 4valit$" 'osilnenie 1naK4y Ce 1)rovef n)stroCom pre inten1vneC_ie $ve&enie inov) i a te&a po&por$ el4oveC 9;

4on4$ren ie" Ia4onie o&por`Kame 6$&ovae 4$lt`r$ inovatvnosti, a4o sme vi&eli pri 'ro tor [ Bam6le" Mistili sme totib, be ho i Ce 7en4el vecmi inovatvna firma, ne&)va t`to svoC$ Krt$ ab ta4 &o popre&ia, Ko n)sle&ne mdbe 1nibovae 4on4$ren ies hopnose v 6$&` nosti" Vyhca&om na $ve&eng iele, a spra ovang anala1y, &ospeli sme 4 1)ver$, be spoloKnose 7en4el $platf$Ce _iro4` _4)l$ inovaKna h metJ&, 4torg s` vyv)beng a &opkfaC` sa, av_a4 oproti svoCim 4on4$rentom m) istg ne&ostat4y, 4torg CeC 6r)nia &osiahn$e lep_ie vasle&4y na trh$"

95

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Boo; r#so*rc#s
1" Af$ah, A" ,--;" Innovation Management: strategies, implementation, and profits, ,n& e&" Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--;" ;:- p" #S!I -?1:?/15,;-?;" ," !orovs4a, P" ? Bal, '" ,--/" Inovcie a transfer technolEgii" !ratislava : E$ro$nion, ,--/" .= p" #S!I =-?==:=5?=9?9" ;" Himo, P" ,-1-" Inova(n' mana)ment. !ratislava : E4onJm, ,-1-" ,,9 p" #S!I :.=?=-?,,/?;-/.?9" 5" Dr$ 4er, '" ,--." Innovation and entreprene-rship: practice and principles" <evise& e&" O2for& : Elsevier !$tter3orth?7einemann, ,--." ,/; p" #S!I :.=?-?./-9?=/-=" /" Dvol)Ke4, P" ? 0yll, L" ,-1-" /-tso-rcing a offshoring podnikatelsk'ch (innost" 'raha : *" 7" !e 4, ,-1-" 1=; p" #S!I :.=?=-?.5--?-1-?," 9" Dyrtr, M" ? Strites4a, (" ,--:" !fektivn inovace: odpovFdnost v management" 'raha : *omp$ter 'ress, ,--:" 1/- p" #S!I :.=?=-?,/1?,..1?1" ." Qa%er6er%, P" ? (o3ery, D" *" ? Ielson, <" <" ,--/" $he / ford Handbook of Innova1 tion. Ie3 Lor4 : O2for& University 'ress, ,--/" 9/9 p" #S!I -?1:?:,95//?5" =" Bovin&araCan, V" ? 0rim6le, *h" ,--/" *< R-les for 3trategic Innovators: ,rom Idea to ! ec-tionY !oston : 7arvar& !$siness S hool 'ress, ,--/" ,,5 p" #S!I:1?/:1;:?./=?=" :" 7alvey, P" K" ? (el6y, !" (" ,--." @-siness process o-tso-rcing : process, strategies, and contracts" ,n& e&" 7o6o4en : Pohn Diley [ Sons, ,--." /=5 p" #S!I :.=?-?5.-?-55=;?5" 1-" 7ao$r, B" ,--5" Resolving the Innovation Parado : !nhancing "ro#th in $echnolog% &ompanies" 7ampshire, Ie3 Lor4 : 'al%rave (a millan, ,--5" 1/; p" #S!I 1?5-;:?19/5?;" 11" *hes6ro$%h, 7. ,--;" Open innovation : ne# imperative for creating and profiting from technolog%" !oston : 7arvar& !$siness S hool 'ress, ,--;" ,,. p" #S!I 1?/.=/1?=;.?." 1," *hristensen, *" (" ? <aynor, (" E" ,--;" $he Innovators sol-tion: creating and s-s1 taining s-ccessf-l gro#th. !oston : 7arvar& !$siness S hool 'ress, ,--;" ;-5 p" #S!I 1?/.=/1?=/,?-"

