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AIDS

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Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)


Klasifikasi dan bahan-bahan eksternal

Pita Merah terlipat adalah simbol solidaritas orang-orang yang positif terinfeksi virus HIV dan AIDS.

ICD-10 ICD-9 DiseasesDB MedlinePlus eMedicine MeSH

B24. 042 5938 000594 emerg/253 D000163

Daftar singkatan dalam artikel ini : AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus CD4+: Sel T pembantu CCR5: Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WHO: World Health Organization PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia TB: Tuberkulosis MTCT: Mother-to-child transmission HAART: Highly active antiretroviral therapy STI/STD: Sexually transmitted

infection/disease

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome atau Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (disingkat AIDS) adalah sekumpulan gejala dan infeksi (atau: sindrom) yang timbul karena rusaknya sistem kekebalan tubuh manusia akibat infeksi virus HIV;[1] atau infeksi virus-virus lain yang mirip yang menyerang spesies lainnya (SIV, FIV, dan lain-lain). Virusnya sendiri bernama Human Immunodeficiency Virus (atau disingkat HIV) yaitu virus yang memperlemah kekebalan pada tubuh manusia. Orang yang terkena virus ini akan menjadi rentan terhadap infeksi oportunistik ataupun mudah terkena tumor. Meskipun penanganan yang telah ada dapat memperlambat laju perkembangan virus, namun penyakit ini belum benar-benar bisa disembuhkan. HIV dan virus-virus sejenisnya umumnya ditularkan melalui kontak langsung antara lapisan kulit dalam (membran mukosa) atau aliran darah, dengan cairan tubuh yang mengandung HIV, seperti darah, air mani, cairan vagina, cairan preseminal, dan air susu ibu.[2][3] Penularan dapat terjadi melalui hubungan intim (vaginal, anal, ataupun oral), transfusi darah, jarum suntik yang terkontaminasi, antara ibu dan bayi selama kehamilan, bersalin, atau menyusui, serta bentuk kontak lainnya dengan cairan-cairan tubuh tersebut. Para ilmuwan umumnya berpendapat bahwa AIDS berasal dari Afrika Sub-Sahara.[4] Kini AIDS telah menjadi wabah penyakit. AIDS diperkiraan telah menginfeksi 38,6 juta orang di seluruh dunia.[5] Pada Januari 2006, UNAIDS bekerja sama dengan WHO memperkirakan bahwa AIDS telah menyebabkan kematian lebih dari 25 juta orang sejak pertama kali diakui pada tanggal 5 Juni 1981. Dengan demikian, penyakit ini merupakan salah satu wabah paling mematikan dalam sejarah. AIDS diklaim telah menyebabkan kematian sebanyak 2,4 hingga 3,3 juta jiwa pada tahun 2005 saja, dan lebih dari 570.000 jiwa di antaranya adalah anakanak.[5] Sepertiga dari jumlah kematian ini terjadi di Afrika Sub-Sahara, sehingga memperlambat pertumbuhan ekonomi dan menghancurkan kekuatan sumber daya manusia di sana. Perawatan antiretrovirus sesungguhnya dapat mengurangi tingkat kematian dan parahnya infeksi HIV, namun akses terhadap pengobatan tersebut tidak tersedia di semua negara.[6] Hukuman sosial bagi penderita HIV/AIDS, umumnya lebih berat bila dibandingkan dengan penderita penyakit mematikan lainnya. Terkadang hukuman sosial tersebut juga turut tertimpakan kepada petugas kesehatan atau sukarelawan, yang terlibat dalam merawat orang yang hidup dengan HIV/AIDS (ODHA).

Daftar isi
[sembunyikan]

1 Gejala dan komplikasi o 1.1 Penyakit paru-paru utama o 1.2 Penyakit saluran pencernaan utama o 1.3 Penyakit syaraf dan kejiwaan utama o 1.4 Kanker dan tumor ganas (malignan) o 1.5 Infeksi oportunistik lainnya

2 Penyebab o 2.1 Penularan seksual o 2.2 Kontaminasi patogen melalui darah o 2.3 Penularan masa perinatal 3 Diagnosis o 3.1 Sistem tahapan infeksi WHO o 3.2 Sistem klasifikasi CDC o 3.3 Tes HIV 4 Pencegahan o 4.1 Hubungan seksual o 4.2 Kontaminasi cairan tubuh terinfeksi o 4.3 Penularan dari ibu ke anak 5 Penanganan o 5.1 Terapi antivirus o 5.2 Penanganan eksperimental dan saran o 5.3 Pengobatan alternatif 6 Epidemiologi 7 Sejarah 8 Sosial dan budaya o 8.1 Stigma o 8.2 Dampak ekonomi o 8.3 Penyangkalan atas AIDS 9 Referensi 10 Bacaan lanjutan 11 Pranala luar

[sunting] Gejala dan komplikasi

Gejala-gejala utama AIDS. Berbagai gejala AIDS umumnya tidak akan terjadi pada orang-orang yang memiliki sistem kekebalan tubuh yang baik. Kebanyakan kondisi tersebut akibat infeksi oleh bakteri, virus, fungi dan parasit, yang biasanya dikendalikan oleh unsur-unsur sistem kekebalan tubuh yang dirusak HIV. Infeksi oportunistik umum didapati pada penderita AIDS.[7] HIV mempengaruhi hampir semua organ tubuh. Penderita AIDS juga berisiko lebih besar menderita kanker seperti sarkoma Kaposi, kanker leher rahim, dan kanker sistem kekebalan yang disebut limfoma. Biasanya penderita AIDS memiliki gejala infeksi sistemik; seperti demam, berkeringat (terutama pada malam hari), pembengkakan kelenjar, kedinginan, merasa lemah, serta penurunan berat badan.[8][9] Infeksi oportunistik tertentu yang diderita pasien AIDS, juga tergantung pada tingkat kekerapan terjadinya infeksi tersebut di wilayah geografis tempat hidup pasien.

[sunting] Penyakit paru-paru utama

Foto sinar-X pneumonia pada paru-paru, disebabkan oleh Pneumocystis jirovecii. Pneumonia pneumocystis (PCP)[10] jarang dijumpai pada orang sehat yang memiliki kekebalan tubuh yang baik, tetapi umumnya dijumpai pada orang yang terinfeksi HIV. Penyebab penyakit ini adalah fungi Pneumocystis jirovecii. Sebelum adanya diagnosis, perawatan, dan tindakan pencegahan rutin yang efektif di negara-negara Barat, penyakit ini umumnya segera menyebabkan kematian. Di negara-negara berkembang, penyakit ini masih merupakan indikasi pertama AIDS pada orang-orang yang belum dites, walaupun umumnya indikasi tersebut tidak muncul kecuali jika jumlah CD4 kurang dari 200 per L.[11] Tuberkulosis (TBC) merupakan infeksi unik di antara infeksi-infeksi lainnya yang terkait HIV, karena dapat ditularkan kepada orang yang sehat (imunokompeten) melalui rute pernapasan (respirasi). Ia dapat dengan mudah ditangani bila telah diidentifikasi, dapat muncul pada stadium awal HIV, serta dapat dicegah melalui terapi pengobatan. Namun demikian, resistensi TBC terhadap berbagai obat merupakan masalah potensial pada penyakit ini.

Meskipun munculnya penyakit ini di negara-negara Barat telah berkurang karena digunakannya terapi dengan pengamatan langsung dan metode terbaru lainnya, namun tidaklah demikian yang terjadi di negara-negara berkembang tempat HIV paling banyak ditemukan. Pada stadium awal infeksi HIV (jumlah CD4 >300 sel per L), TBC muncul sebagai penyakit paru-paru. Pada stadium lanjut infeksi HIV, ia sering muncul sebagai penyakit sistemik yang menyerang bagian tubuh lainnya (tuberkulosis ekstrapulmoner). Gejala-gejalanya biasanya bersifat tidak spesifik (konstitusional) dan tidak terbatasi pada satu tempat.TBC yang menyertai infeksi HIV sering menyerang sumsum tulang, tulang, saluran kemih dan saluran pencernaan, hati, kelenjar getah bening (nodus limfa regional), dan sistem syaraf pusat.[12] Dengan demikian, gejala yang muncul mungkin lebih berkaitan dengan tempat munculnya penyakit ekstrapulmoner.

[sunting] Penyakit saluran pencernaan utama


Esofagitis adalah peradangan pada kerongkongan (esofagus), yaitu jalur makanan dari mulut ke lambung. Pada individu yang terinfeksi HIV, penyakit ini terjadi karena infeksi jamur (jamur kandidiasis) atau virus (herpes simpleks-1 atau virus sitomegalo). Ia pun dapat disebabkan oleh mikobakteria, meskipun kasusnya langka.[13] Diare kronis yang tidak dapat dijelaskan pada infeksi HIV dapat terjadi karena berbagai penyebab; antara lain infeksi bakteri dan parasit yang umum (seperti Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria, Kampilobakter, dan Escherichia coli), serta infeksi oportunistik yang tidak umum dan virus (seperti kriptosporidiosis, mikrosporidiosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, dan virus sitomegalo (CMV) yang merupakan penyebab kolitis). Pada beberapa kasus, diare terjadi sebagai efek samping dari obat-obatan yang digunakan untuk menangani HIV, atau efek samping dari infeksi utama (primer) dari HIV itu sendiri. Selain itu, diare dapat juga merupakan efek samping dari antibiotik yang digunakan untuk menangani bakteri diare (misalnya pada Clostridium difficile). Pada stadium akhir infeksi HIV, diare diperkirakan merupakan petunjuk terjadinya perubahan cara saluran pencernaan menyerap nutrisi, serta mungkin merupakan komponen penting dalam sistem pembuangan yang berhubungan dengan HIV.[14]

[sunting] Penyakit syaraf dan kejiwaan utama


Infeksi HIV dapat menimbulkan beragam kelainan tingkah laku karena gangguan pada syaraf (neuropsychiatric sequelae), yang disebabkan oleh infeksi organisma atas sistem syaraf yang telah menjadi rentan, atau sebagai akibat langsung dari penyakit itu sendiri. Toksoplasmosis adalah penyakit yang disebabkan oleh parasit bersel-satu, yang disebut Toxoplasma gondii. Parasit ini biasanya menginfeksi otak dan menyebabkan radang otak akut (toksoplasma ensefalitis), namun ia juga dapat menginfeksi dan menyebabkan penyakit pada mata dan paru-paru.[15] Meningitis kriptokokal adalah infeksi meninges (membran yang menutupi otak dan sumsum tulang belakang) oleh jamur Cryptococcus neoformans. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan demam, sakit kepala, lelah, mual, dan muntah. Pasien juga mungkin mengalami sawan dan kebingungan, yang jika tidak ditangani dapat mematikan. Leukoensefalopati multifokal progresif adalah penyakit demielinasi, yaitu penyakit yang menghancurkan selubung syaraf (mielin) yang menutupi serabut sel syaraf (akson), sehingga merusak penghantaran impuls syaraf. Ia disebabkan oleh virus JC, yang 70% populasinya

terdapat di tubuh manusia dalam kondisi laten, dan menyebabkan penyakit hanya ketika sistem kekebalan sangat lemah, sebagaimana yang terjadi pada pasien AIDS. Penyakit ini berkembang cepat (progresif) dan menyebar (multilokal), sehingga biasanya menyebabkan kematian dalam waktu sebulan setelah diagnosis.[16] Kompleks demensia AIDS adalah penyakit penurunan kemampuan mental (demensia) yang terjadi karena menurunnya metabolisme sel otak (ensefalopati metabolik) yang disebabkan oleh infeksi HIV; dan didorong pula oleh terjadinya pengaktifan imun oleh makrofag dan mikroglia pada otak yang mengalami infeksi HIV, sehingga mengeluarkan neurotoksin.[17] Kerusakan syaraf yang spesifik, tampak dalam bentuk ketidaknormalan kognitif, perilaku, dan motorik, yang muncul bertahun-tahun setelah infeksi HIV terjadi. Hal ini berhubungan dengan keadaan rendahnya jumlah sel T CD4+ dan tingginya muatan virus pada plasma darah. Angka kemunculannya (prevalensi) di negara-negara Barat adalah sekitar 10-20%,[18] namun di India hanya terjadi pada 1-2% pengidap infeksi HIV.[19][20] Perbedaan ini mungkin terjadi karena adanya perbedaan subtipe HIV di India.

[sunting] Kanker dan tumor ganas (malignan)

Sarkoma Kaposi Pasien dengan infeksi HIV pada dasarnya memiliki risiko yang lebih tinggi terhadap terjadinya beberapa kanker. Hal ini karena infeksi oleh virus DNA penyebab mutasi genetik; yaitu terutama virus Epstein-Barr (EBV), virus herpes Sarkoma Kaposi (KSHV), dan virus papiloma manusia (HPV).[21][22] Sarkoma Kaposi adalah tumor yang paling umum menyerang pasien yang terinfeksi HIV. Kemunculan tumor ini pada sejumlah pemuda homoseksual tahun 1981 adalah salah satu pertanda pertama wabah AIDS. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh virus dari subfamili gammaherpesvirinae, yaitu virus herpes manusia-8 yang juga disebut virus herpes Sarkoma Kaposi (KSHV). Penyakit ini sering muncul di kulit dalam bentuk bintik keungu-unguan, tetapi dapat menyerang organ lain, terutama mulut, saluran pencernaan, dan paru-paru. Kanker getah bening tingkat tinggi (limfoma sel B) adalah kanker yang menyerang sel darah putih dan terkumpul dalam kelenjar getah bening, misalnya seperti limfoma Burkitt (Burkitt's lymphoma) atau sejenisnya (Burkitt's-like lymphoma), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), dan limfoma sistem syaraf pusat primer, lebih sering muncul pada pasien yang terinfeksi HIV. Kanker ini seringkali merupakan perkiraan kondisi (prognosis) yang buruk. Pada beberapa kasus, limfoma adalah tanda utama AIDS. Limfoma ini sebagian besar disebabkan oleh virus Epstein-Barr atau virus herpes Sarkoma Kaposi. Kanker leher rahim pada wanita yang terkena HIV dianggap tanda utama AIDS. Kanker ini disebabkan oleh virus papiloma manusia.

