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What teachers should know and be able to do?

1. Teachers are committed to students and their learning.

2. Teachers should know the subjects they teach and should know how to teach these subjects.

3. Teachers are responsible in managing ang monitoring students learning.

4. Teachers think systematically and learn from experience.

5. Teachers are members of learning communities. PHILISOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION (QUESTIONNAIRE) 1. Enumerate 5 philosophy of education Perrenialism, Essentialism, Progressivism, Social Reconstructionism, Existensialism 2. Define perrenialism. Perrenialism is the philosophy of education which aims the students to acquire the great ideas of western civilization. These great ideas have potential solutuions to problems in any era. These ideas are everlasting, constant and not changing. 3. Define Essentialism Essentialism is the philosophy of education which focused on the transmission of common core knowledge systematically and in disciplined way. The perspective of this philosophy is intellectual and moral standard. The curriculum is centered on essential knowledge and skills and academic rigor. Student are taught to become hardworking, discipline, and respectful to others. 4. Define progressivism. Progressivism is the philosophy of learning which gives more emphasis on the students as a whole rather than the content or the teacher. This philosophy believes testing of knowledge must be obserserve through hexerimentation. Learning is active and rooted from the questions of students arise from experiencing the world. Students are problem thinkers and solvers of the activities given by their teachers so that they discover on their own the solution thus they learn by doing. 5. Define social reconstructionism.

Social reconstructionism is the philiophy of education addressing to social questions and a quest to create a better society. In this philosophy, students are trained to respond to social issues, reform, and problems such as crime and violence, sickness and hunger, economy and inflation and inequalities among the members of the society. 6. Define existensialism Existensilaism is the ohilosophy of education emphasizing that subject matter helps the students to realize and appreciate themselves as unique individual\ls through personal development (body, mind and spirit) who accept the responsibility of his own thoughts, beliefs, and actions. 7. Describe the aim of education in each philosophy of education Perrenialism: To educate the rational and to cultivate the intellect Essentialism: To promote intellectual growth and to educate competent person Progressivism: To promote democratic and social living Social Reconstructionism: To improve and reconstruct society education for change 8. Describe the role of education in each philosophy of education Perenialism: Teachers help students think with reasons. Essentialism: Teacher is the sole authority of his or her subject or field of specialization Progressivism: Knowledge leads to growth and development of lifelong learners who actively learn by doing Social Reconstructionism: Teachers serve as agents of change and reform in various educational projects including research 9. Describe the focus of curriculum in each philosophy of education Perrenialism: Classical subjects, Literary analysis, curriculum is constant Essentialism: Essential knowledge of 3Rs, Essential skills of subjects such as math, science, religion, history, English and foreign language Progressivism: Subjects are interdisciplinary, integrative and interactive. Curriculum focus is based on students interest, human affairs and problems 10. How should schools teach the contents of each philosophy of education? Perrenialism and Essentalism Teacher centered strategy, more on direct instruction, lecturing and disseminating information Progressivism and Social Reconstructionism Student-centered strategy, students activities involve analyzing, discovering, designing, constructing, developing, PHYSCOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION 1. What are the different psychological factors that affects students learning? Consciousness, Reflex, Drives, need, wants and urges, Capabilities and special aptitudes, temperament or emotion, growth and development 2. How does each psychological factor affect students learning? Consciousness: Consciousness of facts and phenomena of experiences are based on the operation of our nervous system particularly our brain thus definitely influencing students learning.

Reflex: Good reflex can contribute greatly to the development of skills which require muscle movements since reflex is the stimulation of a particular muscle and other parts of our body. Drives, needs, want, and urges This psychological factors, when satisfied, can provide ambitions to a person that motivates him to perform better in achieving higher learning goals as well as personal goals in life. Capabilities and Special Aptitude: Capabilities and special aptitude refers to the latent potentialities an individual possesses. It affects learning in such a way that greater capabilities and good aptitudes tends a student to learn more efficient, effectively and faster than those students exhibits low capabilities and aptitudes. Temperament or Emotion Temperament or emotion refers to emotional pre-disposition of a person. It affects learning in a way that any change in emotion tends to change the behavior or the degree focus in learning. Students who exhibit positive emotions tends to learn effectively than those students with disoriented emotion which negatively affects the learning process. Growth and Development Growth and development refers to the progressive change of human attributes such as physical, emotional and mental aspects. Learning is a continuous process that depends directly upon growth and development. SOCIOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION