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1;" Leimeister et al" ,--:" Levera%in% *ro3&so$r in%: A tivation?S$pportin% *omponents for #0?!ase& #&eas *ompetition" #n Po$rnal of (ana%ement #nformation Systems P(#S UonlineV ,--:, vol" ,9, Ir" 1, U*ite& ,: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on internet: http:@@333"$ni?4assel"&e@f6.@i63l@leimeister@p$6@P(L\1,5"p&f, p" 1:.?,,5" 15" (oln)r, '" ,--5" Innovation management" !ratislava : E4onJm, ,--5" 1,, p" #S!I =-?,,/?1=11?/" 1/" 'earson, A" E" 1::." 0o$%h?(in&e& Days to Bet #nnovative #n 3eeing differentl%: In1 sight on Innovation" 9" e&" !oston : 7arvar& !$siness <evie3 !oo4, 1::." ,5/ p" #S!I -?=./=5?.//?," 19" 'itra, M" ,--9" Management inova(nch aktivit. 'raha : 'rofessional '$6lishin%, ,--9" 5;= p" #S!I =-?=9:59?1-?N" 1." Samson, D" ? Sin%h, '" P" ,--=" /perations Management: 2n integrated 2pproach. Ie3 Lor4 : *am6ri&%e University 'ress, ,--=" //- p" #S!I :.=?-?/,1?.--..?1" 1=" 0hompson, A"A" ? Stri 4lan& ###, A"P" ? Bam6le, P"E" ,--." &rafting and ! ec-ting 3trateg%: $e t and readings" 1/th e&ition" Ie3 Lor4 : ( Bra3?7ill, ,--." /9; p" #S!I :.=?-?-.?11-./9?=" 1:" Ura6e, K" ? *hil&, P" ? Ka%ono, 0" 1:==" Innovation and management: International comparisons. !erlin, Ie3 Lor4 : &e Br$yter, 1:==" ;.1 p" #S!I ;?11?-11--.?/" ,-" VlKe4, <" ,--=" Management hodnotov'ch inovac. 'raha : (ana%ement 'ress, ,--=" ,5- p" #S!I :.=?=-?.,91?195?/" ,1" VlKe4, <" ,--," Hodnota pro zkaznka" 'raha : (ana%ement 'ress, ,--," 55; p" #S!I =-?.,91?-9=?9"

Onlin# r#so*rc#s
1. Arnol&, '" ,--. ,-1," Method to "et ,l-oride Po#der into $oothpaste $-bes" Uon? lineV ,--. ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"i&ea? onne tion" om@open?innovation?s$ ess@(etho&?to?Bet?Ql$ori&e?'o3&er?into?0ooth? paste?0$6es?---/."html 2. Arti le 1; 0he <esonsi6le !$siness E2pert" ,--,. $he >at-ral $rend in the &osmet1 ics Ind-str%. UonlineV ,--," U*ite& 19 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"arti le1;" om@A1;\*ontentList"aspTstrA tionXBet'$6li ation['I#DX1:1