Pasien yang terinfeksi HIV juga dapat terkena tumor lainnya, seperti limfoma Hodgkin, kanker usus besar bawah (rectum), dan kanker anus. Namun demikian, banyak tumor-tumor yang umum seperti kanker payudara dan kanker usus besar (colon), yang tidak meningkat kejadiannya pada pasien terinfeksi HIV. Di tempat-tempat dilakukannya terapi antiretrovirus yang sangat aktif (HAART) dalam menangani AIDS, kemunculan berbagai kanker yang berhubungan dengan AIDS menurun, namun pada saat yang sama kanker kemudian menjadi penyebab kematian yang paling umum pada pasien yang terinfeksi HIV.[23]

[sunting] Infeksi oportunistik lainnya


Pasien AIDS biasanya menderita infeksi oportunistik dengan gejala tidak spesifik, terutama demam ringan dan kehilangan berat badan. Infeksi oportunistik ini termasuk infeksi Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare dan virus sitomegalo. Virus sitomegalo dapat menyebabkan gangguan radang pada usus besar (kolitis) seperti yang dijelaskan di atas, dan gangguan radang pada retina mata (retinitis sitomegalovirus), yang dapat menyebabkan kebutaan. Infeksi yang disebabkan oleh jamur Penicillium marneffei, atau disebut Penisiliosis, kini adalah infeksi oportunistik ketiga yang paling umum (setelah tuberkulosis dan kriptokokosis) pada orang yang positif HIV di daerah endemik Asia Tenggara.[24]

[sunting] Penyebab
Untuk detail lebih lanjut tentang topik ini, lihat HIV.

HIV yang baru memperbanyak diri tampak bermunculan sebagai bulatan-bulatan kecil (diwarnai hijau) pada permukaan limfosit setelah menyerang sel tersebut; dilihat dengan mikroskop elektron. AIDS merupakan bentuk terparah atas akibat infeksi HIV. HIV adalah retrovirus yang biasanya menyerang organ-organ vital sistem kekebalan manusia, seperti sel T CD4+ (sejenis sel T), makrofaga, dan sel dendritik. HIV merusak sel T CD4+ secara langsung dan tidak langsung, padahal sel T CD4+ dibutuhkan agar sistem kekebalan tubuh dapat berfungsi baik. Bila HIV telah membunuh sel T CD4+ hingga jumlahnya menyusut hingga kurang dari 200 per mikroliter (L) darah, maka kekebalan di tingkat sel akan hilang, dan akibatnya ialah kondisi yang disebut AIDS. Infeksi akut HIV akan berlanjut menjadi infeksi laten klinis, kemudian timbul gejala infeksi HIV awal, dan akhirnya AIDS; yang diidentifikasi dengan memeriksa jumlah sel T CD4+ di dalam darah serta adanya infeksi tertentu.

Tanpa terapi antiretrovirus, rata-rata lamanya perkembangan infeksi HIV menjadi AIDS ialah sembilan sampai sepuluh tahun, dan rata-rata waktu hidup setelah mengalami AIDS hanya sekitar 9,2 bulan.[25] Namun demikian, laju perkembangan penyakit ini pada setiap orang sangat bervariasi, yaitu dari dua minggu sampai 20 tahun. Banyak faktor yang mempengaruhinya, diantaranya ialah kekuatan tubuh untuk bertahan melawan HIV (seperti fungsi kekebalan tubuh) dari orang yang terinfeksi.[26][27] Orang tua umumnya memiliki kekebalan yang lebih lemah daripada orang yang lebih muda, sehingga lebih berisiko mengalami perkembangan penyakit yang pesat. Akses yang kurang terhadap perawatan kesehatan dan adanya infeksi lainnya seperti tuberkulosis, juga dapat mempercepat perkembangan penyakit ini.[25][28][29] Warisan genetik orang yang terinfeksi juga memainkan peran penting. Sejumlah orang kebal secara alami terhadap beberapa varian HIV. [30] HIV memiliki beberapa variasi genetik dan berbagai bentuk yang berbeda, yang akan menyebabkan laju perkembangan penyakit klinis yang berbeda-beda pula.[31][32][33] Terapi antiretrovirus yang sangat aktif akan dapat memperpanjang rata-rata waktu berkembangannya AIDS, serta rata-rata waktu kemampuan penderita bertahan hidup.

[sunting] Penularan seksual


Penularan (transmisi) HIV secara seksual terjadi ketika ada kontak antara sekresi cairan vagina atau cairan preseminal seseorang dengan rektum, alat kelamin, atau membran mukosa mulut pasangannya. Hubungan seksual reseptif tanpa pelindung lebih berisiko daripada hubungan seksual insertif tanpa pelindung, dan risiko hubungan seks anal lebih besar daripada risiko hubungan seks biasa dan seks oral. Seks oral tidak berarti tak berisiko karena HIV dapat masuk melalui seks oral reseptif maupun insertif.[34] Kekerasan seksual secara umum meningkatkan risiko penularan HIV karena pelindung umumnya tidak digunakan dan sering terjadi trauma fisik terhadap rongga vagina yang memudahkan transmisi HIV.[35] Penyakit menular seksual meningkatkan risiko penularan HIV karena dapat menyebabkan gangguan pertahanan jaringan epitel normal akibat adanya borok alat kelamin, dan juga karena adanya penumpukan sel yang terinfeksi HIV (limfosit dan makrofaga) pada semen dan sekresi vaginal. Penelitian epidemiologis dari Afrika Sub-Sahara, Eropa, dan Amerika Utara menunjukkan bahwa terdapat sekitar empat kali lebih besar risiko terinfeksi AIDS akibat adanya borok alat kelamin seperti yang disebabkan oleh sifilis dan/atau chancroid. Resiko tersebut juga meningkat secara nyata, walaupun lebih kecil, oleh adanya penyakit menular seksual seperti kencing nanah, infeksi chlamydia, dan trikomoniasis yang menyebabkan pengumpulan lokal limfosit dan makrofaga.[36] Transmisi HIV bergantung pada tingkat kemudahan penularan dari pengidap dan kerentanan pasangan seksual yang belum terinfeksi. Kemudahan penularan bervariasi pada berbagai tahap penyakit ini dan tidak konstan antarorang. Beban virus plasma yang tidak dapat dideteksi tidak selalu berarti bahwa beban virus kecil pada air mani atau sekresi alat kelamin. Setiap 10 kali penambahan jumlah RNA HIV plasma darah sebanding dengan 81% peningkatan laju transmisi HIV.[36][37] Wanita lebih rentan terhadap infeksi HIV-1 karena perubahan hormon, ekologi serta fisiologi mikroba vaginal, dan kerentanan yang lebih besar terhadap penyakit seksual.[38][39] Orang yang terinfeksi dengan HIV masih dapat terinfeksi jenis virus lain yang lebih mematikan.

[sunting] Kontaminasi patogen melalui darah

Poster CDC tahun 1989, yang mengetengahkan bahaya AIDS sehubungan dengan pemakaian narkoba. Jalur penularan ini terutama berhubungan dengan pengguna obat suntik, penderita hemofilia, dan resipien transfusi darah dan produk darah. Berbagi dan menggunakan kembali jarum suntik (syringe) yang mengandung darah yang terkontaminasi oleh organisme biologis penyebab penyakit (patogen), tidak hanya merupakan risiko utama atas infeksi HIV, tetapi juga hepatitis B dan hepatitis C. Berbagi penggunaan jarum suntik merupakan penyebab sepertiga dari semua infeksi baru HIV dan 50% infeksi hepatitis C di Amerika Utara, Republik Rakyat Cina, dan Eropa Timur. Resiko terinfeksi dengan HIV dari satu tusukan dengan jarum yang digunakan orang yang terinfeksi HIV diduga sekitar 1 banding 150. Postexposure prophylaxis dengan obat anti-HIV dapat lebih jauh mengurangi risiko itu.[40] Pekerja fasilitas kesehatan (perawat, pekerja laboratorium, dokter, dan lain-lain) juga dikhawatirkan walaupun lebih jarang. Jalur penularan ini dapat juga terjadi pada orang yang memberi dan menerima rajah dan tindik tubuh. Kewaspadaan universal sering kali tidak dipatuhi baik di Afrika Sub Sahara maupun Asia karena sedikitnya sumber daya dan pelatihan yang tidak mencukupi. WHO memperkirakan 2,5% dari semua infeksi HIV di Afrika Sub Sahara ditransmisikan melalui suntikan pada fasilitas kesehatan yang tidak aman.[41] Oleh sebab itu, Majelis Umum Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa, didukung oleh opini medis umum dalam masalah ini, mendorong negara-negara di dunia menerapkan kewaspadaan universal untuk mencegah penularan HIV melalui fasilitas kesehatan.[42] Resiko penularan HIV pada penerima transfusi darah sangat kecil di negara maju. Di negara maju, pemilihan donor bertambah baik dan pengamatan HIV dilakukan. Namun demikian, menurut WHO, mayoritas populasi dunia tidak memiliki akses terhadap darah yang aman dan "antara 5% dan 10% infeksi HIV dunia terjadi melalui transfusi darah yang terinfeksi".[43]

[sunting] Penularan masa perinatal


Transmisi HIV dari ibu ke anak dapat terjadi melalui rahim (in utero) selama masa perinatal, yaitu minggu-minggu terakhir kehamilan dan saat persalinan. Bila tidak ditangani, tingkat

penularan dari ibu ke anak selama kehamilan dan persalinan adalah sebesar 25%. Namun demikian, jika sang ibu memiliki akses terhadap terapi antiretrovirus dan melahirkan dengan cara bedah caesar, tingkat penularannya hanya sebesar 1%.[44] Sejumlah faktor dapat memengaruhi risiko infeksi, terutama beban virus pada ibu saat persalinan (semakin tinggi beban virus, semakin tinggi risikonya). Menyusui meningkatkan risiko penularan sebesar 4%.[45]

[sunting] Diagnosis
Sejak tanggal 5 Juni 1981, banyak definisi yang muncul untuk pengawasan epidemiologi AIDS, seperti definisi Bangui dan definisi World Health Organization tentang AIDS tahun 1994. Namun demikian, kedua sistem tersebut sebenarnya ditujukan untuk pemantauan epidemi dan bukan untuk penentuan tahapan klinis pasien, karena definisi yang digunakan tidak sensitif ataupun spesifik. Di negara-negara berkembang, sistem World Health Organization untuk infeksi HIV digunakan dengan memakai data klinis dan laboratorium; sementara di negara-negara maju digunakan sistem klasifikasi Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Amerika Serikat.

[sunting] Sistem tahapan infeksi WHO

Grafik hubungan antara jumlah HIV dan jumlah CD4+ pada rata-rata infeksi HIV yang tidak ditangani. Keadaan penyakit dapat bervariasi tiap orang. jumlah limfosit T CD4+
(sel/mm) jumlah RNA HIV per mL plasma

Pada tahun 1990, World Health Organization (WHO) mengelompokkan berbagai infeksi dan kondisi AIDS dengan memperkenalkan sistem tahapan untuk pasien yang terinfeksi dengan HIV-1.[46] Sistem ini diperbarui pada bulan September tahun 2005. Kebanyakan kondisi ini adalah infeksi oportunistik yang dengan mudah ditangani pada orang sehat.

Stadium I: infeksi HIV asimtomatik dan tidak dikategorikan sebagai AIDS Stadium II: termasuk manifestasi membran mukosa kecil dan radang saluran pernafasan atas yang berulang Stadium III: termasuk diare kronik yang tidak dapat dijelaskan selama lebih dari sebulan, infeksi bakteri parah, dan tuberkulosis. Stadium IV: termasuk toksoplasmosis otak, kandidiasis esofagus, trakea, bronkus atau paru-paru, dan sarkoma kaposi. Semua penyakit ini adalah indikator AIDS.

[sunting] Sistem klasifikasi CDC


Terdapat dua definisi tentang AIDS, yang keduanya dikeluarkan oleh Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Awalnya CDC tidak memiliki nama resmi untuk penyakit ini; sehingga AIDS dirujuk dengan nama penyakit yang berhubungan dengannya, contohnya ialah limfadenopati. Para penemu HIV bahkan pada mulanya menamai AIDS dengan nama virus tersebut.[47][48] CDC mulai menggunakan kata AIDS pada bulan September tahun 1982, dan mendefinisikan penyakit ini.[49] Tahun 1993, CDC memperluas definisi AIDS mereka dengan memasukkan semua orang yang jumlah sel T CD4+ di bawah 200 per L darah atau 14% dari seluruh limfositnya sebagai pengidap positif HIV.[50] Mayoritas kasus AIDS di negara maju menggunakan kedua definisi tersebut, baik definisi CDC terakhir maupun pra1993. Diagnosis terhadap AIDS tetap dipertahankan, walaupun jumlah sel T CD4+ meningkat di atas 200 per L darah setelah perawatan ataupun penyakit-penyakit tanda AIDS yang ada telah sembuh.