1. How does society influence school? Since the intitial stages of human relations begins within the society other than school, the society dictates curriculum contents the school should implement for further development of individuals and therefore of human relations. In addition, educators and administrators who are also members of the society and therefore thay may gain insights throuogh their experience of the kind of curriculum suited for the need of the society. 2. Name some of the problems of the school that are addressed by the society. a) Curriculum is not enough to meet the challenges of a more competitive and modern world b) Insufficient number of school facilities and equipment that can be used to enhance the students learning c) Quality and proficient teachers d) Lack of mathematics and science in the curriculum In other countries they invest on these subjects bacuse they believe that these subjects will serve as the backbone of economic growth. 3. As an entity in the society, the schools were developed to perform different functions. What are they? Expalin. a) Structural function Focuses in the ways to enhance operations and stability of the society b) Socialization

As the society becomes technologically advance, social institution must go beyond the family to make each member a functioning adult. Social enculturation and cultural norms are being taught at all levels. Socialization involves cultural innovation, social integration and social places. 4. As an individual or a member of a group in the society, how will you evaluate a school? In terms of - the appropriateness and consistency of aims, mission and goals and curriculum of the school - number of quality graduates added to the workforce of the society - number of sufficient school facilities, stuctures and equipments. - quality and proficient teachers - rising cost of education 5. The church is a component of the society. What are the educative roles of the church in the society? Explain how each role is conducted. 6. What learning can an individual get from the church? 1. Explain events and situation beyond comprehension 2. Provides comfort in times stress and anxiety 3. Set guidelines for human behavior and furnish a sense of common purpose to each member of the society 4. Reflect close and intimate relationship between human and supernatural and other aspects of nature 5. Reinforce cultural values and beliefs ANTHROPOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF EDUCATION 1. What is a culture and how is it being characterized? Culture is the sum total of what man has learned in living together which includes knowledge, skills, values, arts, laws, religion, language and writing, tradition and habits. Culture is characterized as static or dynamics, stable or unstable and material or non-material 2. Identify the functions of culture in the development of a society. 1. Treasury of knowledge 2. Defines situation and provides solution to complicated situation 3. Decides our career 4. Provide behavior pattern and personality 5. Keeps the relationship intact 6. Creates new needs 3. Enumerate components of culture. 1. Language and writing 2. Religion 3. Geography 4. Arts 5. Values 4. How language and writing influence education?

Language and writing refers to the learned behavior by which people used to communicate with others. It influence education since language and writing serve as mediums for instruction. For this reason, the study of these two important cultural comonents is incorporated to school curriculum for the purpose of enhancing usage of these vital components of education. The more language and writing as person know the more educated he is and the easier he can deal with other people in different social institutions. 5. How religion influences education? Religion influences education in a way that it influences human behavior. The study of religion is incorporated to education to ensure that students will behave properly and according to the currilim and existing policies of the school. School should emphasize the importance for a person to choose a religion and follow and apply all of its teachings to oeself, family, and to the world. 6. How arts influence education? Arts is the product of human creativity and since education promotes creativity among students, subject related to arts such as architecture, crafting, fine arts, music and acting are necessary in the curriculum 7. How geography influences education? Since geography refers to the distribution of all elements on the earths surface it influences education by being conscious enough about the existence of relationship between human and nature including both physical and cultural features. Geography becomes a major study in educational system since it is considered as a vital component from which we build structures and facilities that conveys learning. 8. How values influence education? Values refer to the principles and standards followed and reserved by man from generation to generation. It has a great impact to education since it set guidelines for human conduct and furnish a sense of common manners to each member of the society. LEARNING THEORIES 1. What is learning? Learning is the acquisition of experience or influence either cognitively, emotionally and environmentally that results to change and enhancement of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and views of our existence. 2. What are the 3 categories of learning theory? Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Humanism 3. What is behaviourism? Behaviorism focuses on the objectively observable aspects of learning. 4. What is cognitivism? Cognitivism looks beyond the behavior and investigate and explain brain-based learning.