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3. !a$m%artner, P"Q" ,--:" $he Innovation Process. U3e6pa%eV ,--:" U*ite& 19 Pan$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"Cp6" om@ reative@innovationpro ess"php " 4. !$siness E2 ellen e" ,--:" $heor% of &onstraints" UonlineVU*ite& 1: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"6e2 ellen e"or%@0heory?of?*onstraints"html" 5. *ol%ate?'almolive" ,-1-" &olgate #orld factsheet" UonlineV ,-1-" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@files"sharehol&er" om@&o3nloa&s@*L@1./=,9;9952-259.,5=@. 1a-5.?eaa-?5=f f?a.=1?==;--=5=f: 5@*'Dorl&\QL,-11\/\a"p&f 6. *ol%ate?'almolive" ,-1," 2nn-al reports .<<+ 4 .<**" UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@investor" ol%ate" om@ann$al" fm 7. *ol%ate?'almolive" ,-1," Innovation and Prod-ct Ideas" UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333" ol%ate" om@app@*ol%ate@US@*orp@#nnovation"srv 8. *ro3so$r in%" om" ,-1-" &ro#so-rcing : a definition"UonlineV ,-1-" U*ite& ,: Qe6r$? ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@ ro3&so$r in%" om@ 9. Deter%ents [ Soaps" om ,-1-" ,-t-re o-tlook" UonlineV ,-1- U*ite& 19 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"&eter%entsan&soaps" om@f$t$re?o$tloo4"html 10. E$romonitor Blo6al (ar4et <esear h !lo%" ,-11" Ingredients $rends in Po#der 8e1 tergents: 2 @right &lean ,-t-re UonlineV ,-11" U*ite& 19 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@6lo%"e$romonitor" om@,-11@1-@in%re&ients?tren&s?in?po3&er?&eter? %ents?a?6ri%ht? lean?f$t$re"html 11. 7al&i, 0*" ,--=" Innovation at Proctor 9 "amble"Uvi&eo onlineV ,--=" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@6lo%s"h6r"or%@ s@,--=@-9@innovation\at\pro ter\%am6le"html 12. 7en4el" ,-11" 2dhesive packaging design contest" UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"pa 4&esi%n? ontest" om@start"php 13. 7en4el" ,-1," 8o#nloads 9 Reports : 2nn-al reports *::; 1 .<**" UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"hen4el" om@investor?relations@&o3nloa&s?ar hives?11=:5"htm 14. 7en4el" ,--." Henkel contin-es its co-rse of s-ccess" UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet:

9.

http:@@333"hen4el" om@press@,--.?1;//1?hen4el? ontin$es?its? o$rse?of?s$ ess?1-5 59"htm 15. 7en4el" ,-11 ,-1," Henkel Innovation &hallenge. UonlineV U*ite& ,; Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"hen4el" om@ ps@r&e@2 h%@hen4el\hi @hs"2sl@in&e2"htm" 16. 7en4el" ,-1," Innovation" UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"hen4el" om@innovation?11.=;"htm 17. 7en4el" ,-1," Innovation histor%. UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #n? ternet: http:@@333"hen4el" om@innovation@innovation?history?11.:9"htm" 18. 7en4el" ,-11" Main Pril 4 Mein 3til" UonlineV U*ite& / Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"pril"&e@mar4e@meinpril@ 19. 7o3 to &o" om" ,-11" Henkel has tro-ble #ith Pril &ompetition on ,acebook UonlineV ,-11 U*ite& 1- Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@ho3?to&ot om"6lo%spot" om@,-11@-/@hen4el?has?tro$6le?3ith?pril"html" 20. 7o3e, P" ,--9" 0he <ise of *ro3&so$r in%" #n 7ired" ,--9, iss$e 15"-9" U*ite& ,9 Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"3ire&" om@3ire&@ar hive@15"-9@ ro3&s"htmlT p%X1[topi X ro3&s[topi \setX" 21. 7$ston, L" Sa44a6, I" ,--9" *onne t an& Develop: #nsi&e 'ro ter [ Bam6leRs Ie3 (o&el for #nnovation" #n Harvard @-siness Revie#" UonlineV Vol" =5, Io" ;, (ar h ,--9" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@h6r"or%@pro&$ t@ on? ne t?an&?&evelop?insi&e?pro ter?%am6le?s?ne3?mo@an@<-9-;*?'DQ?EIB 22. #&ea*onne tion" om" ,--. ,-1," Bnilever -ses &ollaboration to 8evelop &lean 7a1 ter 3ol-tion. UonlineV ,--. ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"i&ea onne tion" om@open?innovation?s$ ess@Unilever?$ses?*olla6ora? tion?to?Develop?*lean?Dater?So?--1.,"html 23. Lafley, A"B" ,--=" '[BSs #nnovation *$lt$re: 7o3 3e 6$ilt a 3orl&? lass or%ani %ro3th en%ine 6y investin% in people" In 3trateg% A b-siness" UonlineV ,--=, Io" /,, A$t$mn ,--=" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"strat? e%y?6$siness" om@arti le@-=;-5Tp%Xall 24. Lai, E" L" ? *"Y <ie1man, <" Dan%, '" ,--/" /-tso-rcing of Innovation: research pa1 per UonlineV 'hila&elphia: AEA, ,--/" ;= p" U*ite& ,: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: 333"aea3e6"or%@assa@,--/@-1-.\1-1/\-9-:"p&f" 9=