[sunting] Tes HIV


Banyak orang tidak menyadari bahwa mereka terinfeksi virus HIV.[51] Kurang dari 1% penduduk perkotaan di Afrika yang aktif secara seksual telah menjalani tes HIV, dan persentasenya bahkan lebih sedikit lagi di pedesaan. Selain itu, hanya 0,5% wanita mengandung di perkotaan yang mendatangi fasilitas kesehatan umum memperoleh bimbingan tentang AIDS, menjalani pemeriksaan, atau menerima hasil tes mereka. Angka ini bahkan lebih kecil lagi di fasilitas kesehatan umum pedesaan.[51] Dengan demikian, darah dari para pendonor dan produk darah yang digunakan untuk pengobatan dan penelitian medis, harus selalu diperiksa kontaminasi HIV-nya. Tes HIV umum, termasuk imunoasai enzim HIV dan pengujian Western blot, dilakukan untuk mendeteksi antibodi HIV pada serum, plasma, cairan mulut, darah kering, atau urin pasien. Namun demikian, periode antara infeksi dan berkembangnya antibodi pelawan infeksi yang dapat dideteksi (window period) bagi setiap orang dapat bervariasi. Inilah sebabnya mengapa dibutuhkan waktu 3-6 bulan untuk mengetahui serokonversi dan hasil positif tes. Terdapat pula tes-tes komersial untuk mendeteksi antigen HIV lainnya, HIV-RNA, dan HIVDNA, yang dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi infeksi HIV meskipun perkembangan antibodinya belum dapat terdeteksi. Meskipun metode-metode tersebut tidak disetujui secara khusus untuk diagnosis infeksi HIV, tetapi telah digunakan secara rutin di negara-negara maju.

[sunting] Pencegahan
Perkiraan risiko masuknya HIV per aksi, menurut rute paparan[52] Perkiraan infeksi per 10.000 paparan Rute paparan dengan sumber yang terinfeksi [53] 9.000 Transfusi darah 2.500[44] Persalinan Penggunaan jarum suntik bersama-sama 67[54] 50[55][56] Hubungan seks anal reseptif*

30[57] Jarum pada kulit 10[55][56][58] Hubungan seksual reseptif* * 6,5[55][56] Hubungan seks anal insertif 5[55][56] Hubungan seksual insertif* 1[56] Seks oral reseptif* 0,5[56] Seks oral insertif* * tanpa penggunaan kondom sumber merujuk kepada seks oral yang dilakukan kepada laki-laki

Tiga jalur utama (rute) masuknya virus HIV ke dalam tubuh ialah melalui hubungan seksual, persentuhan (paparan) dengan cairan atau jaringan tubuh yang terinfeksi, serta dari ibu ke janin atau bayi selama periode sekitar kelahiran (periode perinatal). Walaupun HIV dapat ditemukan pada air liur, air mata dan urin orang yang terinfeksi, namun tidak terdapat catatan kasus infeksi dikarenakan cairan-cairan tersebut, dengan demikian risiko infeksinya secara umum dapat diabaikan.[59]

[sunting] Hubungan seksual


Mayoritas infeksi HIV berasal dari hubungan seksual tanpa pelindung antarindividu yang salah satunya terkena HIV. Hubungan heteroseksual adalah modus utama infeksi HIV di dunia.[60] Selama hubungan seksual, hanya kondom pria atau kondom wanita yang dapat mengurangi kemungkinan terinfeksi HIV dan penyakit seksual lainnya serta kemungkinan hamil. Bukti terbaik saat ini menunjukan bahwa penggunaan kondom yang lazim mengurangi risiko penularan HIV sampai kira-kira 80% dalam jangka panjang, walaupun manfaat ini lebih besar jika kondom digunakan dengan benar dalam setiap kesempatan.[61] Kondom lakilaki berbahan lateks, jika digunakan dengan benar tanpa pelumas berbahan dasar minyak, adalah satu-satunya teknologi yang paling efektif saat ini untuk mengurangi transmisi HIV secara seksual dan penyakit menular seksual lainnya. Pihak produsen kondom menganjurkan bahwa pelumas berbahan minyak seperti vaselin, mentega, dan lemak babi tidak digunakan dengan kondom lateks karena bahan-bahan tersebut dapat melarutkan lateks dan membuat kondom berlubang. Jika diperlukan, pihak produsen menyarankan menggunakan pelumas berbahan dasar air. Pelumas berbahan dasar minyak digunakan dengan kondom poliuretan.[62] Kondom wanita adalah alternatif selain kondom laki-laki dan terbuat dari poliuretan, yang memungkinkannya untuk digunakan dengan pelumas berbahan dasar minyak. Kondom wanita lebih besar daripada kondom laki-laki dan memiliki sebuah ujung terbuka keras berbentuk cincin, dan didesain untuk dimasukkan ke dalam vagina. Kondom wanita memiliki cincin bagian dalam yang membuat kondom tetap di dalam vagina untuk memasukkan kondom wanita, cincin ini harus ditekan. Kendalanya ialah bahwa kini kondom wanita masih jarang tersedia dan harganya tidak terjangkau untuk sejumlah besar wanita. Penelitian awal menunjukkan bahwa dengan tersedianya kondom wanita, hubungan seksual dengan pelindung secara keseluruhan meningkat relatif terhadap hubungan seksual tanpa pelindung sehingga kondom wanita merupakan strategi pencegahan HIV yang penting.[63] Penelitian terhadap pasangan yang salah satunya terinfeksi menunjukkan bahwa dengan penggunaan kondom yang konsisten, laju infeksi HIV terhadap pasangan yang belum terinfeksi adalah di bawah 1% per tahun.[64] Strategi pencegahan telah dikenal dengan baik di negara-negara maju. Namun, penelitian atas perilaku dan epidemiologis di Eropa dan Amerika Utara menunjukkan keberadaan kelompok minoritas anak muda yang tetap

melakukan kegiatan berisiko tinggi meskipun telah mengetahui tentang HIV/AIDS, sehingga mengabaikan risiko yang mereka hadapi atas infeksi HIV.[65] Namun demikian, transmisi HIV antarpengguna narkoba telah menurun, dan transmisi HIV oleh transfusi darah menjadi cukup langka di negara-negara maju. Pada bulan Desember tahun 2006, penelitian yang menggunakan uji acak terkendali mengkonfirmasi bahwa sunat laki-laki menurunkan risiko infeksi HIV pada pria heteroseksual Afrika sampai sekitar 50%. Diharapkan pendekatan ini akan digalakkan di banyak negara yang terinfeksi HIV paling parah, walaupun penerapannya akan berhadapan dengan sejumlah isu sehubungan masalah kepraktisan, budaya, dan perilaku masyarakat. Beberapa ahli mengkhawatirkan bahwa persepsi kurangnya kerentanan HIV pada laki-laki bersunat, dapat meningkatkan perilaku seksual berisiko sehingga mengurangi dampak dari usaha pencegahan ini.[66] Pemerintah Amerika Serikat dan berbagai organisasi kesehatan menganjurkan Pendekatan ABC untuk menurunkan risiko terkena HIV melalui hubungan seksual.[67] Adapun rumusannya dalam bahasa Indonesia:[68]

Anda jauhi seks, Bersikap saling setia dengan pasangan, Cegah dengan kondom.

[sunting] Kontaminasi cairan tubuh terinfeksi

Wabah AIDS di Afrika Sub-Sahara tahun 1985-2003. Pekerja kedokteran yang mengikuti kewaspadaan universal, seperti mengenakan sarung tangan lateks ketika menyuntik dan selalu mencuci tangan, dapat membantu mencegah infeksi HIV. Semua organisasi pencegahan AIDS menyarankan pengguna narkoba untuk tidak berbagi jarum dan bahan lainnya yang diperlukan untuk mempersiapkan dan mengambil narkoba (termasuk alat suntik, kapas bola, sendok, air pengencer obat, sedotan, dan lain-lain). Orang perlu menggunakan jarum yang baru dan disterilisasi untuk tiap suntikan. Informasi tentang membersihkan jarum menggunakan pemutih disediakan oleh fasilitas kesehatan dan program penukaran jarum. Di sejumlah negara maju, jarum bersih terdapat gratis di sejumlah kota, di

penukaran jarum atau tempat penyuntikan yang aman. Banyak negara telah melegalkan kepemilikan jarum dan mengijinkan pembelian perlengkapan penyuntikan dari apotek tanpa perlu resep dokter.

[sunting] Penularan dari ibu ke anak


Penelitian menunjukkan bahwa obat antiretrovirus, bedah caesar, dan pemberian makanan formula mengurangi peluang penularan HIV dari ibu ke anak (mother-to-child transmission, MTCT).[69] Jika pemberian makanan pengganti dapat diterima, dapat dikerjakan dengan mudah, terjangkau, berkelanjutan, dan aman, ibu yang terinfeksi HIV disarankan tidak menyusui anak mereka. Namun demikian, jika hal-hal tersebut tidak dapat terpenuhi, pemberian ASI eksklusif disarankan dilakukan selama bulan-bulan pertama dan selanjutnya dihentikan sesegera mungkin.[5] Pada tahun 2005, sekitar 700.000 anak di bawah umur 15 tahun terkena HIV, terutama melalui penularan ibu ke anak; 630.000 infeksi di antaranya terjadi di Afrika.[70] Dari semua anak yang diduga kini hidup dengan HIV, 2 juta anak (hampir 90%) tinggal di Afrika Sub Sahara.[5]

[sunting] Penanganan
Lihat pula HIV dan Obat antiretrovirus.

Abacavir Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI atau NRTI)

Struktur kimia Abacavir Sampai saat ini tidak ada vaksin atau obat untuk HIV atau AIDS. Metode satu-satunya yang diketahui untuk pencegahan didasarkan pada penghindaran kontak dengan virus atau, jika gagal, perawatan antiretrovirus secara langsung setelah kontak dengan virus secara signifikan, disebut post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).[40] PEP memiliki jadwal empat minggu takaran yang menuntut banyak waktu. PEP juga memiliki efek samping yang tidak menyenangkan seperti diare, tidak enak badan, mual, dan lelah.[71]

[sunting] Terapi antivirus


Penanganan infeksi HIV terkini adalah terapi antiretrovirus yang sangat aktif (highly active antiretroviral therapy, disingkat HAART).[72] Terapi ini telah sangat bermanfaat bagi orangorang yang terinfeksi HIV sejak tahun 1996, yaitu setelah ditemukannya HAART yang menggunakan protease inhibitor.[6] Pilihan terbaik HAART saat ini, berupa kombinasi dari setidaknya tiga obat (disebut "koktail) yang terdiri dari paling sedikit dua macam (atau

"kelas") bahan antiretrovirus. Kombinasi yang umum digunakan adalah nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor (atau NRTI) dengan protease inhibitor, atau dengan nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Karena penyakit HIV lebih cepat perkembangannya pada anak-anak daripada pada orang dewasa, maka rekomendasi perawatannya pun lebih agresif untuk anak-anak daripada untuk orang dewasa.[73] Di negaranegara berkembang yang menyediakan perawatan HAART, seorang dokter akan mempertimbangkan kuantitas beban virus, kecepatan berkurangnya CD4, serta kesiapan mental pasien, saat memilih waktu memulai perawatan awal.[74] Perawatan HAART memungkinkan stabilnya gejala dan viremia (banyaknya jumlah virus dalam darah) pada pasien, tetapi ia tidak menyembuhkannya dari HIV ataupun menghilangkan gejalanya. HIV-1 dalam tingkat yang tinggi sering resisten terhadap HAART dan gejalanya kembali setelah perawatan dihentikan.[75][76] Lagi pula, dibutuhkan waktu lebih dari seumur hidup seseorang untuk membersihkan infeksi HIV dengan menggunakan HAART.[77] Meskipun demikian, banyak pengidap HIV mengalami perbaikan yang hebat pada kesehatan umum dan kualitas hidup mereka, sehingga terjadi adanya penurunan drastis atas tingkat kesakitan (morbiditas) dan tingkat kematian (mortalitas) karena HIV.[78][79][80] Tanpa perawatan HAART, berubahnya infeksi HIV menjadi AIDS terjadi dengan kecepatan rata-rata (median) antara sembilan sampai sepuluh tahun, dan selanjutnya waktu bertahan setelah terjangkit AIDS hanyalah 9.2 bulan.[25] Penerapan HAART dianggap meningkatkan waktu bertahan pasien selama 4 sampai 12 tahun.[81][82] Bagi beberapa pasien lainnya, yang jumlahnya mungkin lebih dari lima puluh persen, perawatan HAART memberikan hasil jauh dari optimal. Hal ini karena adanya efek samping/dampak pengobatan tidak bisa ditolerir, terapi antiretrovirus sebelumnya yang tidak efektif, dan infeksi HIV tertentu yang resisten obat. Ketidaktaatan dan ketidakteraturan dalam menerapkan terapi antiretrovirus adalah alasan utama mengapa kebanyakan individu gagal memperoleh manfaat dari penerapan HAART.[83] Terdapat bermacam-macam alasan atas sikap tidak taat dan tidak teratur untuk penerapan HAART tersebut. Isyu-isyu psikososial yang utama ialah kurangnya akses atas fasilitas kesehatan, kurangnya dukungan sosial, penyakit kejiwaan, serta penyalahgunaan obat. Perawatan HAART juga kompleks, karena adanya beragam kombinasi jumlah pil, frekuensi dosis, pembatasan makan, dan lain-lain yang harus dijalankan secara rutin .[84][85][86] Berbagai efek samping yang juga menimbulkan keengganan untuk teratur dalam penerapan HAART, antara lain lipodistrofi, dislipidaemia, penolakan insulin, peningkatan risiko sistem kardiovaskular, dan kelainan bawaan pada bayi yang dilahirkan.[87][88] Obat anti-retrovirus berharga mahal, dan mayoritas individu terinfeksi di dunia tidaklah memiliki akses terhadap pengobatan dan perawatan untuk HIV dan AIDS tersebut.[89]

