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Cell Physiology When asked what is a cell?

An individual can actually answer immediately that it is the smallest unit of living thing. It carries the very essence of being a living thing, the D A and how it works to be a living organism. !ut what is actually a cell? Although this has been taught many times, it is good to take note of the basic terms and definitions that revolves within the cell and its "arts. In a human body, there are #$ to %$$ trillion cells a""ro&imately. It e&ists as an active thing in order to su""ort life of the organism as a whole. 'et(s first take note that what will be discussed in the following "aragra"hs will be "arts of a cell in a normal condition. Cancer cells will discuss e&tensively on a different to"ic. Protoplasm In general, "roto"lasm includes the "rotein material, carbohydrate material, li"id, nucleic acids and inorganic substances which make a cell to be considered a living entity. Water com"rised almost )*+ of the "roto"lasm due to its "ro"erty to hold things together and make things "rocess "ro"erly. In a "ro"er way, the am"hi"athic "ro"erty of water contributes a lot to the overall functioning of the cell. Nine processes in Cell Physiology %. Irritability , Cells has the ability to res"ond to stimulus. -. Conductivity , Cells, es"ecially in nerve cells, they have the ca"acity to transmit information from the outer environment through stimuli and send it to another "oint. .. Contractility , Cells have the ability to change the sha"e when a stimulus is elicited. /uscle cells are the "erfect e&am"le. 0. Absor"tion , Cells have the ca"acity to acce"t materials freely or selectively in order to maintain the "ro"er functioning of each cell. *. /etabolism , Cells have the ca"acity to utili1e the materials being taken inside the cell membrane and use it to "roduce Adenosine 2ri"hos"hate 3A2P4. 5. 6ecretion , 6ome cells may have the ca"ability to release substances which can be "rotective in nature. ). 7&cretion , 6ince cells have the ca"acity to metaboli1e substances, there are residues from this "rocess in which the e&cretory system of the cells takes care of. Parts of the Cell and Its 8unction , 7ssence of Cell Physiology

A fundamental knowledge of "arts of the cell will enable an individual to deduce cellular abrasions easily and will easily a""rehend the im"act of each defect on a "articular cellular "art. /embranous 9rganelles Cell /embrane Descri"tion It is also called "lasmalemma. It has an electron:lucent layer which measures between ..* , 0.$ nm. 8unction %. It "ermeable to certain substances only. -. It involves in cell: to:cell communication. .. It can be hormone rece"tors. 0. It generates messenger molecules. ;ough endo"lasmic reticulum < =ranular endo"lasmic reticulum etwork of continuous irregular channels with surrounding ribosomes. It has cisternae, which are flattened saccules as a result of "arallel formation of the membranes. 2hese are also network of continuous channels with the absence of cisternae. It is found in cells that secrete steroid hormones. %. 2he "lace where in secretory "roteins are synthesi1ed. -. 'ysosomal en1ymes are synthesi1ed.

6mooth endo"lasmic reticulum < Agranular endo"lasmic reticulum

%. It secretes steroid hormones. -. Plays a great role in muscle contraction, as it kee"s and release Calcium ions in order to "ro"agate such contraction.

.. It synthesi1es membrane "hos"oli"ids, cholesterol, ceramide and glycogen.

=olgi Com"le&< =olgi a""aratus

6everal flattened saccules that has the ability to form glyco"roteins.

%. It is "rimarily the "lace wherein the "ackaging and sorting of the glyco"roteins and li"o"roteins are done in "re"aration for its delivery to other "arts of the cell. %. /ainly becomes the energy source of the cell. -. It also "lays a role in formation of steroids.

/itochondria

Coined to be the "owerhouse of the cell.

'ysosomes

2hough it measures $.- to $.** micormeters It has more than *$ en1ymes within it.

%. 6cavenges the waste materials of the cell. -. During the intracellular digestion, those that can be reused for cellular activity may diffuse

again into the cyto"lasm, while those that are not needed may take the form of residual bodies contained in vacuoles. Pero&isomes A membrane:bound organelle that is larger than lysosomes. It has nucleoids and 0$ other en1ymes which are uni>ue only to its structure. It is involved it cell locomotion or structure of the cell which makes it distinct from other cells. It can generate hydrogen "ero&ide which distinctively inhibits the accumulation of free radicals and its o&idation on the cell. Intermediate filaments , "rovide structure and su""ort on a cell and serves as a ?oining channel for other cells. /icrotubules , im"ortant in cell division and movement of the cell. It takes the form of cilia, flagella and centrioles. /icrofilaments , it has a role in the locomotion of the cell too. @owever, it has a distinct "ur"ose in enabling certain

Cytoskeleton 3microtubules, intermediate filaments and microfilaments4

"arts of the cell to contract. 6tabili1ation of the "lasmalemma is also in debt for these structures.