25. Lin&e%aar&, S" ,-1-" @-ilding @locks for /pen Innovation: 5essons from &olgate1Pal1 molive" UonlineV ,-1-" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@%a6riel? atalano" om@,-1-@-;@-5@6$il&in%?6lo 4s?for?open?innovation?lessons?from? ol? %ate?palmolive@ 26. OE*D",--," O$tso$r in%" #n Blossary of statisti al terms" UonlineV ,--," U*ite& ,: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@stats"oe &"or%@%lossary@&etail"aspT #DX5:/27. Open 6$siness" " ,-1-" <e 4ett !en 4iser profile" UonlineV ,-1-" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"open6$siness" @,-1-@-1@-/@re 4itt?an&?6en 4iser@ 28. Open#nnovation"e$" ,-1," Dhat is Open #nnovationT UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V" Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"openinnovation"e$@open?innovation@ 29. 'inna le Strate%ies" 0heory of *onstraints an Overvie3" UonlineVU*ite& 1: Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"pinna le?strate%ies" om@0heoryW,-of W,-*onstraints"htm" 30. '<Ie3s3ire" ,-1," Unilever La$n hes Ie3 Open #nnovation Spa e to S$pport S$s? taina6le Bro3th" UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"prne3s3ire" om@ne3s?releases@$nilever?la$n hes?ne3?open?innova? tion?spa e?to?s$pport?s$staina6le?%ro3th?15;55;=-9"html 31. 'ro tor [ Bam6le" ,-1," Ann$al reports 1::: ? ,-11 UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"p%" om@en\US@investors@finan ial\report? in%@ann$al\reports"shtml 32. 'ro tor [ Bam6le" ,-1," (e&ia 4it" UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet http:@@ne3s"p%" om@sites@p%"ne3sh8"6$siness3ire" om@files@press\4it@file@;-1/\'B\( e&ia\Kit\,-11\QA"p&f 33. 'ro tor [ Bam6le" ,-1,"Dhat is onne t m &evelopT UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: https:@@se $re;"verti ali"net@p%? onne tion?portal@ t2@noa$th@-\-\1\5\=;\5\;"&o 34. <e 4ett !en 4iser" ,--=" #nnovatin% for s$ ess" UonlineV ,--=" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"r6" om@#nnovators@'eople 35. <e 4ett !en 4iser" ,-1," #nvestor information" UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"r6" om@#nvestors?me&ia@#nvestor?information 9:

36. Sha$%hnessy, 7" ,-11" 'ro ter an& Bam6leSs *hris 0hoen on Open #nnovation" Uon? lineV ,-11" U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"innovation? mana%ement"se@,-11@-5@,1@pro ter?an&?%am6les? hris?thoen?on?open?innovation@ 37. Stanfor& University, ,-11" 0he 'ro ess of #nnovation" Uvi&eo onlineV ,-11" U*ite& 19 Pan$ary ,-1,V" Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@333"yo$t$6e" om@3at hTvXrI;QMK? 0%&<- " 38. S hollmeyer, P" ,-11" Dhen ro3&so$r in% %ets o$t of ontrol" UonlineV ,-11 U*ite& 1Qe6r$ary ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@1---hea&s" om@,-11@-5@3hen? ro3&so$r in%?%ets?o$t?of? ontrol@ 39. 0he hi%h lo3" om" ,-1-" Breen tren&s: #s la$n&ry &eter%ent ne essaryT UonlineV ,-1-" U*ite& 19 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@thehi%hlo3" om@,-1-@11@%reen?tren&s?is?la$n&ry?&eter%ent?ne essary@ 40. Unilever" ,-1," Ann$al report ,-11" UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@$nilever" om@investorrelations@ann$al\reports@Ann$al<eportan? &A o$nts,-11@ 41. Unilever" ,-1," *harts ,--, ,-11" UonlineV ,-1," U*ite& ,1 (ar h ,-1,V Availa6le on the #nternet: http:@@$nilever" om@ima%es@ir\Unilever\ harts\,--,?,-11\t m1;?,=;559"p&f