[sunting] Penanganan eksperimental dan saran


Telah terdapat pendapat bahwa hanya vaksin lah yang sesuai untuk menahan epidemik global (pandemik) karena biaya vaksin lebih murah dari biaya pengobatan lainnya, sehingga negaranegara berkembang mampu mengadakannya dan pasien tidak membutuhkan perawatan harian.[89] Namun setelah lebih dari 20 tahun penelitian, HIV-1 tetap merupakan target yang sulit bagi vaksin.[89] Beragam penelitian untuk meningkatkan perawatan termasuk usaha mengurangi efek samping obat, penyederhanaan kombinasi obat-obatan untuk memudahkan pemakaian, dan penentuan urutan kombinasi pengobatan terbaik untuk menghadapi adanya resistensi obat. Beberapa penelitian menunjukan bahwa langkah-langkah pencegahan infeksi oportunistik

dapat menjadi bermanfaat ketika menangani pasien dengan infeksi HIV atau AIDS. Vaksinasi atas hepatitis A dan B disarankan untuk pasien yang belum terinfeksi virus ini dan dalam berisiko terinfeksi.[90] Pasien yang mengalami penekanan daya tahan tubuh yang besar juga disarankan mendapatkan terapi pencegahan (propilaktik) untuk pneumonia pneumosistis, demikian juga pasien toksoplasmosis dan kriptokokus meningitis yang akan banyak pula mendapatkan manfaat dari terapi propilaktik tersebut.[71]

[sunting] Pengobatan alternatif


Berbagai bentuk pengobatan alternatif digunakan untuk menangani gejala atau mengubah arah perkembangan penyakit.[91] Akupunktur telah digunakan untuk mengatasi beberapa gejala, misalnya kelainan syaraf tepi (peripheral neuropathy) seperti kaki kram, kesemutan atau nyeri; namun tidak menyembuhkan infeksi HIV.[92] Tes-tes uji acak klinis terhadap efek obat-obatan jamu menunjukkan bahwa tidak terdapat bukti bahwa tanaman-tanaman obat tersebut memiliki dampak pada perkembangan penyakit ini, tetapi malah kemungkinan memberi beragam efek samping negatif yang serius.[93] Beberapa data memperlihatkan bahwa suplemen multivitamin dan mineral kemungkinan mengurangi perkembangan penyakit HIV pada orang dewasa, meskipun tidak ada bukti yang menyakinkan bahwa tingkat kematian (mortalitas) akan berkurang pada orang-orang yang memiliki status nutrisi yang baik.[94] Suplemen vitamin A pada anak-anak kemungkinan juga memiliki beberapa manfaat.[94] Pemakaian selenium dengan dosis rutin harian dapat menurunkan beban tekanan virus HIV melalui terjadinya peningkatan pada jumlah CD4. Selenium dapat digunakan sebagai terapi pendamping terhadap berbagai penanganan antivirus yang standar, tetapi tidak dapat digunakan sendiri untuk menurunkan mortalitas dan morbiditas.[95] Penyelidikan terakhir menunjukkan bahwa terapi pengobatan alteratif memiliki hanya sedikit efek terhadap mortalitas dan morbiditas penyakit ini, namun dapat meningkatkan kualitas hidup individu yang mengidap AIDS. Manfaat-manfaat psikologis dari beragam terapi alternatif tersebut sesungguhnya adalah manfaat paling penting dari pemakaiannya.[96] Namun oleh penelitian yang mengungkapkan adanya simtoma hipotiroksinemia pada penderita AIDS yang terjangkit virus HIV-1, beberapa pakar menyarankan terapi dengan asupan hormon tiroksin.[97] Hormon tiroksin dikenal dapat meningkatkan laju metabolisme basal sel eukariota[98] dan memperbaiki gradien pH pada mitokondria.[99]

[sunting] Epidemiologi

Meratanya HIV diantara orang dewasa per negara pada akhir tahun 2005.
1550% 515% 0.51.0% 0.10.5% <0.1% tidak ada data

15%

UNAIDS dan WHO memperkirakan bahwa AIDS telah membunuh lebih dari 25 juta jiwa sejak pertama kali diakui tahun 1981, membuat AIDS sebagai salah satu epidemik paling menghancurkan pada sejarah. Meskipun baru saja, akses perawatan antiretrovirus bertambah baik di banyak region di dunia, epidemik AIDS diklaim bahwa diperkirakan 2,8 juta (antara 2,4 dan 3,3 juta) hidup di tahun 2005 dan lebih dari setengah juta (570.000) merupakan anakanak.[5] Secara global, antara 33,4 dan 46 juta orang kini hidup dengan HIV.[5] Pada tahun 2005, antara 3,4 dan 6,2 juta orang terinfeksi dan antara 2,4 dan 3,3 juta orang dengan AIDS meninggal dunia, peningkatan dari 2003 dan jumlah terbesar sejak tahun 1981.[5] Afrika Sub-Sahara tetap merupakan wilayah terburuk yang terinfeksi, dengan perkiraan 21,6 sampai 27,4 juta jiwa kini hidup dengan HIV. Dua juta [1,5&-3,0 juta] dari mereka adalah anak-anak yang usianya lebih rendah dari 15 tahun. Lebih dari 64% dari semua orang yang hidup dengan HIV ada di Afrika Sub Sahara, lebih dari tiga per empat (76%) dari semua wanita hidup dengan HIV. Pada tahun 2005, terdapat 12.0 juta [10.6-13.6 juta] anak yatim/piatu AIDS hidup di Afrika Sub Sahara.[5] Asia Selatan dan Asia Tenggara adalah terburuk kedua yang terinfeksi dengan besar 15%. 500.000 anak-anak mati di region ini karena AIDS. Dua-tiga infeksi HIV/AIDS di Asia muncul di India, dengawn perkiraan 5.7 juta infeksi (perkiraan 3.4 - 9.4 juta) (0.9% dari populasi), melewati perkiraan di Afrika Selatan yang sebesar 5.5 juta (4.9-6.1 juta) (11.9% dari populasi) infeksi, membuat negara ini dengan jumlah terbesar infeksi HIV di dunia.[100] Di 35 negara di Afrika dengan perataan terbesar, harapan hidup normal sebesar 48.3 tahun - 6.5 tahun sedikit daripada akan menjadi tanpa penyakit.[101]

[sunting] Sejarah
AIDS pertama kali dilaporkan pada tanggal 5 Juni 1981, ketika Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Amerika Serikat mencatat adanya Pneumonia pneumosistis (sekarang masih diklasifikasikan sebagai PCP tetapi diketahui disebabkan oleh Pneumocystis jirovecii) pada lima laki-laki homoseksual di Los Angeles.[102] Dua spesies HIV yang diketahui menginfeksi manusia adalah HIV-1 dan HIV-2. HIV-1 lebih mematikan dan lebih mudah masuk kedalam tubuh. HIV-1 adalah sumber dari mayoritas infeksi HIV di dunia, sementara HIV-2 sulit dimasukan dan kebanyakan berada di Afrika Barat.[103] Baik HIV-1 dan HIV-2 berasal dari primata. Asal HIV-1 berasal dari simpanse Pan troglodytes troglodytes yang ditemukan di Kamerun selatan.[104] HIV-2 berasal dari Sooty Mangabey (Cercocebus atys), monyet dari Guinea Bissau, Gabon, dan Kamerun. Banyak ahli berpendapat bahwa HIV masuk ke dalam tubuh manusia akibat kontak dengan primata lainnya, contohnya selama berburu atau pemotongan daging.[105] Teori yang lebih kontroversial yang dikenal dengan nama hipotesis OPV AIDS, menyatakan bahwa epidemik AIDS dimulai pada akhir tahun 1950-an di Kongo Belgia sebagai akibat dari penelitian Hilary Koprowski terhadap vaksin polio.[106][107] Namun demikian, komunitas ilmiah umumnya berpendapat bahwa skenario tersebut tidak didukung oleh bukti-bukti yang ada.[108][109][110]

[sunting] Sosial dan budaya

[sunting] Stigma

Ryan White sebagai model poster HIV. Ia dikeluarkan dari sekolah dengan alasan terinfeksi HIV. Hukuman sosial atau stigma oleh masyarakat di berbagai belahan dunia terhadap pengidap AIDS terdapat dalam berbagai cara, antara lain tindakan-tindakan pengasingan, penolakan, diskriminasi, dan penghindaran atas orang yang diduga terinfeksi HIV; diwajibkannya uji coba HIV tanpa mendapat persetujuan terlebih dahulu atau perlindungan kerahasiaannya; dan penerapan karantina terhadap orang-orang yang terinfeksi HIV.[111] Kekerasan atau ketakutan atas kekerasan, telah mencegah banyak orang untuk melakukan tes HIV, memeriksa bagaimana hasil tes mereka, atau berusaha untuk memperoleh perawatan; sehingga mungkin mengubah suatu sakit kronis yang dapat dikendalikan menjadi "hukuman mati" dan menjadikan meluasnya penyebaran HIV.[112] Stigma AIDS lebih jauh dapat dibagi menjadi tiga kategori:

Stigma instrumental AIDS - yaitu refleksi ketakutan dan keprihatinan atas hal-hal yang berhubungan dengan penyakit mematikan dan menular.[113] Stigma simbolis AIDS - yaitu penggunaan HIV/AIDS untuk mengekspresikan sikap terhadap kelompok sosial atau gaya hidup tertentu yang dianggap berhubungan dengan penyakit tersebut.[113] Stigma kesopanan AIDS - yaitu hukuman sosial atas orang yang berhubungan dengan isu HIV/AIDS atau orang yang positif HIV.[114]

Stigma AIDS sering diekspresikan dalam satu atau lebih stigma, terutama yang berhubungan dengan homoseksualitas, biseksualitas, pelacuran, dan penggunaan narkoba melalui suntikan. Di banyak negara maju, terdapat penghubungan antara AIDS dengan homoseksualitas atau biseksualitas, yang berkorelasi dengan tingkat prasangka seksual yang lebih tinggi, misalnya sikap-sikap anti homoseksual.[115] Demikian pula terdapat anggapan adanya hubungan antara AIDS dengan hubungan seksual antar laki-laki, termasuk bila hubungan terjadi antara pasangan yang belum terinfeksi.[113]

[sunting] Dampak ekonomi

Perubahan angka harapan hidup di beberapa negara di Afrika. Botswana Zimbabwe Kenya Afrika Selatan

Uganda

HIV dan AIDS memperlambat pertumbuhan ekonomi dengan menghancurkan jumlah manusia dengan kemampuan produksi (human capital).[5] Tanpa nutrisi yang baik, fasilitas kesehatan dan obat yang ada di negara-negara berkembang, orang di negara-negara tersebut menjadi korban AIDS. Mereka tidak hanya tidak dapat bekerja, tetapi juga akan membutuhkan fasilitas kesehatan yang memadai. Ramalan bahwa hal ini akan menyebabkan runtuhnya ekonomi dan hubungan di daerah. Di daerah yang terinfeksi berat, epidemik telah meninggalkan banyak anak yatim piatu yang dirawat oleh kakek dan neneknya yang telah tua.[116] Semakin tingginya tingkat kematian (mortalitas) di suatu daerah akan menyebabkan mengecilnya populasi pekerja dan mereka yang berketerampilan. Para pekerja yang lebih sedikit ini akan didominasi anak muda, dengan pengetahuan dan pengalaman kerja yang lebih sedikit sehingga produktivitas akan berkurang. Meningkatnya cuti pekerja untuk melihat anggota keluarga yang sakit atau cuti karena sakit juga akan mengurangi produktivitas. Mortalitas yang meningkat juga akan melemahkan mekanisme produksi dan investasi sumberdaya manusia (human capital) pada masyarakat, yaitu akibat hilangnya pendapatan dan meninggalnya para orang tua. Karena AIDS menyebabkan meninggalnya banyak orang dewasa muda, ia melemahkan populasi pembayar pajak, mengurangi dana publik seperti pendidikan dan fasilitas kesehatan lain yang tidak berhubungan dengan AIDS. Ini memberikan tekanan pada keuangan negara dan memperlambat pertumbuhan ekonomi. Efek melambatnya pertumbuhan jumlah wajib pajak akan semakin terasakan bila terjadi peningkatan pengeluaran untuk penanganan orang sakit, pelatihan (untuk menggantikan pekerja yang sakit), penggantian biaya sakit, serta perawatan yatim piatu korban AIDS. Hal ini terutama mungkin sekali terjadi jika peningkatan tajam mortalitas orang dewasa menyebabkan berpindahnya tanggung-jawab dan penyalahan, dari keluarga kepada pemerintah, untuk menangani para anak yatim piatu tersebut.[116] Pada tingkat rumah tangga, AIDS menyebabkan hilangnya pendapatan dan meningkatkan pengeluaran kesehatan oleh suatu rumah tangga. Berkurangnya pendapatan menyebabkan berkurangnya pengeluaran, dan terdapat juga efek pengalihan dari pengeluaran pendidikan menuju pengeluaran kesehatan dan penguburan. Penelitian di Pantai Gading menunjukkan bahwa rumah tanggal dengan pasien HIV/AIDS mengeluarkan biaya dua kali lebih banyak untuk perawatan medis daripada untuk pengeluaran rumah tangga lainnya.[117]