5. What is humanism? Humanism views actions as a consequence of nature, experience and ones motive 6. Enumerate Learning under behaviourism 1. Attribution theory is a motivational theory looking on how an average person constructs meaning to an event based on his motives and to find a cause and knowledge of his environment. 2. Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov is a technique used in behavorial training in which a naturally occurring stimulus is paired with a response. Next, a neutral stimulus is paired with the naturally occurring stimulus, Eventually, the neutral stimulus evokes the response in absence of the naturally occurring response. These two components are called conditioned stimulus and conditioned response 3. Operant conditioning by BF Skinner is a motivational theory suggesting that learning process occurs through rewards and punishment 4. Reinforcement theory (BF Skinner) based on the law of effect, states that a behavior with positive consequence tends to be repeated while behavior with negative consequence tends not to be repeated. 5. Contiguity learning theory 6. Social learning theory 7. Maslows hierarchy of needs suggests that increasing categorization of needs can affect human behavior and development. The categorization of needs are enumerated as follows: Physiological needs (food, breathing, water, excreation, sex, and homeostasis) Safety (security of home, employment, resources) Love and Belongingness (friendship and intimate relationship) Esteem (self-esteem, self-confidence, respect to others, respect by others) Self-actualization (acceptance of facts) 7. Enumerate learning theories under cognitivism 1. Elaboration theory states that instruction should be arranged in increasing order of complexity for optimal learning. 2. Cognitive dissonance theory states that a powerful motive to maintain cognitive cinsistency can give rise to an irrational and sometimes maladaptive behavior. 3. Multiple Intelligence theory states that human intelligence comes from several independent forms. 1. Linguistic 2. Logical mathematical 3. Musical 4. Spatial visual 5. Bodily kinaesthetic 6. Interpersonal 7. Intrapersonal 8. Naturalist 4. Information Processing Theory a cognitive theory states that human brain is functioning in the resemblance of computer processing unit in which it following a sequence of information treatment: INPUT, PROCESS, OUTPUT. It also suggests a model of human brain encompasses three vital components: sensory register, shortterm memory and longterm memory 5. Learning styles theory

8. Enumerate learning theories under humanism 1. Anchored intstruction theory is a theory which require the students to participate on the context of problem-based story. The students play an authentic role while investigating the problem or situation, identifying the gaps of their knowledge, researching for information leading to possible solutions, and constructing solution 2. Adult learning theory is the application of anchored theory for adults. 3. Facilitation theory states that a person has the eagerness to learn through experiencing the world. Learning takes place directly from students own effort of discovering things guided by teacher serving as facilitator of learning. 4. Experiential learning involves learning through direct experience such as workshops, educational field trips, nature expedition, museum trips and cultural immersion 5. Constructivit learning theory 6. Differentiated instruction states that instruction should vary in relation to students capability to learn and special aptitudes in a varied classroom 7. Gagnes condition of learning states that learning is cumulative. Learning is a mechanism by which people use to become functioning members of the society and that learning results to different behavior. Gagne proposed several categories of learning: Verbal information, Motor skills, Intellectual skills, cognitive strategies and attitudes 15. Enumerate Gagne 9 events of instruction 1. Gaining attention 2. Stating the objectives 3. Stimulating recall of prior knowledge 4. Presenting stimulating materials 5. provide guidance to students 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide feedback 8. Assessing performance 9. Enhance transfer and retention 14. Explain Gagne condition of learning Education in the Philippines At present, educational system of the Philippines is patterned after the American system with English as the mdium of instruction. Schools are categorized as public (gove) and private (non). Formal education follows several stages: Pre-primary education (NKP), 6 years primary education, 4 years secondary education, 4 -8 years college education, 2 or more years of graduate schooling. KTO12 is a revised educational system of the Philipines which covers Kindergarten, and 12 years basic education (6 years primary education, 4 years junior high shcoll education, 2 years senior higg school education) for the purpose of providing sufficient time for mastery of essential knowledge and skills,