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7en4el 3as esta6lishe& in 1=.9 6y Qrit1 7en4el an& his t3o partners as 7en4el [ *ie" 0he first pro&$ t 3hi h ompany offere& 3as $niversal 3ashin% po3&er 6ase& on sili ate" 0he $ni8$e feat$re of the pro&$ t 3as pa 4a%in% as at the time all 3ashin% po3&ers 3ere sol& loose" 0his a$se& lot of pro6lems as people &i& not 4no3 ho3 m$ h po3&er they sho$l& $se 3hen 3ashin%" 7en4el solve& this pro6lem an& sol& &eter%ent in small pa 4a%es in amo$nts ne essary for one $se" 0he ompany s$ ee&e& an& in 1==- 6o$%ht lan& to 6$il& a plant in D]ssel&orf" Later in 1==5 7en4el a 8$ire& plant for 3ater?%lass in or&er to ens$re ontin$o$s flo3 of ra3 materials to main plant" Dater?%lass plant 3as ompletely move& to D]ssel&orf an& re? onstr$ te&" 7en4el pro&$ ts 3ere hi%hly &eman&e&, hen e, se on& 3ater?%lass f$rna e 3as 6$ilt in 1=== an& ne3 3areho$se in 1=:-" #n 1=:- ompany sales 3ere a6o$t /1=,--- (ar4s an& in 1=:: sales passe& one million (ar4s" *ompany ha& %reat n$m6er of $stomers, in 1=:9 alrea&y in ,=- ities aro$n& Berman Empire" Altho$%h there 3as potential for f$rther %ro3th, 7en4el 3as limite& 6y lo ation of the plant" Ie2t &evelopment of plants an& ompany alone &epen&e& on onne tion 3ith rail3ays an& other means of transport as amo$nts arrie& 3ere onstantly %ro3in% an& starte& to 6e $n&elivera6le 6y arries 3ith horses" 0herefore, in 1=:: ne3 lan& near <hine 3as o6taine& an& onstr$ tion starte&" 'ro&$ tion 6e%an in 1:-- an& after first year rea he& in rease of 99W of pro&$ tion ompare& to the previo$s plant" #n 1=:= the ompany la$n he& ne3 pro&$ t (artellin, a potassi$m fertili1er" 0his 3as a 6y?pro&$ t of 3ater?%lass pro&$ tion 3hi h sho3e& to 6e %reat for to6a o, 3ine an& hops plants" Qertili1er 6e ame one of most s$ essf$l pro&$ ts of 7en4el an& in 1:-, the pro&$ t line 3as 3i&ene& 6y fertili1er for flo3ers" 0he ompany, ho3ever, &i& not 3ant to 4eep atta he& to previo$s s$ esses an& in 1:-9 starte& resear h in fiel& of &eter%ents 3hi h en&e& $p in 1:-. in la$n h of 'ersil, the ne3 type of &eter%ent" <evol$tion of 'ersil 3as in effe tiveness it 6ro$%ht to 3ashin%" #nstea& of repetitive 6lea hin%, r$66in% an& 6oilin%, one 6oilin% 3ith 'ersil 3as C$st eno$%h to %et lean an& fresh la$n&ry" 0he s$ ess of the pro&$ t 3as h$%e, &espite the fa t that similar o1one .,