[sunting] Penyangkalan atas AIDS


Sekelompok kecil aktivis, diantaranya termasuk beberapa ilmuwan yang tidak meneliti AIDS, mempertanyakan tentang adanya hubungan antara HIV dan AIDS,[118] keberadaan HIV itu sendiri,[119] serta kebenaran atas percobaan dan metode perawatan yang digunakan untuk menanganinya. Klaim mereka telah diperiksa dan secara luas ditolak oleh komunitas ilmiah,[120] walaupun terus saja disebarkan melalui internet dan sempat memiliki pengaruh politik di Afrika Selatan melalui mantan presiden Thabo Mbeki, yang menyebabkan pemerintahnya disalahkan atas respon yang tidak efektif terhadap epidemik AIDS di negara tersebut.[121][122][123]

[sunting] Referensi
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60. ^ Johnson AM & Laga M, Heterosexual transmission of HIV, AIDS, 1988, 2(suppl. 1):S49-S56; N'Galy B & Ryder RW, Epidemiology of HIV infection in Africa, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 1988, 1(6):551-558; dan Deschamps M et al., Heterosexual transmission of HIV in Haiti, Annals of Internal Medicine, 1996, 125(4):324-330. 61. ^ Cayley, W. E. Jr. (2004). "Effectiveness of condoms in reducing heterosexual transmission of HIV". Am. Fam. Physician 70 (7): 12681269. PubMed. 62. ^ Durex. Module 5/Guidelines for Educators. (Microsoft Word) Diakses pada 17 April 2006 63. ^ PATH (2006). "The female condom: significant potential for STI and pregnancy prevention". Outlook 22 (2). 64. ^ WHO. (August, 2003). Condom Facts and Figures. Diakses pada 17 Januari 2006 65. ^ Dias, S. F., Matos, M. G. and Goncalves, A. C. (2005). "Preventing HIV transmission in adolescents: an analysis of the Portuguese data from the Health Behaviour School-aged Children study and focus groups". Eur. J. Public Health 15 (3): 300304. PubMed. 66. ^ NIAID. Adult Male Circumcision Significantly Reduces Risk of Acquiring HIV: Trials Kenya and Uganda Stopped Early. Diakses pada 15 Desember 2006 67. ^ Pendekatan ABC oleh Pemerintah Amerika Serikat: Abstinence or delay of sexual activity, especially for youth (berpantang atau menunda kegiatan seksual, terutama bagi remaja), Being faithful, especially for those in committed relationships (setia pada pasangan, terutama bagi orang yang sudah memiliki pasangan), Condom use, for those who engage in risky behavior (penggunaan kondom, bagi orang yang melakukan perilaku berisiko). 68. ^ "Yayasan Bhakti Gelar Orasi Panggung", Bali Post, 2 Desember 2003, http://www.balipost.com/balipostcetak/2003/12/2/n2.htm 69. ^ Sperling, R. S., Shapirom D. E., Coombsm R. W., Todd, J. A., Herman, S. A., McSherry, G. D., O'Sullivan, M. J., Van Dyke, R. B., Jimenez, E., Rouzioux, C., Flynn, P. M., Sullivan, J. L. (1996). "Maternal viral load, zidovudine treatment, and the risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to infant". N. Engl. J. Med. 335 (22): 16211629. PubMed. 70. ^ Berry, S.. (2006-06-08). Children, HIV and AIDS. avert.org. Diakses pada 15 Juni 2006 71. ^ a b Department of Health and Human Services. (February, 2006). A Pocket Guide to Adult HIV/AIDS Treatment February 2006 edition. Diakses pada 1 September 2006 72. ^ Department of Health and Human Services. (February, 2006). A Pocket Guide to Adult HIV/AIDS Treatment February 2006 edition. Diakses pada 1 September 2006 73. ^ Department of Health and Human Services Working Group on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children. (3 November, 2005). Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection. (PDF) Diakses pada 17 Januari 2006 74. ^ Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Clinical Practices for Treatment of HIV Infection. (October 6, 2005). Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. (PDF) Diakses pada 17 Januari 2006 75. ^ Martinez-Picado, J., DePasquale, M. P., Kartsonis, N., Hanna, G. J., Wong, J., Finzi, D., Rosenberg, E., Gunthard, H. F., Sutton, L., Savara, A., Petropoulos, C. J.,

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AIDS
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation).

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)


Classification and external resources

The Red ribbon is a symbol for solidarity with HIV-positive people and those living with AIDS. ICD-10 ICD-9 DiseasesDB MedlinePlus eMedicine MeSH B24. 042 5938 000594 emerg/253 D000163

List of abbreviations used in this article AIDS: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus CD4+: CD4+ T helper cells CCR5: Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention WHO: World Health Organization PCP: Pneumocystis pneumonia TB: Tuberculosis MTCT: Mother-to-child transmission HAART: Highly active antiretroviral

therapy STI/STD: Sexually transmitted infection/disease

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).[1][2][3] This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, and breast milk.[4][5] This transmission can involve anal, vaginal or oral sex, blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic needles, exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding or other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids. AIDS is now a pandemic.[6] In 2007, it was estimated that 33.2 million people lived with the disease worldwide, and that AIDS killed an estimated 2.1 million people, including 330,000 children.[7] Over three-quarters of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa.[7] Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century.[8][9] AIDS was first recognized by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1981 and its cause, HIV, identified in the early 1980s.[10] Although treatments for AIDS and HIV can slow the course of the disease, there is currently no known cure or vaccine. Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but these drugs are expensive and routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries.[11] Due to the difficulty in treating HIV infection, preventing infection is a key aim in controlling the AIDS pandemic, with health organizations promoting safe sex and needle-exchange programmes in attempts to slow the spread of the virus.

Contents
[hide]

1 Symptoms o 1.1 Pulmonary infections o 1.2 Gastrointestinal infections o 1.3 Neurological and psychiatric involvement o 1.4 Tumors and malignancies o 1.5 Other infections 2 Cause o 2.1 Sexual transmission o 2.2 Exposure to blood-borne pathogens o 2.3 Perinatal transmission o 2.4 Misconceptions 3 Pathophysiology o 3.1 Cells affected 3.1.1 The effect

3.1.2 Molecular basis 4 Diagnosis o 4.1 WHO disease staging system o 4.2 CDC classification system o 4.3 HIV test 5 Prevention o 5.1 Sexual contact o 5.2 Exposure to infected body fluids o 5.3 Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) o 5.4 Education, health literacy and cognitive ability 6 Treatment o 6.1 Antiviral therapy o 6.2 Experimental and proposed treatments o 6.3 Complementary and alternative medicine 7 Prognosis 8 Epidemiology 9 History 10 Government reaction 11 Society and culture o 11.1 Stigma o 11.2 Economic impact o 11.3 Religion and AIDS o 11.4 AIDS denialism o 11.5 KGB disinformation 12 See also 13 Notes and references 14 Further reading 15 External links

Symptoms

Main symptoms of AIDS.

X-ray of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). There is increased white (opacity) in the lower lungs on both sides, characteristic of PCP The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of conditions that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems. Most of these conditions are infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the elements of the immune system that HIV damages. Opportunistic infections are common in people with AIDS.[12] These infections affect nearly every organ system. People with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma, cervical cancer and cancers of the immune system known as lymphomas. Additionally, people with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers, sweats (particularly at night), swollen glands, chills, weakness, and weight loss.[13][14] The specific opportunistic infections that AIDS patients develop depend in part on the prevalence of these infections in the geographic area in which the patient lives.

Pulmonary infections
Pneumocystis pneumonia (originally known as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and still abbreviated as PCP, which now stands for Pneumocystis pneumonia) is relatively rare in healthy, immunocompetent people, but common among HIV-infected individuals. It is caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii. Before the advent of effective diagnosis, treatment and routine prophylaxis in Western countries, it was a common immediate cause of death. In developing countries, it is still one of the first indications of AIDS in untested individuals, although it does not generally occur unless the CD4 count is less than 200 cells per L of blood.[15] Tuberculosis (TB) is unique among infections associated with HIV because it is transmissible to immunocompetent people via the respiratory route, is not easily treatable once identified,[16]

Multidrug resistance is a serious problem. Tuberculosis with HIV co-infection (TB/HIV) is a major world health problem according to the World Health Organization: in 2007, 456,000 deaths among incident TB cases were HIV-positive, a third of all TB deaths and nearly a quarter of the estimated 2 million HIV deaths in that year.[17] Even though its incidence has declined because of the use of directly observed therapy and other improved practices in Western countries, this is not the case in developing countries where HIV is most prevalent. In early-stage HIV infection (CD4 count >300 cells per L), TB typically presents as a pulmonary disease. In advanced HIV infection, TB often presents atypically with extrapulmonary (systemic) disease a common feature. Symptoms are usually constitutional and are not localized to one particular site, often affecting bone marrow, bone, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, liver, regional lymph nodes, and the central nervous system.[18]

Gastrointestinal infections
Esophagitis is an inflammation of the lining of the lower end of the esophagus (gullet or swallowing tube leading to the stomach). In HIV infected individuals, this is normally due to fungal (candidiasis) or viral (herpes simplex-1 or cytomegalovirus) infections. In rare cases, it could be due to mycobacteria.[19] Unexplained chronic diarrhea in HIV infection is due to many possible causes, including common bacterial (Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria or Campylobacter) and parasitic infections; and uncommon opportunistic infections such as cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and viruses,[20] astrovirus, adenovirus, rotavirus and cytomegalovirus, (the latter as a course of colitis). In some cases, diarrhea may be a side effect of several drugs used to treat HIV, or it may simply accompany HIV infection, particularly during primary HIV infection. It may also be a side effect of antibiotics used to treat bacterial causes of diarrhea (common for Clostridium difficile). In the later stages of HIV infection, diarrhea is thought to be a reflection of changes in the way the intestinal tract absorbs nutrients, and may be an important component of HIVrelated wasting.[21]

Neurological and psychiatric involvement


HIV infection may lead to a variety of neuropsychiatric sequelae, either by infection of the now susceptible nervous system by organisms, or as a direct consequence of the illness itself.[22] Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the single-celled parasite called Toxoplasma gondii; it usually infects the brain, causing toxoplasma encephalitis, but it can also infect and cause disease in the eyes and lungs.[23] Cryptococcal meningitis is an infection of the meninx (the membrane covering the brain and spinal cord) by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It can cause fevers, headache, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. Patients may also develop seizures and confusion; left untreated, it can be lethal. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease, in which the gradual destruction of the myelin sheath covering the axons of nerve cells impairs the transmission of nerve impulses. It is caused by a virus called JC virus which occurs in 70% of

the population in latent form, causing disease only when the immune system has been severely weakened, as is the case for AIDS patients. It progresses rapidly, usually causing death within months of diagnosis.[24] AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection and fueled by immune activation of HIV infected brain macrophages and microglia. These cells are productively infected by HIV and secrete neurotoxins of both host and viral origin.[25] Specific neurological impairments are manifested by cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities that occur after years of HIV infection and are associated with low CD4+ T cell levels and high plasma viral loads. Prevalence is 1020% in Western countries[26] but only 12% of HIV infections in India.[27][28] This difference is possibly due to the HIV subtype in India. AIDS related mania is sometimes seen in patients with advanced HIV illness; it presents with more irritability and cognitive impairment and less euphoria than a manic episode associated with true bipolar disorder. Unlike the latter condition, it may have a more chronic course. This syndrome is less often seen with the advent of multi-drug therapy.