producing lifelong learners and to prepare graduate for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment and entrepreneurship. Timeline of events of education in the Philippines Pre-spanish prerod The educational system during the pre-spanish period is unstructured and informal. The fathers teach their sons to look for food and to do other means of livelihood. The mothers teach their daugthers to do household chores. Spanish period The educational system during Spanish peried is structured and formal. Religious congregation established primary a\up to tertialry level of education focusing on catholic doctrines. However, education was not accessible to all Filipinos. Only those wealthy Filipinos or illustrasdos were accommodated by schools. American Period Americans brought many change in education during ther 45 years of reign in our country. Education became accessible to many Filipinos through the implemntaion of free public shooling. Education promotes nationalism as the students were taught the lives of our national heroes . They also stablishpractical vocational and livelihood programs. Limitation of Science There are three primary areas for which science cant help us to the question which required testable ansers. Since testability is a vital step in scientific method, these questions are not in the venue of science. The three limitation of science are: 1. Science canot anser questions about value. For example, Which of these two flowers is prettier? Which has more value a gram of copper or a gram of gold. 2. Science cannot answer questions of moral. Science cannot answer which of these are good or bad, right or wrong. 3. Science cannot answer question about supernatural. The toolbox of science contains on on observable characteristic s of nature. Science cant be used the existence of supernatural (God) Pre-Historic Period refers to the history of human existence before the availability of written material to which recorded history begins. (Stone age, Bronze age and iron age) Ancient Period The use of tools, effective mangament of workers and in absence of time pressure, the society builds productive farms and thriying cities. Middle Ages and Renaissance

Reanisasnce was a cultural movement that affect European intellectual way of living during the middle ages. It influence literature, science, religion philosophy arts and other intellectual inquiry] Scientific revolution refers to the history of science during the early moderion period. The ideas of science and mathematic transformed the view of the society and the nature. Age of Enlightenment Age of enlightenment was a vultural movement in 18 th century Europe and American colonies. The purpose was to reconstruct the society through advance understanding in cience which oppest su, inotlllearance and abuses of churc and state Age of Invention Time of Extremes Technological Age 21st Century Assessment is the method of evaluating students achievement or attainment. Purpose of Assessment - to monitor students learning progress - to determine students strengths and weaknesses - to evaluate teach effectiveness - to clarify instructional intensions - to help evaluation of teachers Authentic assessment is a form of assessment in which students are required to perform real-world learning activities that will demonstrate their essential knowledge and skill and in-depth understanding about the subject. Comparison betwee traditional and authentic assessment Traditional assessment Select response Contrived Teacher-structured Recall/REcognition Indirect evidence Authentic assessment Perform task Real-life Student-structured Application/Construction Direct evidence

Example of authentic assessment doing science experiment conducting social science research writing stories and reports reading and interpreting literature solving mathematical problems with real-life application

Other names of assessment Performance assessment Alternative assessment Direct assessment 5 Forms of Authentic assessment Performance assessment doing a week-long science experiment and analyzing the results Writing, revising and presenting a report Preparation and implementation of teamwork of classroom debate Short investigation Students are asked to investigate, explain, and predict a phenomenon Students create concept map to determine their understanding about the association between concepts Open-response question Oral or written answer to the question given by teachers Interpretation of graphs and diagrams Portfolio Journal writing or reviews Students notes and outline Group report Individual report Draft and polished writings Compilation of experiments Compilation of problem sets Self-assessment - Which part of the topic you find most difficult? - What changes you will do if you are given a chance modify your work or project? Dynamic Teaching is a guide to effective group management techniques and to modern Socratic method. It is a process which uses students life experiences and contexts guided by teachers to learn and understand deeply the information being taught. It is based on 3 fundamental principles: 1. People mostly learn by relating the information to prior knowledge. 2. Anything you describe in detail while examining it more closely, you discover more and more about it. 3. You get more of what you reinforce. Comparison between Traditional and Dynamic Teaching Topic Structure of instruction Philosophy of Education Classroom Traditional Teaching Teacher-centered Perrenialism and Essentialism Students are matched by age. Dynamic Teaching Student-centered Progressivism and Reconstructionism Multi-age classroom


Teaching method

Student-teacher relationship

Social aspects

Assessment Aim


Direct instruction, lecturing and Facilitator on learning activities disseminating information such Hands-on activities, studentled discoveries, group activities, educational trips Teacher is the sole authority of the Students are actively coordinate subject. with one another as well as collaboration with teachers. No attempt to enhance social Attempt to improve social development development and interpersonal skills Traditional assessment selected- Authentic assessment response test To promote intellectual growth To produce lifelong learners and to improve and reconstruct the society Individual and independent Subjects are interdisciplinary, subjects integrative and interactive