6ase& &eter%ent 3as la$n he& 6y ompetitor at the same time" After one year, pro&$ tion of 'ersil rea he& 5,.-- tons" #n five years from mar4et la$n h, in 1:1,, 'ersil a o$nte& for 5-W of 7en4el pro&$ tion" Dith the o$t6rea4 of the Dorl& Dar, ompany ha& to &eal 3ith &ifferent onstraints" Shorta%e or omplete la 4 of ra3 material le& to resear h of a&hesive 6ase& on 3ater?%lass" 'ro&$ tion of 'ersil, on the other han&, ha& to 6e stoppe& &$e to limite& reso$r es an& instea& of that s$6stit$te 3as offere&" #n 1:,-, stan&ar& 8$ality of s$pplies for 'ersil 3as availa6le an& the &eter%ent 3as re?la$n he&" #n 1:,1, 7en4el offere& 7en4o, a 6lea hin% so&a, 3hi h fille& %ap in 3ashin% pro&$ t line of 7en4el" 7en4o, to%ether 3ith 'ersil an& Sil >intro&$ e& in 1:1=A, overe& 3hole 3ashin% pro ess" #n&$stry of 3ashin% po3&ers an& &eter%ents ha& 6een ontin$ally $p%ra&e& at 7en4el an& innovative 3ays of pro&$ tion 3ere presente& ontin$o$sly" Ie3 plant for &eter%ents 3as &evelope& in 1:,-s in Benthin" Ie3 ma hinery for e2tra tin% fatty al ohol 3as 6$ilt in 1:;1 in D]ssel&orf an& in 1:;., ne3 fa tory for &istillation of fatty a i&s 3as 6$ilt to%ether 3ith mi ro6iolo%i al la6oratory" O$t6rea4 of 3as in 1:;: meant atastrophe for &eter%ents pro&$ t line of 7en4el" De ree of Berman %overnment limite& heavily types of 3ashin% po3&ers to 6e sol& an& hen e more than ,-- pro&$ ts >in l$&in% 'ersil 3hi h 3as re?la$n he& in 1:/-A ha& to 6e either stoppe& from pro&$ tion or han%e&" #n spite of this $nfavora6le sit$ation as 3ell as other event 3hi h h$rt the family 6$siness, 7en4el ontin$e& in resear h in fiel& of &eter%ents an& la$n he& ne3 &eter%ent for fine an& olore& te2tile in 1:5,, ne3 metho& of o6tainin% fatty a i&s from f$n%$s an& line to $se 3aste from 3ater?%lass pro&$ tion in 1:5;" Altho$%h, the ompany plants 3ere not &ama%e& severely &$rin% the 3ar, the D]ssel&orf plant 3as o $pie& 6y Ameri an an& !ritish troops in 1:5/, 7en4el family an& mana%ers 3ere interne& 3ith reha6ilitation omin% in 1:5." 0he operations in 7en4el an& other ompanies in in&$stry 3ere re?starte& only in small steps after permission from army" After s$ essf$l avoi&in% of plant &ismantlin% in 1:5., 7en4el leapt into ne3 pro&$ ts intro&$ tion" #n 1:5:, 'er3oll an& Lasil 3ere intro&$ e& to the mar4et as the first synthesis?6ase& &eter%ents from 7en4el" #n 1:/-s 7en4el ontin$e& in la$n h of ne3 pro&$ ts, amon% most important : Qa soap 3hi h later 3o$l& 6e ome $m6rella term for 3i&e ran%e of toiletries, 'atte2 a&hesive 3ith 6roa& .;