Tumors and malignancies

Kaposi's sarcoma Patients with HIV infection have substantially increased incidence of several cancers. This is primarily due to co-infection with an oncogenic DNA virus, especially Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) (also known as human herpesvirus8 [HHV-8]), and human papillomavirus (HPV).[29][30] Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most common tumor in HIV-infected patients. The appearance of this tumor in young homosexual men in 1981 was one of the first signals of the AIDS epidemic. Caused by a gammaherpes virus called Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV), it often appears as purplish nodules on the skin, but can affect other organs, especially the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. High-grade B cell lymphomas such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Burkitt's-like lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and primary central nervous system lymphoma present more often in HIV-infected patients. These particular cancers often foreshadow a poor prognosis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or KSHV cause many of these lymphomas. In HIV-infected patients, lymphoma often arises in extranodal sites such as the gastrointestinal tract.[31] When they occur in an HIV-infected patient, KS and aggressive B cell lymphomas confer a diagnosis of AIDS. Invasive cervical cancer in HIV-infected women is also considered AIDS-defining. It is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV).[32]

In addition to the AIDS-defining tumors listed above, HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of certain other tumors, notably Hodgkin's disease, anal and rectal carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, head and neck cancers, and lung cancer. Some of these are causes by viruses, such as Hodgkin's disease (EBV), anal/rectal cancers (HPV), head and neck cancers (HPV), and hepatocellular carcinoma (hepatitis B or C). Other contributing factors include exposure to carcinogens (cigarette smoke for lung cancer), or living for years with subtle immune defects. Interestingly, the incidence of many common tumors, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, does not increase in HIV-infected patients. In areas where HAART is extensively used to treat AIDS, the incidence of many AIDS-related malignancies has decreased, but at the same time malignant cancers overall have become the most common cause of death of HIVinfected patients.[33] In recent years, an increasing proportion of these deaths have been from non-AIDS-defining cancers.

Other infections
AIDS patients often develop opportunistic infections that present with non-specific symptoms, especially low-grade fevers and weight loss. These include opportunistic infection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and cytomegalovirus (CMV). CMV can cause colitis, as described above, and CMV retinitis can cause blindness. Penicilliosis due to Penicillium marneffei is now the third most common opportunistic infection (after extrapulmonary tuberculosis and cryptococcosis) in HIV-positive individuals within the endemic area of Southeast Asia.[34] An infection that often goes unrecognized in AIDS patients is Parvovirus B19. Its main consequence is anemia, which is difficult to distinguish from the effects of antiretroviral drugs used to treat AIDS itself.[35]

Cause
For more details on this topic, see HIV.

Scanning electron micrograph of HIV-1, colored green, budding from a cultured lymphocyte.

A generalized graph of the relationship between HIV copies (viral load) and CD4 counts over the average course of untreated HIV infection; any particular individual's disease course may vary considerably. CD4+ T Lymphocyte count (cells/mm) HIV RNA copies per mL of
plasma

AIDS is the most severe acceleration of infection with HIV. HIV is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital organs of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells (a subset of T cells), macrophages and dendritic cells. It directly and indirectly destroys CD4+ T cells.[36] Once HIV has killed so many CD4+ T cells that there are fewer than 200 of these cells per microliter (L) of blood, cellular immunity is lost. Acute HIV infection progresses over time to clinical latent HIV infection and then to early symptomatic HIV infection and later to AIDS, which is identified either on the basis of the amount of CD4+ T cells remaining in the blood, and/or the presence of certain infections, as noted above.[37] In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the median time of progression from HIV infection to AIDS is nine to ten years, and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months.[38] However, the rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals, from two weeks up to 20 years. Many factors affect the rate of progression. These include factors that influence the body's ability to defend against HIV such as the infected person's general immune function.[39][40] Older people have weaker immune systems, and therefore have a greater risk of rapid disease progression than younger people. Poor access to health care and the existence of coexisting infections such as tuberculosis also may predispose people to faster disease progression.[38][41][42] The infected person's genetic inheritance plays an important role and some people are resistant to certain strains of HIV. An example of this is people with the homozygous CCR5-32 variation are resistant to infection with certain strains of HIV.[43] HIV is genetically variable and exists as different strains, which cause different rates of clinical disease progression.[44][45][46]

Sexual transmission
Sexual transmission occurs with the contact between sexual secretions of one person with the rectal, genital or oral mucous membranes of another. Unprotected sexual acts are riskier for the receptive partner than for the insertive partner, and the risk for transmitting HIV through unprotected anal intercourse is greater than the risk from vaginal intercourse or oral sex. However, oral sex is not entirely safe, as HIV can be transmitted through both insertive and receptive oral sex.[47][48] Sexual assault greatly increases the risk of HIV transmission as condoms are rarely employed and physical trauma to the vagina or rectum occurs frequently, facilitating the transmission of HIV.[49] Other sexually transmitted infections (STI) increase the risk of HIV transmission and infection, because they cause the disruption of the normal epithelial barrier by genital ulceration and/or microulceration; and by accumulation of pools of HIV-susceptible or HIVinfected cells (lymphocytes and macrophages) in semen and vaginal secretions. Epidemiological studies from sub-Saharan Africa, Europe and North America suggest that

genital ulcers, such as those caused by syphilis and/or chancroid, increase the risk of becoming infected with HIV by about fourfold. There is also a significant although lesser increase in risk from STIs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis, which all cause local accumulations of lymphocytes and macrophages.[50] Transmission of HIV depends on the infectiousness of the index case and the susceptibility of the uninfected partner. Infectivity seems to vary during the course of illness and is not constant between individuals. An undetectable plasma viral load does not necessarily indicate a low viral load in the seminal liquid or genital secretions. However, each 10-fold increase in the level of HIV in the blood is associated with an 81% increased rate of HIV transmission.[50][51] Women are more susceptible to HIV-1 infection due to hormonal changes, vaginal microbial ecology and physiology, and a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases.[52][53] People who have been infected with one strain of HIV can still be infected later on in their lives by other, more virulent strains. Infection is unlikely in a single encounter. High rates of infection have been linked to a pattern of overlapping long-term sexual relationships. This allows the virus to quickly spread to multiple partners who in turn infect their partners. A pattern of serial monogamy or occasional casual encounters is associated with lower rates of infection.[54] HIV spreads readily through heterosexual sex in Africa, but less so elsewhere. One possibility being researched is that schistosomiasis, which affects up to 50% of women in parts of Africa, damages the lining of the vagina.[55][56]

Exposure to blood-borne pathogens

CDC poster from 1989 highlighting the threat of AIDS associated with drug use

This transmission route is particularly relevant to intravenous drug users, hemophiliacs and recipients of blood transfusions and blood products. Sharing and reusing syringes contaminated with HIV-infected blood represents a major risk for infection with HIV. Needle sharing is the cause of one third of all new HIV-infections in North America, China, and Eastern Europe. The risk of being infected with HIV from a single prick with a needle that has been used on an HIV-infected person is thought to be about 1 in 150 (see table above). Post-exposure prophylaxis with anti-HIV drugs can further reduce this risk.[57] This route can also affect people who give and receive tattoos and piercings. Universal precautions are frequently not followed in both sub-Saharan Africa and much of Asia because of both a shortage of supplies and inadequate training. The WHO estimates that approximately 2.5% of all HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa are transmitted through unsafe healthcare injections.[58] Because of this, the United Nations General Assembly has urged the nations of the world to implement precautions to prevent HIV transmission by health workers.[59] The risk of transmitting HIV to blood transfusion recipients is extremely low in developed countries where improved donor selection and HIV screening is performed. However, according to the WHO, the overwhelming majority of the world's population does not have access to safe blood and between 5% and 10% of the world's HIV infections come from transfusion of infected blood and blood products.[60]

Perinatal transmission
The transmission of the virus from the mother to the child can occur in utero during the last weeks of pregnancy and at childbirth. In the absence of treatment, the transmission rate between a mother and her child during pregnancy, labor and delivery is 25%. However, when the mother takes antiretroviral therapy and gives birth by caesarean section, the rate of transmission is just 1%.[61] The risk of infection is influenced by the viral load of the mother at birth, with the higher the viral load, the higher the risk. Breastfeeding also increases the risk of transmission by about 4 %.[62]

Misconceptions
Main article: HIV and AIDS misconceptions A number of misconceptions have arisen surrounding HIV/AIDS. Three of the most common are that AIDS can spread through casual contact, that sexual intercourse with a virgin will cure AIDS, and that HIV can infect only homosexual men and drug users. Other misconceptions are that any act of anal intercourse between gay men can lead to AIDS infection, and that open discussion of homosexuality and HIV in schools will lead to increased rates of homosexuality and AIDS.[63][64]

Pathophysiology

This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Please improve this section if you can. (April 2008) The pathophysiology of AIDS is complex, as is the case with all syndromes.[65] Ultimately, HIV causes AIDS by depleting CD4+ T helper lymphocytes. This weakens the immune system and allows opportunistic infections. T lymphocytes are essential to the immune response and without them, the body cannot fight infections or kill cancerous cells. The mechanism of CD4+ T cell depletion differs in the acute and chronic phases.[66] During the acute phase, HIV-induced cell lysis and killing of infected cells by cytotoxic T cells accounts for CD4+ T cell depletion, although apoptosis may also be a factor. During the chronic phase, the consequences of generalized immune activation coupled with the gradual loss of the ability of the immune system to generate new T cells appear to account for the slow decline in CD4+ T cell numbers. Although the symptoms of immune deficiency characteristic of AIDS do not appear for years after a person is infected, the bulk of CD4+ T cell loss occurs during the first weeks of infection, especially in the intestinal mucosa, which harbors the majority of the lymphocytes found in the body.[67] The reason for the preferential loss of mucosal CD4+ T cells is that a majority of mucosal CD4+ T cells express the CCR5 coreceptor, whereas a small fraction of CD4+ T cells in the bloodstream do so.[68] HIV seeks out and destroys CCR5 expressing CD4+ cells during acute infection. A vigorous immune response eventually controls the infection and initiates the clinically latent phase. However, CD4+ T cells in mucosal tissues remain depleted throughout the infection, although enough remain to initially ward off life-threatening infections. Continuous HIV replication results in a state of generalized immune activation persisting throughout the chronic phase.[69] Immune activation, which is reflected by the increased activation state of immune cells and release of proinflammatory cytokines, results from the activity of several HIV gene products and the immune response to ongoing HIV replication. Another cause is the breakdown of the immune surveillance system of the mucosal barrier caused by the depletion of mucosal CD4+ T cells during the acute phase of disease.[70] This results in the systemic exposure of the immune system to microbial components of the guts normal flora, which in a healthy person is kept in check by the mucosal immune system. The activation and proliferation of T cells that results from immune activation provides fresh targets for HIV infection. However, direct killing by HIV alone cannot account for the observed depletion of CD4+ T cells since only 0.010.10% of CD4+ T cells in the blood are infected. A major cause of CD4+ T cell loss appears to result from their heightened susceptibility to apoptosis when the immune system remains activated. Although new T cells are continuously produced by the thymus to replace the ones lost, the regenerative capacity of the thymus is slowly destroyed by direct infection of its thymocytes by HIV. Eventually, the minimal number of CD4+ T cells necessary to maintain a sufficient immune response is lost, leading to AIDS

Cells affected

The virus, entering through which ever route, acts primarily on the following cells:[71]

Lymphoreticular system: o CD4+ T-Helper cells o Macrophages o Monocytes o B-lymphocytes Certain endothelial cells Central nervous system: o Microglia of the nervous system o Astrocytes o Oligodendrocytes o Neurones indirectly by the action of cytokines and the gp-120

The effect The virus has cytopathic effects but how it does it is still not quite clear. It can remain inactive in these cells for long periods, though. This effect is hypothesized to be due to the CD4-gp120 interaction.[71]

The most prominent effect of HIV is its T-helper cell suppression and lysis. The cell is simply killed off or deranged to the point of being function-less (they do not respond to foreign antigens). The infected B-cells can not produce enough antibodies either. Thus the immune system collapses leading to the familiar AIDS complications, like infections and neoplasms (vide supra). Infection of the cells of the CNS cause acute aseptic meningitis, subacute encephalitis, vacuolar myelopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Later it leads to even AIDS dementia complex. The CD4-gp120 interaction (see above) is also permissive to other viruses like Cytomegalovirus, Hepatitis virus, Herpes simplex virus, etc. These viruses lead to further cell damage i.e. cytopathy.

Molecular basis For details, see:


Structure and genome of HIV HIV replication cycle HIV tropism

Diagnosis
The diagnosis of AIDS in a person infected with HIV is based on the presence of certain signs or symptoms. Since June 5, 1981, many definitions have been developed for epidemiological surveillance such as the Bangui definition and the 1994 expanded World Health Organization AIDS case definition. However, clinical staging of patients was not an intended use for these systems as they are neither sensitive, nor specific. In developing countries, the World Health Organization staging system for HIV infection and disease, using

clinical and laboratory data, is used and in developed countries, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Classification System is used.

WHO disease staging system


Main article: WHO Disease Staging System for HIV Infection and Disease In 1990, the World Health Organization (WHO) grouped these infections and conditions together by introducing a staging system for patients infected with HIV-1.[72] An update took place in September 2005. Most of these conditions are opportunistic infections that are easily treatable in healthy people.

Stage I: HIV infection is asymptomatic and not categorized as AIDS Stage II: includes minor mucocutaneous manifestations and recurrent upper respiratory tract infections Stage III: includes unexplained chronic diarrhea for longer than a month, severe bacterial infections and pulmonary tuberculosis Stage IV: includes toxoplasmosis of the brain, candidiasis of the esophagus, trachea, bronchi or lungs and Kaposi's sarcoma; these diseases are indicators of AIDS.

CDC classification system


Main article: CDC Classification System for HIV Infection There are two main definitions for AIDS, both produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The older definition is to referring to AIDS using the diseases that were associated with it, for example, lymphadenopathy, the disease after which the discoverers of HIV originally named the virus.[73][74] In 1993, the CDC expanded their definition of AIDS to include all HIV positive people with a CD4+ T cell count below 200 per L of blood or 14% of all lymphocytes.[75] The majority of new AIDS cases in developed countries use either this definition or the pre-1993 CDC definition. The AIDS diagnosis still stands even if, after treatment, the CD4+ T cell count rises to above 200 per L of blood or other AIDS-defining illnesses are cured.