2. Pillars of Learning Learning of know which involves the development of essential knowledge and skills that are used to function in the world. Learning to do which involves the acquisition of skills usually links to occuoationa success such as computer training, managerial training, and apprenticeship. Learning to live together which involves the development of social capabilities, interpersonal skills and cultural diversity. Learning to be which involves activities that will foster personal development (body, mind, and spirit) of studnets and contribute to appreciate themselves as unique individuals who accept the full responsibility of their own though, beliefs and views of their existence. 3. Key Players of Dynamic Teaching - learners - teachers - learning environment 4. 7 principles for good teacher - integrate conceptual understanding to teaching approaches - identify key steps for the learning goals - help the students to reach their learning goals and to meet the challenges as prescribe in the course outline - set reasonable expectation to students learning - communicate with students and know their intellectual growth - use several and appropriate teaching strategies - reflect observe and improve teaching practices 5. Learner Psychological Principle (more on cognitive and metacognitive factors) - nature of learning the learning process - goal of the learning process

- strategic thinking - contextual thinking - thinking about thinking Physical climate Sufficient workplace area, equipment and facilities, ventilated classroom, proper value of student-teacher ratio Psychological climate

Affective approach of learning Microteaching is a form of teaching in which a teacher practices teaching in a reduced number of students in reduce period of time with the emphasis of a narrow and specific teaching skill. Teaching skills Classroom management Introducing new lesson Stating objeectives Using teaching aids Use to blackboard Presenting lesson Giving assignment Question delivery Accomodating students response Promoting students participation Diagnosing students learning and taking remedial measures Explaining
1. Procedure in preparing a classroom test 1. know the purpose of the test 2. know the skills, values and attitudes to be measured 3. review the content covered in test 4. prepare TOS 5. review if the items match the objectives 6. consider time allotted for the test 7. consider the discrimination index 8. consider the difficulty level 9. announce to student the materials needed for the test 10. analyze scoring and grading system 2. Types of Selected Response Assessment True or false Multiple choice Matching type Short-answer question 3. Characteristics of SR test - types of objective: conceptual understanding, skills - time of preparation: depends on the quality of question - no. of students: large group

- scoring time: short - scoring method: answer key - possible problem: cannot measure in-depth understanding - possible values: large group can accommodate quickly, socring is objective, can cover a wide variety of topics 4. Short Answer Short answer is a supply-response test to measure what students already know. 5. Guidelines in Short Answer - word the statement consisely and precisely - ensure a single correct or defined number of correct reponse - do not give clues - ask for specific question 6. Multiple Choice Multiple choice is a statement or question followed by 4 to 5 options from which the student select the best answer based on his judgement. 7. Anatomy of Multiple Choice Type Question Stem, altermative 8. Guidelines in making MC - word the stem and alternative precisely and avoid difficult vocabulary - include much of the item in the stem but do not include ireelevant information - keep the alternative homogeneous in contents, mutuall exclusive, and free from clues - layout the items in organized and consistent arrangement - avoid alternative nota, aota - make the correct laternatives in approximately equal no of times and in random order. - item analyze the test after each etst administration - state the stem in positive form - ensure one correct answer Type of objective: 9. Matching Type Matching type is a form of selected response test which required the student to match the information from two separate columns. 10. Guidelines in Matching type 11. True or False True or false item is a statement which has to be identified as correct or incorrect 12. Guidelines in TF

- word the item clear and cosicely - arrange the true and false answers in random or der - ensure that there is only one answer - write the statement with false answer for miscons and true for the correct statement - avod the ternms shoul, always, none - include many question to reduce the impact of guessing the answer Types of objective:

Conceptual understanding, skills Prep. Time: Depends on the quality of item Socring time: Short No of pupils: Large Socring method: Answer key Psoible problem: Cannot measure in-depth under Value: can be administered to a large group of students qickly, socring is objective, a w Item analysis refers to the specific method to evaluate a test for the purpose of test revision or conturction To improve the quality of item m and to know unfair or buased item Disc Dewey Description Planninng Implement Cheking Reifs Analyzing the problem Construcintg the solution Chacking Bloomx taxonomy is refers to the six levels of thinking in ascending mental activities Knowledge Comprehention Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Remembering Understanding Application Analysis Evaluation Creating