s ale of $se, Di2an the first &eter%ent for &r$m?type 3ashin% ma hines an& 'ersil /: innovation of 'ersil, s$ita6le for all types of 3ashin% $se& at the time, not affe te& 6y 3ater?har&ness" Ie2t &e a&e 6ro$%ht enri hment of &eter%ent portfolio of the ompany" Ie3 all?p$rpose, heavy?&$ty, li%ht?&$ty, spe ialty, pre?3ash an& hospital &eter%ents, as 3ell as Somat, the a$tomati &ish3asher &eter%ent, 3ere la$n he&" #n 1:.-s, one or t3o ne3 pro&$ ts 3ere intro&$ e& ea h year, most of them as a res$lt of o3n resear h an& &evelopment, e"%" Sasil a phosphate s$6stit$te for &eter%ents $se& in 'ro&i2an, or poly$rethane assem6ly foam mar4ete& in Assil ($stan% &eter%ent" Sasil 3as later $se& also in Diesser <iese an& 'ersil &eter%ents" #n 1:=-s, the ompany ontin$osly &e rease amo$nt of phosphates in its &eter%ents $ntil 1:=; an& 1:=9, 3hen Di2an an& 'ersil >respe tivelyA 3ere intro&$ e& in phosphate?free versions" Deter%ent ontin$e& to 6e fla%ship retail pro&$ ts of 7en4el also in 1::-s" #n 1::- it 3as intro&$ e& 'ersil in version for olore& fa6ri s for the first time, e2tra stron% &eter%ent in form of (e%apearls rea he& $stomers in 1::5, an& 'ersil 0a6s 3as la$n he& in 1::=" 1:.: 3as 6rea4in% year for 7en4el in personal are, as ompany intro&$ e& first toothpaste an& entere& this ne3 mar4et" Orientation to3ar&s personal hy%iene an& osmeti s ontin$e& in 1:=-s 3hen the ompany a 8$ire& fa ial are 6ran& Ao4, an& 1::-s, 3hen in maCor a 8$isition in this se tor too4 over S h3art14opf osmeti s ompany in 1::/" #n 1::=, a hair?&ye rnme overin% %ray hair 3ith nat$ral olor 3as intro&$ e& 3orl&3i&e" #n 1:::, La6oratoires Sgro6iolo%i8$es Bro$p, Qren h maCor pro&$ er of ra3 material for osmeti s 3as a 8$ire& an& a&&e& to 7en4el %ro$p" Ie2t year, fa ial are 6ran& Dia&ermine 6e ame availa6le on Berman mar4et" (aCor han%es in home an& personal are 3ere intro&$ e& in late ,---s: 0erraA tiv pro&$ tion line of ho$sehol& leaners 3ith emphasi1e on s$staina6ility of environment, *oloriste ne3 hair olor 3ith fast appli ation, Syoss professional hair are pro&$ t line availa6le to retail $stomers, 'ersil A ti 'o3er innovative &eter%ent 3hi h leans la$n&ry at 1/ &e%ree *elsi$s"

S*(si&iari#s an& int#rnational &# #lo+-#nt o) 5#n;#l


7en4el 3i&ely $se& salesmen to rea h $stomers in forei%n ities" #n 1==/ the ompany .5