HIV test
Main article: HIV test Many people are unaware that they are infected with HIV.[76] Less than 1% of the sexually active urban population in Africa has been tested, and this proportion is even lower in rural populations. Furthermore, only 0.5% of pregnant women attending urban health facilities are counseled, tested or receive their test results. Again, this proportion is even lower in rural health facilities.[76] Therefore, donor blood and blood products used in medicine and medical research are screened for HIV. HIV tests are usually performed on venous blood. Many laboratories use fourth generation screening tests which detect anti-HIV antibody (IgG and IgM) and the HIV p24 antigen. The detection of HIV antibody or antigen in a patient previously known to be negative is evidence of HIV infection. Individuals whose first specimen indicates evidence of HIV infection will have a repeat test on a second blood sample to confirm the results.

The window period (the time between initial infection and the development of detectable antibodies against the infection) can vary since it can take 36 months to seroconvert and to test positive. Detection of the virus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during the window period is possible, and evidence suggests that an infection may often be detected earlier than when using a fourth generation EIA screening test. Positive results obtained by PCR are confirmed by antibody tests.[77] Routinely used HIV tests for infection in neonates and infants (i.e., patients younger than 2 years),[78] born to HIV-positive mothers, have no value because of the presence of maternal antibody to HIV in the child's blood. HIV infection can only be diagnosed by PCR, testing for HIV pro-viral DNA in the children's lymphocytes.[79]

Prevention
Estimated per act risk for acquisition of HIV by exposure route (US only) [80] Exposure Route Blood Transfusion Childbirth (to child) Needle-sharing injection drug use Percutaneous needle stick Receptive anal intercourse* Insertive anal intercourse* Estimated infections per 10,000 exposures to an infected source 9,000[81] 2,500[61] 67[82] 30[83] 50[84][85] 6.5[84][85]

Receptive penile-vaginal intercourse* 10[84][85][86] Insertive penile-vaginal intercourse* 5[84][85] Receptive oral intercourse* Insertive oral intercourse*
*

1[85] 0.5[85]

assuming no condom use source refers to oral intercourse performed on a man

The three main transmission routes of HIV are sexual contact, exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to fetus or child during perinatal period. It is possible to find HIV in the saliva, tears, and urine of infected individuals, but there are no recorded cases of infection by these secretions, and the risk of infection is negligible.[87]

Sexual contact
The majority of HIV infections are acquired through unprotected sexual relations between partners, one of whom has HIV. The primary mode of HIV infection worldwide is through sexual contact between members of the opposite sex.[88][89][90] During a sexual act, only male or female condoms can reduce the risk of infection with HIV and other STDs. The best evidence to date indicates that typical condom use reduces the risk of heterosexual HIV transmission by approximately 80% over the long-term, though the benefit is likely to be higher if condoms are used correctly on every occasion.[91]

The male latex condom, if used correctly without oil-based lubricants, is the single most effective available technology to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Manufacturers recommend that oil-based lubricants such as petroleum jelly, butter, and lard not be used with latex condoms, because they dissolve the latex, making the condoms porous. If lubrication is desired, manufacturers recommend using water-based lubricants. Oil-based lubricants can be used with polyurethane condoms.[92] Female condoms are commonly made from polyurethane, but are also made from nitrile and latex. They are larger than male condoms and have a stiffened ring-shaped opening with an inner ring designed to be inserted into the vagina keeping the condom in place; inserting the female condom requires squeezing this ring. Female condoms have been shown to be an important HIV prevention strategy by preliminary studies which suggest that overall protected sexual acts increase relative to unprotected sexual acts where female condoms are available.[93] At present, availability of female condoms is very low and the price remains prohibitive for many women. Studies on couples where one partner is infected show that with consistent condom use, HIV infection rates for the uninfected partner are below 1% per year.[94] Prevention strategies are well-known in developed countries, but epidemiological and behavioral studies in Europe and North America suggest that a substantial minority of young people continue to engage in high-risk practices despite HIV/AIDS knowledge, underestimating their own risk of becoming infected with HIV.[95][96] Randomized controlled trials have shown that male circumcision lowers the risk of HIV infection among heterosexual men by up to 60%.[97] It is expected that this procedure will be actively promoted in many of the countries affected by HIV, although doing so will involve confronting a number of practical, cultural and attitudinal issues. However, programs to encourage condom use, including providing them free to those in poverty, are estimated to be 95 times more cost effective than circumcision at reducing the rate of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.[98] Some experts fear that a lower perception of vulnerability among circumcised men may result in more sexual risk-taking behavior, thus negating its preventive effects.[99] However, one randomized controlled trial indicated that adult male circumcision was not associated with increased HIV risk behavior.[100] Studies of HIV infection rates among women who have undergone female genital cutting (FGC) have reported mixed results; for details see Female genital cutting#HIV. A three-year study in South Africa, completed in 2010, found that an anti-microbial vaginal gel could reduce infection rates among women by 50% after one year of use, and by 39% after two and a half years. The results of the study, which was conducted by the Centre for the Aids Programme of Research in South Africa (Caprisa), were published in Science magazine in July 2010, and were then presented at an international aids conference in Vienna.[101]

Exposure to infected body fluids


Health care workers can reduce exposure to HIV by employing precautions to reduce the risk of exposure to contaminated blood. These precautions include barriers such as gloves, masks,

protective eyeware or shields, and gowns or aprons which prevent exposure of the skin or mucous membranes to blood borne pathogens. Frequent and thorough washing of the skin immediately after being contaminated with blood or other bodily fluids can reduce the chance of infection. Finally, sharp objects like needles, scalpels and glass, are carefully disposed of to prevent needlestick injuries with contaminated items.[102] Since intravenous drug use is an important factor in HIV transmission in developed countries, harm reduction strategies such as needle-exchange programmes are used in attempts to reduce the infections caused by drug abuse.[103][104]

Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT)


Current recommendations state that when replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe, HIV-infected mothers should avoid breast-feeding their infant. However, if this is not the case, exclusive breast-feeding is recommended during the first months of life and discontinued as soon as possible.[105] It should be noted that women can breastfeed children who are not their own; see wet nurse.

Education, health literacy and cognitive ability


The most important way to change risky behavior is health education. Several studies have shown the positive impact of education and health literacy on cautious sex behavior. Education itself does not work, only if it leads to higher health literacy and general cognitive ability. This ability is relevant to understand the relationship between own risky behavior and possible outcomes like HIV-transmission.[106] In July 2010, a UNAIDS Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on Education commissioned literature review found there was a need for more research into non-African (especially non-South African contexts), more research on the actual implementation of sex-education programmes (such as teacher training, access to related services through schools and the community, or parental attitudes to HIV and AIDS education) and more longitudinal studies on the deeper complexities of the relationship between education and HIV[107].

Treatment
See also HIV Treatment and Antiretroviral drug. There is currently no publicly available vaccine for HIV or cure for HIV or AIDS. The only known methods of prevention are based on avoiding exposure to the virus or, failing that, an antiretroviral treatment directly after a highly significant exposure, called post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP).[108] PEP has a very demanding four week schedule of dosage. It also has very unpleasant side effects including diarrhea, malaise, nausea and fatigue.[109]

Antiviral therapy

Abacavir a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI or NRTI)

The chemical structure of Abacavir Current treatment for HIV infection consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART.[110] This has been highly beneficial to many HIV-infected individuals since its introduction in 1996 when the protease inhibitor-based HAART initially became available.[11] Current optimal HAART options consist of combinations (or "cocktails") consisting of at least three drugs belonging to at least two types, or "classes," of antiretroviral agents. Typical regimens consist of two nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NARTIs or NRTIs) plus either a protease inhibitor or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Because HIV disease progression in children is more rapid than in adults, and laboratory parameters are less predictive of risk for disease progression, particularly for young infants, treatment recommendations are more aggressive for children than for adults.[111] In developed countries where HAART is available, doctors assess the viral load, CD4 counts, rapidity of CD4 decline and patient readiness while deciding when to recommend initiating treatment.[112] Traditionally, treatment has been recommended for otherwise asymptomatic patients when CD4 cell counts fall to 200-250 cells per microliter of blood. However, beginning treatment earlier (at a CD4 level of 350 cells/microliter) may significantly reduce the risk of death.[113] Standard goals of HAART include improvement in the patients quality of life, reduction in complications, and reduction of HIV viremia below the limit of detection, but it does not cure the patient of HIV nor does it prevent the return, once treatment is stopped, of high blood

levels of HIV, often HAART resistant.[114][115] Moreover, it would take more than the lifetime of an individual to be cleared of HIV infection using HAART.[116] Despite this, many HIV-infected individuals have experienced remarkable improvements in their general health and quality of life, which has led to the plummeting of HIV-associated morbidity and mortality.[117][118][119] In the absence of HAART, progression from HIV infection to AIDS occurs at a median of between nine to ten years and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months.[38] HAART is thought to increase survival time by between 4 and 12 years.[120][121] For some patients, which can be more than fifty percent of patients, HAART achieves far less than optimal results, due to medication intolerance/side effects, prior ineffective antiretroviral therapy and infection with a drug-resistant strain of HIV. Non-adherence and non-persistence with therapy are the major reasons why some people do not benefit from HAART.[122] The reasons for non-adherence and non-persistence are varied. Major psychosocial issues include poor access to medical care, inadequate social supports, psychiatric disease and drug abuse. HAART regimens can also be complex and thus hard to follow, with large numbers of pills taken frequently.[123][124][125] Side effects can also deter people from persisting with HAART, these include lipodystrophy, dyslipidaemia, diarrhoea, insulin resistance, an increase in cardiovascular risks and birth defects.[126] Anti-retroviral drugs are expensive, and the majority of the world's infected individuals do not have access to medications and treatments for HIV and AIDS.

Experimental and proposed treatments


It has been postulated that only a vaccine can halt the pandemic because a vaccine would possibly cost less, thus being affordable for developing countries, and would not require daily treatments. However, even after almost 30 years of research, HIV-1 remains a difficult target for a vaccine.[127] Research to improve current treatments includes decreasing side effects of current drugs, further simplifying drug regimens to improve adherence, and determining the best sequence of regimens to manage drug resistance. A number of studies have shown that measures to prevent opportunistic infections can be beneficial when treating patients with HIV infection or AIDS. Vaccination against hepatitis A and B is advised for patients who are not infected with these viruses and are at risk of becoming infected.[128] Patients with substantial immunosuppression are also advised to receive prophylactic therapy for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP), and many patients may benefit from prophylactic therapy for toxoplasmosis and Cryptococcus meningitis as well.[109] Researchers have discovered an abzyme that can destroy the protein gp120 CD4 binding site. This protein is common to all HIV variants as it is the attachment point for B lymphocytes and subsequent compromising of the immune system.[129] Reactivation of the retrocyclin pseudogene has been proposed as a possible prevention method, as was demonstrated in a proof-of-concept study in tissue culture cells.[130] In Berlin, Germany, a 42-year-old leukemia patient infected with HIV for more than a decade was given an experimental transplant of bone marrow with cells that contained an unusual

natural variant of the CCR5 cell-surface receptor. This CCR5-32 variant has been shown to make some cells from people who are born with it resistant to infection with some strains of HIV. Almost two years after the transplant, and even after the patient reportedly stopped taking antiretroviral medications, HIV has not been detected in the patient's blood.[131]

Complementary and alternative medicine

Percentage of US population using CAM for all reasons in 2002[132] In the US, approximately 60% of HIV patients use various forms of complementary or alternative medicine (CAM).[133] Despite the widespread use of CAM by people living with HIV/AIDS, the effectiveness of these therapies has not been established.[134] A 2005 Cochrane review of existing high-quality scientific evidence concluded: "There is insufficient evidence to support the use of herbal medicines in HIV-infected individuals and AIDS patients."[135] Acupuncture has only been proposed for symptomatic relief, but not to treat or cure HIV or AIDS.[136] Vitamin or mineral supplementation has shown benefit in some studies. Daily doses of selenium can suppress HIV viral burden with an associated improvement of the CD4 count. Selenium can be used as an adjunct therapy to standard antiviral treatments, but cannot itself reduce mortality and morbidity.[137] There is some evidence that vitamin A supplementation in children reduces mortality and improves growth.[138] A large Tanzanian trial in immunologically and nutritionally compromised pregnant and lactating women showed a number of benefits to daily multivitamin supplementation for both mothers and children.[138] Dietary intake of micronutrients at RDA levels by HIV-infected adults is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO).[139] The WHO further states that several studies indicate that supplementation of vitamin A, zinc, and iron can produce adverse effects in HIV positive adults.[139]

Prognosis
Without treatment, the net median survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype,[7] and the median survival rate after diagnosis of AIDS in resource-limited settings where treatment is not available ranges between 6 and 19 months, depending on the study.[140] In areas where it is widely available, the development of HAART as effective therapy for HIV infection and AIDS reduced the death rate from this disease by 80%, and raised the life expectancy for a newly diagnosed HIV-infected person to about 20 years.[141] As new treatments continue to be developed and because HIV continues to evolve resistance to treatments, estimates of survival time are likely to continue to change. Without

antiretroviral therapy, death normally occurs within a year.[38] Most patients die from opportunistic infections or malignancies associated with the progressive failure of the immune system.[142] The rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals and has been shown to be affected by many factors such as host susceptibility and immune function[39][40][43] health care and co-infections,[38][142] as well as which particular strain of the virus is involved.[45][143][144] Even with anti-retroviral treatment, over the long term HIV-infected patients may experience neurocognitive disorders, osteoporosis, neuropathy, cancers, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease. It is not always clear whether these conditions result from the infection, related complications, or are side effects of treatment.[145][146][136][29][30][147][126][148] The largest cause of AIDS morbidity today, globally, is tuberculosis co-infection, see AIDS#Pulmonary_infections. In Africa, HIV is the single most important factor contributing to the increase in the incidence of TB since 1990.[149]

Epidemiology
Main article: AIDS pandemic This article may need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information, and remove this template when finished. Please see the talk page for more information. (December 2009)

Estimated prevalence of HIV among young adults (1549) per country at the end of 2005.

Estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS by country

Disability-adjusted life year for HIV and AIDS per 100,000 inhabitants.
no data 10 5000 5000-7500 10-25 25-50 50-100 100-500 500-1000 7500-10000 10000-50000 50000 1000-2500 2500-

The AIDS pandemic can also be seen as several epidemics of separate subtypes; the major factors in its spread are sexual transmission and vertical transmission from mother to child at birth and through breast milk.[6] Despite recent, improved access to antiretroviral treatment and care in many regions of the world, the AIDS pandemic claimed an estimated 2.1 million (range 1.92.4 million) lives in 2007 of which an estimated 330,000 were children under 15 years.[7] Globally, an estimated 33.2 million people lived with HIV in 2007, including 2.5 million children. An estimated 2.5 million (range 1.84.1 million) people were newly infected in 2007, including 420,000 children.[7] Sub-Saharan Africa remains by far the worst affected region. In 2007 it contained an estimated 68% of all people living with AIDS and 76% of all AIDS deaths, with 1.7 million new infections bringing the number of people living with HIV to 22.5 million, and with 11.4 million AIDS orphans living in the region. Unlike other regions, most people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa in 2007 (61%) were women. Adult prevalence in 2007 was an estimated 5.0%, and AIDS continued to be the single largest cause of mortality in this region.[7] South Africa has the largest population of HIV patients in the world, followed by Nigeria and India.[150] South & South East Asia are second worst affected; in 2007 this region contained an estimated 18% of all people living with AIDS, and an estimated 300,000 deaths from AIDS.[7] India has an estimated 2.5 million infections and an estimated adult prevalence of 0.36%.[7] Life expectancy has fallen dramatically in the worst-affected countries; for example, in 2006 it was estimated that it had dropped from 65 to 35 years in Botswana.[6] In the United States, young African-American women are also at unusually high risk for HIV infection.[151] African Americans make up 10% of the population but about half of the HIV/AIDS cases nationwide.[152] This is due in part to a lack of information about AIDS and a perception that they are not vulnerable, as well as to limited access to health-care resources and a higher likelihood of sexual contact with at-risk male sexual partners.[153] There are also geographic disparities in AIDS prevalence in the United States, where it is most common in rural areas and in the southern states, particularly in the Appalachian and Mississippi Delta regions and along the border with Mexico.[154] Approximately 1.1 million persons are living with HIV/AIDS in the United States, and more than 56,000 new infections occur every single year.[155]

History
Main article: Origin of AIDS AIDS was first reported June 5, 1981, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recorded a cluster of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (now still classified as PCP but known to be caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii) in five homosexual men in Los Angeles.[156] In the beginning, the CDC did not have an official name for the disease, often referring to it by way of the diseases that were associated with it, for example, lymphadenopathy, the disease after which the discoverers of HIV originally named the virus.[73][74] They also used Kaposi's

Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections, the name by which a task force had been set up in 1981.[157] In the general press, the term GRID, which stood for Gay-related immune deficiency, had been coined.[158] The CDC, in search of a name, and looking at the infected communities coined the 4H disease, as it seemed to single out Haitians, homosexuals, hemophiliacs, and heroin users.[159] However, after determining that AIDS was not isolated to the homosexual community,[157] the term GRID became misleading and AIDS was introduced at a meeting in July 1982.[160] By September 1982 the CDC started using the name AIDS, and properly defined the illness.[161] The earliest known positive identification of the HIV virus comes from the Congo in 1959 and 1960 though genetic studies indicate that it passed into the human population from chimpanzees around fifty years earlier.[9] A recent study states that HIV probably moved from Africa to Haiti and then entered the United States around 1969.[162] A more controversial theory known as the OPV AIDS hypothesis suggests that the AIDS epidemic was inadvertently started in the late 1950s in the Belgian Congo by Hilary Koprowski's research into a poliomyelitis vaccine.[163][164] According to scientific consensus, this scenario is not supported by the available evidence.[165][166][167]

Government reaction
In 2010, former US President Bill Clinton said that countries receiving aid to combat the epidemic should redirect funding to local organizations who could spend it most effectively and efficiently. He said In too many countries too much money goes to pay for too many people to go to too many meetings, get on too many airplanes.
[168]

Society and culture


Stigma

Ryan White became a poster child for HIV after being expelled from school because of his infection. AIDS stigma exists around the world in a variety of ways, including ostracism, rejection, discrimination and avoidance of HIV infected people; compulsory HIV testing without prior consent or protection of confidentiality; violence against HIV infected individuals or people who are perceived to be infected with HIV; and the quarantine of HIV infected individuals.[169] Stigma-related violence or the fear of violence prevents many people from seeking HIV testing, returning for their results, or securing treatment, possibly turning what could be a manageable chronic illness into a death sentence and perpetuating the spread of HIV.[170] AIDS stigma has been further divided into the following three categories:

Instrumental AIDS stigmaa reflection of the fear and apprehension that are likely to be associated with any deadly and transmissible illness.[171] Symbolic AIDS stigmathe use of HIV/AIDS to express attitudes toward the social groups or lifestyles perceived to be associated with the disease.[171] Courtesy AIDS stigmastigmatization of people connected to the issue of HIV/AIDS or HIV- positive people.[172]

Often, AIDS stigma is expressed in conjunction with one or more other stigmas, particularly those associated with homosexuality, bisexuality, promiscuity, prostitution, and intravenous drug use. In many developed countries, there is an association between AIDS and homosexuality or bisexuality, and this association is correlated with higher levels of sexual prejudice such as anti-homosexual attitudes.[173] There is also a perceived association between AIDS and all male-male sexual behavior, including sex between uninfected men.[171]

Economic impact
Main article: Economic impact of AIDS

Changes in life expectancy in some hard-hit African countries. Botswana Zimbabwe Kenya

South Africa

Uganda

HIV and AIDS affects economic growth by reducing the availability of human capital.[174] Without proper nutrition, health care and medicine that is available in developed countries, large numbers of people suffer and die from AIDS-related complications. They will not only be unable to work, but will also require significant medical care. The forecast is that this will

probably cause a collapse of economies and societies in countries with a significant AIDS population. In some heavily infected areas, the epidemic has left behind many orphans cared for by elderly grandparents.[175] The increased mortality has results in a smaller skilled population and labor force. This smaller labor force consists of increasingly younger people, with reduced knowledge and work experience leading to reduced productivity. An increase in workers time off to look after sick family members or for sick leave lowers productivity. Increased mortality reduces the mechanisms that generate human capital and investment in people, through loss of income and the death of parents. By affecting mainly young adults, AIDS reduces the taxable population, in turn reducing the resources available for public expenditures such as education and health services not related to AIDS resulting in increasing pressure for the state's finances and slower growth of the economy. This results in a slower growth of the tax base, an effect that is reinforced if there are growing expenditures on treating the sick, training (to replace sick workers), sick pay and caring for AIDS orphans. This is especially true if the sharp increase in adult mortality shifts the responsibility and blame from the family to the government in caring for these orphans.[175] On the level of the household, AIDS results in both the loss of income and increased spending on healthcare by the household. The income effects of this lead to spending reduction as well as a substitution effect away from education and towards healthcare and funeral spending. A study in Cte d'Ivoire showed that households with an HIV/AIDS patient spent twice as much on medical expenses as other households.[176]

Religion and AIDS


Main article: Religion and AIDS The topic of religion and AIDS has become highly controversial in the past twenty years, primarily because many prominent religious leaders have publicly declared their opposition to the use of condoms, which scientists feel is currently the only means of stopping the epidemic. Other issues involve religious participation in global health care services and collaboration with secular organizations such as UNAIDS and the World Health Organization.

AIDS denialism
Main article: AIDS denialism A small number of activists question the connection between HIV and AIDS,[177] the existence of HIV,[178] or the validity of current treatment methods (even going so far as to claim that the drug therapy itself was the cause of AIDS deaths). Though these claims have been examined and thoroughly rejected by the scientific community,[179] they continue to be promulgated through the Internet[180] and have had a significant political impact. In South Africa, former President Thabo Mbeki's embrace of AIDS denialism resulted in an ineffective governmental response to the AIDS epidemic that has been blamed for hundreds of thousands of AIDS-related deaths.[181][182]

KGB disinformation

Main article: Operation INFEKTION Operation INFEKTION was a worldwide Soviet active measures operation to spread information that the United States had created HIV/AIDS. Surveys show that a significant number of people believed - and continue to believe - in such claims.[183]

See also

AIDS vaccine Discovery and development of CCR5 receptor antagonists FightAIDS@Home HIV HIV/AIDS Bureau (in the US)

Notes and references


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178. ^ Papadopulos-Eleopulos E, Turner VF, Papadimitriou J, et al. (2004). "A critique of the Montagnier evidence for the HIV/AIDS hypothesis". Med Hypotheses 63 (4): 597601. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2004.03.025. PMID 15325002. 179. ^ For evidence of the scientific consensus that HIV is the cause of AIDS, see (for example): o "The Evidence That HIV Causes AIDS". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 2003. http://www.niaid.nih.gov/Factsheets/evidhiv.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-20. o , (2000). "The Durban Declaration". Nature 406 (6791): 156. doi:10.1038/35017662. PMID 10894520. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v406/n6791/full/406015a0.html. Retrieved 2008-05-03. o Cohen J (1994). "The Duesberg Phenomenon: A Berkeley virologist and his supporters continue to argue that HIV is not the cause of AIDS. A 3-month investigation by Science evaluates their claims." (PDF). Science 266 (5191): 16421649. http://www.sciencemag.org/feature/data/cohen/266-51911642a.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-31. o "HIV/AIDS Connection: Resource and links". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/topics/HIVAIDS/Understanding/connectionResour ces.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-31. o O'Brien SJ, Goedert JJ (1996). "HIV causes AIDS: Koch's postulates fulfilled". Curr. Opin. Immunol. 8 (5): 6138. doi:10.1016/S0952-7915(96)80075-6. PMID 8902385. o Gala P, Chermann JC (1998). "HIV as the cause of AIDS and associated diseases". Genetica 104 (2): 13342. doi:10.1023/A:1003432603348. PMID 10220906. 180. ^ Smith TC, Novella SP (2007). "HIV denial in the Internet era". PLoS Med. 4 (8): e256. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040256. PMID 17713982. 181. ^ Chigwedere P, Seage GR, Gruskin S, Lee TH, Essex M (October 2008). "Estimating the Lost Benefits of Antiretroviral Drug Use in South Africa". Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 49: 410. doi:10.1097/QAI.0b013e31818a6cd5. PMID 18931626. Lay summary. 182. ^ Baleta A (2003). "S Africa's AIDS activists accuse government of murder". Lancet 361 (9363): 1105. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12909-1. PMID 12672319. 183. ^ Operation INFEKTION - Soviet Bloc Intelligence and Its AIDS Disinformation Campaign. Thomas Boghardt. 2009

Further reading

Lengauer, Thomas; Andr Altmann, Alexander Thielen, Rolf Kaiser (2010). "Chasing the AIDS virus". Communications of the ACM 53 (3): 66. doi:10.1145/1666420.1666440. ISSN 00010782. "2007 AIDS epidemic update" (PDF). UNAIDS. http://data.unaids.org/pub/EPISlides/2007/2007_epiupdate_en.pdf. Retrieved 200803-21. "UNAIDS Annual Report Making the money work" (PDF). UNAIDS. http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2007/2006_unaids_annual_report_en.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-21.

"Financial Resources Required to Achieve, Universal Access to HIV Prevention, Treatment Care and Support" (PDF). UNAIDS. http://data.unaids.org/pub/Report/2007/20070925_advocacy_grne2_en.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-21. "Practical Guidelines for Intensifying HIV Prevention" (PDF). UNAIDS. http://data.unaids.org/pub/Manual/2007/20070306_prevention_guidelines_towards_u niversal_access_en.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-21. "Antiretroviral Formulations" (PDF). US Department of Health and Human Services. http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/AntiretroviralFormulations_FS_en.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-21. "Approved Medications to Treat HIV Infection" (PDF). US Department of Health and Human Services. http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/ApprovedMedstoTreatHIV_FS_en.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-21. "The HIV Life Cycle" (PDF). US Department of Health and Human Services. http://aidsinfo.nih.gov/contentfiles/HIVLifeCycle_FS_en.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-21.

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