Exam Questions 1. Design a model of contemporary conceptual learning and current dynamic learning. 2. Give teaching strategy and explain how learning takes place. Give instructional materials to support this strategy and what are the roles of teacher and students in this strategy. Gallery walk Gallery walk is a cooperative teaching strategy in which the teacher devises several questions and posts each question to a different table or a different place on the wall. Students form groups as many as there 3. Item Analysis - Difficulty level - discrimination index - reliability and validity (is objective test a valid test? Is a valid test reliable? Is a reliable test valid?

4. Is it recommended to use alternative assessment in national level of assessment?

5. Is it recommended to incorporate affective assessment other than cognitive assessment in science and mathematics subjects?

Gallery walk is a cooperative learning strategy in which an instructor devises several questions/problems and posts each question/prob;em to a different table or a different place on the wall (hence the naeme gallery). Students form as many groups as there are questions and each group moves from questions to questions . After writing the groups response to the first question, the group rotates to the next position, adding to what is already there. At the last question, it is the groups responsibility ot summaruzes their responses and report to the calss. An objective test is a valid test if it measures a construct completely and accurately. The completeness of validity of an objective test depends on several forms of test validity: concurrent validity, content validity and predictive validity. Concurrent validity A test would have concurrent validity if the test result has a high positive correlation with previously validated test measuring the same construct Content Validity A test would have content validity if the test measures every aspects of the construct. This validity is based on experts judgement of the contents of the test. Predictive validity A test would have predictive validity is the test results able to predict future performance of the same construct.

A valid test is not always a reliable test especially when the test was administered for the first time. The completeness of reliability of a test depends upon several measurement of reliability as follows: Test-retest reliability A test would have test-retest reliability if the scores from the 1st test administration are almost the same with the socres from the 2nd administration. Parallel-forms reliability A test would have parallel-form reliability if the test result exhibits high positive correlation with a parallel-form of test. Inter-rate reliability A test would have inter-rater reliability if the test results from two or more observers are positively correlated to each other. Alternative assessment in national level of assessment is not going to be feasible since it can be laborious in terms of time and energy. For example, the diverse products of portfolio, which is viewed as important strength of alternative assessment, can lead problems for the teachers in terms of practicality. It would be hard and time consuming for teachers to evaluate all the products of the portfolio. Unlike in multiple choice assessments, just like in board exam, which are practical to score through automated checking machines, alternative assessment are viewed quite time consuming to grade. In addition, scoring is most likely subjective rather than objective in traditional assessment which can lead to technical issues of validity and reliability. Even if it can measure in-depth understanding, with the presence of time pressures and large number of population, I viewed alternative assessment applicable only on classroom situation but not on the national level. 5. Is it recommended to incorporate affective assessment other than cognitive assessment in science and mathematics subjects? It is recommended to incorporate affective assessment along with cognitive assessment in science and mathematics subjects. It is common language to students, especially to those low achievers, that science and mathematics are boring and nose-bleed subjects. There must be some reason why they perceive these impressions that cognitive assessment cant measure. Using affective assessment the teacher can access students interest, values, attitude and disposition about the subject. The result of such assessment can be used to gain insights on the possible solutions to bridge the gaps of their interests and knowledge on these subjects. Technology advancement in our society tends to change the traditional teaching approach to a modern approach of teaching and learning practices. Teachers as well as students are becoming more technology aware, updated and oriented. With these qualities of the key players of education, multimedia instruction can be utilized to enhance transfer and retention of knowledge and skills in a more enjoyable and effective way of teaching and learning. On the other hand, learning activities and traditional assessment such as seatwork, assignment, homework, problem set and quizzes are subjected to different forms of malpractices by students. For example, in doing take home problem set, students who exhibit lack of interest toward the subject tend to just copy the accomplished work of their

classmates or peers. This in turn can give rise to inaccurate, inconsistent and unfair evaluation of students and the discrimination between low and high achievers will be affected. To minimize these negative effects, assessment with individualized learning activities can be applied. Statement of the problem