parti ipate& at international fair in Amster&am for in&$strial ompanies an& in 1==9 opene& the first forei%n offi e in Vienna, A$stria" #n 1==: $stomers in the Ietherlan&s an& S3it1erlan& 3ere serve& for the first time" 7en4el &evelope& ne3 approa h for sales in &istant areas travelin% sales staff 3as assi%ne& to ertain areas >&istri tsA an& to$re& them ontin$o$sly 3ith pro&$ ts" *$stomers in more &istant ities 3ere serve& $p to fo$r times a year than4 to this &esi%n" 7o3ever, the first forei%n s$6si&iary 3as esta6lishe& only in 1:1; in S3it1erlan&" Qorei%n e2pansion 3as stoppe& 6y Dorl& Dar, ho3ever, in 1:,; ne3 s$6si&iary in *openha%en 3as opene&, follo3e& ne2t one in Sto 4holm, S3e&en, in 1:,/" Qrom 1:,= 7en4el has e2porte& a&hesives to near o$ntries an& sin e 1:,: also to A$stralia an& So$th Ameri a" D$rin% 1:;-s , 7en4el esta6lishe& n$m6er of forei%n s$6si&iaries in Qinlan&, the Ietherlan&s, #taly an& !el%i$m" !efore Dorl& Dar ##, 7en4el also possesse& pro&$ tion fa ilities in A$stria, !el%i$m, *1e hoslova4ia, Denmar4, Bermany, 7$n%ary, #taly, Ietherlan&s, Ior3ay, 'olan&, S3e&en an& S3it1erlan&, 6$t most of them 3ere e2propriate& after the 3ar" As politi al an& e onomi sit$ation in Bermany 3as %ettin% 3orse, 7en4el appointe& ne3 entity in S3it1erlan& to ta4e are of all the plants an& offi es of 7en4el o$tsi&e Bermany" After 3ar, in 1:/1, first overseas s$6si&iary 3as esta6lishe& in So$th Afri a an& in 1:/: ne2t one, in (e2i o 3as a&&e&" #n 1:9-, 7en4el a 8$ire& Stan&ar& *hemi al 'ro&$ ts #n in the Unite& States an& starte& &evelopment on this mar4et" Ie3 6ran hes an& a 8$isitions too4 pla e &$rin% 1:9-s in 0$r4ey an& Ar%entina, an& #ran in 1:.-" Qollo3in% years 6ro$%ht stron% e2pansion aro$n& the 3orl& an& restr$ t$rin% in home an& forei%n mar4ets" Ie3 s$6si&iaries 3ere esta6lishe& in Lon&on, Athens, (ontreal, 7on% Kon%, !an%4o4 an& La%os, an& plants an& ompanies pro&$ in% toiletries for 7en4el 3ere mer%e& in one in 1:.1" #n 1:.,, similar onsoli&ation too4 pla e in a&hesives se tor of the ompany" Q$rther e2pansion in the US >an& in&ire tly also in !ra1il, Papan an& #relan&A, A$stralia, UK, A$stria an& states of *entral an& So$th Ameri a ontin$e& thro$%ho$t 1:.-s an& 1:=-s" 7en4el in Bermany transforme& to ommer ial partnership ompany limite& 6y shares in 1:./ an& in 1:=/ starte& to offer preferre& shares on sto 4 e2 han%e" 1:=-s 3ere r$ ial for e2pansion into Asian o$ntries" #n 1:=1 7en4el entere& (alaysia in a Coint vent$re an& later esta6lishe& s$6si&iary in Sin%apore to oor&inate all asian a tions" 7o3ever, %reatest s$ ess ame in 1:== 3hen 7en4el opene& its first offi e in !eiCin%, after ./

some3hat ompli ate& ne%otiations 3ith *hinese %overnment" Qall of omm$nism meant ne3 opport$nities for 7en4el in 1::-s" 0he ompany too4 steps to enter these strate%i ally interestin% mar4ets an& 3ent to Coint vent$re in &eter%ent 6$siness in <$ssia in 1::-" E2pansion to 'olan& an& other *entral an& Easter E$ropean o$ntries ame ri%ht after" Qor 6etter oor&ination of investin% a tivities in this re%ion, 7en4el set $p hea&8$arters in Vienna, A$stria, 3hi h ha& ontrol over all a tivities" Also other %eo%raphi al areas re8$ire& attention as the ompetition %re3" #n 1::-s, 7en4el follo3e& line of investin% into respe te& 6ran&s an& fa tories a ross all tar%ete& in&$stries" !y this, the ompany 6$ilt stron% positions in most important mar4ets, e"%" hotmelts, a$tomotive a&hesives, metal s$rfa e treatments, ho$sehol& a&hesives >Lo titeA an& hair are in the US, pa 4a%in% a&hesives an& vario$s other se%ments in Asia?'a ifi " Similar path li4e in 1::-s is ta4en in ,---s, 7en4el stren%then positions on US an& Latin Ameri a mar4ets thro$%h a 8$isitions of 3ell?esta6lishe& ompanies" !i%%est a 8$isition o $rs in ,--5, 3hen 7en4el 6o$%ht 0he Dial *orporation in Ari1ona, USA, a pro&$ er of &eter%ents an& ons$mer pro&$ ts" 0o%ether 3ith other a 8$isitions $n&erta4en in the US in this an& follo3in% years, a6o$t ,/W of 7en4elOs profit ame from USA"

S*staina(ilit$
0he ompany has $n&erstoo& ne essity of 3ell prepare& 3or4ers an& sin e 1:,/ apprenti es have 6een a epte& to the ompany to ens$re tailore& preparation for ompany re8$irements" Later, in 1:9., 7en4el opene& tea hin% la6oratory near its D]ssel&orf plant 3here te hni al an& later also sales staff 3as traine&"

.9