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5. 6. 7.

8.

A. F. Vakulenko, "Unitary regularization in the many-particle scattering problem," Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 249, No. 4, 825-828 (1979). L. D. Faddeev, "The inverse p~oblem in the quantum theory of scattering. II," in: Current Problems in Mathematics [in Russian], Vol. 3, Moscow (1974), pp. 93-180. L. D. Faddeev, "On a model of Freidrichs in the theory of perturbations of the continuous spectrum," Tr. Mat. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 73, 292-313 (1964). N. Dunford and J. T. Schwartz, Linear Operators, Part III: Spectral Operators, Wiley-Interscience, New York (1971). B. S. Pavlov and S. V. Petras, "On the singular spectrum of a weakly perturbed multiplication operator," Funkts. Anal. Prilozhen., ~, No. 2, 54-61 (1970).

A THEOREM ON THE MARKOV PERIODIC APPROXIMATION IN ERGODIC THEORY A. M. Vershik UDC 517.4

One presents a new variant of the theory of periodic approximations systems and C*-algebras, namely the

of dynamical

Lebesgue space of a Markov tower (or adic model) of periodic automorphisms. gives several examples.

i.

Introduction

In [i] we have outlined the proof of the theorm on the simultaneous uniform approxima2 tion of the multiplication and shift operators in the space of L-functions on a dynamical system with an invariant measure; more exactly: let i] with an invariant Lebesgue measure and let >0 there exist operators in L 2 , I I ~g U (~ ~ and S be an automorphism of the segment [0, for each ,

IIM~ - V ~ here Us

is a multiplier,

This problem has been solved in [2] and has been formulated earlier by the author in [3, 4] and by Rieffel [5]. The above formulated theorem has applications in operator theory, in the of dynamical systems and in ~ -algebras; it can be considered as a

theory of approximations

(see [4]).

The proof of the theorem is divided into two stages. the theory of periodic approximations

(Theorem 3 in [i]), namely the construction of the (see below) and is considered in this paper. -algebras and will be considered elsewhere. The

Markov towers of periodic automorphisms second stage refers to the theory of The approximations ~

in the theory of dynamical systems, as in the theory of equations, or the moment method (projective In

subspaces

of functions or on a collection of sets and in the second case we investigate the behavior Translated from Zapiski Nauchnykh Seminarov Leningradskogo Otdeleniya Matematicheskogo Instituta im. V. A. Steklova AN SSSR, Vol. 115, pp. 72-82, 1982.

0090-4104/85/2805- 0667509.50

667

second type; we approximate an automorphism by periodic automorphisms whose trajectories are included in the trajectories of the initial one, i.e., we approximate random permutation. This variant is related to the author's paper the automorphism of a

automorphism and makes use of a modification of the construction of a consistent periodic automorphisms, introduced here consists periods with respect tion; in return, found there (the lemma of Sec. 3 in [6]).

differs from the approximated automorphism only at one point of its layer and, as a function on the quotient space relative to the trajectories of a periodic automorphism with values in the (variable) group of permutations, is measurable relative to some additional partition term of the approximation (see below). Such

in the approxima-

Thus we arrive at the concept of a Markov tower or adic autoThe construction of these models or In

morphism model, whose existence is proved in this paper. approximations in concrete cases is a complex problem;

We recall that the existence of a periodic automorphism, sense of the theory of measure) lemma;

approximating uniformly

the given one, is the content of the classical Rokhlin--Halmos consistent in some sense, the

has been considered in different ways in a series of investigations survey in [8]. [7]) and the projective approximation

(multivalued;

in close connec-

so fruitfully investigated

Markov Compactum and Adic Transformation In the sequel, for each automorphism of the Lebesgue space we construct a tower of But first we define an appropriate model space and its transform, (i..e, to establish an isomorphism) towers. ~ , ~=i~... M~ =(~J~) ; let %~-i ~ an arbitrary pair; in other

periodic automorphisms.

be a sequence of Z +

has dimension

. ~ = i,...

We shall assume that none of these matrices has zero rows or columns. ~=0~{ ~=0 and the number of elements is I~I=~ ~[ ~I) whose vertices are partitioned into finite , ~0 ; the arcs of the j of the

graph join only vertices of adjacent levels and the number of arcs joining vertex ( ~i ~-i )-st level with vertex , + =O,i~.'. ~ of the r level is equal to ~K

, K=~,...,%~, j=l, .... each vertex is joined ~ 6~0. ) of the pre~_~ and

at least with one vertex of the next level and (except for the vertex vious level. By a path in the graph we mean a sequence of arcs

(~o,~,'.')

, where

668

have a common vertex from the the paths of the graph ~([

~ - t h level,

~=i,~,....

Let

~(P)

M ~I~=~)

of a path is the collection of all paths coinciding with the given one up to some places; obviously, ~([~) is a compactum). By a Markov compactum with parameters ). If ~---- 9 and ~-_- M ~ , then [~,

M~ ~ i=i,...,J we

compactum

mean

the Markov

is said to be stationary. In topological dynamics one considers frequently stationary Markov compacta and their two-sided shifts. another kind. We shall consider arbitrary Markov compacta and their transformations of ~ ) ~ and of the measures on them, in , will be considered elsewhere; -algebras constructed over the

dependence on the asymptotic behavior of the matrices they are related, graph ~ , in particular,

to the properties of A F

as over the Bratteli diagram [i0]. to the case when the elements of ~ consist of zeros and ones.

We restrict ourselved

In this case the graph does not have multiple arcs and a path is a succession of vertices; this assumption does not diminish at all the generality since by introducing new vertices one can get rid of multiplicities. In this case the Markov compactum acquires a usual description: ~ ~ , consisting of all sequences [~I for

@

We give a direct description of the structure of a Markov compactum. Proposition I. with a distinguished lowing properties:

O0

Every Markov compactum is a totally disconnected separable compactum X sequence of finite partitions ~ ~ ~lJ , possessing the fol-

l) V

2) for each K>~i and any set ~ of the partition element ~ the correspondence

defines a homeomorphism

'

Here

i.e., the partition consisting of all pos6 is the partitioning into isolated points. ~ such that ~(~ ~ ~(9) , where ~/~ denotes the

sible intersections of the multiplied partitions; Condition i) means that for ~(~ is the element of ~ ~ ~ ~ there exists ~ .

containing

In condition 2) the s ~ b o l

with respect to the partitioning and the meaning of the condition is ~,~6~, then there exists ~ ~/~ by ~ for which for ~ the projection onto is the same as for

~<~

~ and onto ~

conversely,

denoting by

the partitioning of

~ -th level, we can see that the conditions of the proposition holds.

~ ~

for some ~ ; a

~=~

transformation leaving

invariant and

.9 ~

fixed is K -cylindrical.

Each E -

cylindrical invertible transformation of a Markov compactum is a periodic transformation whose trajectories lie on the elements of the partition T ~ . By a transformation of class

we mean a homeomorphism

for which there exists a nowhere dense closed invariant set T is a ~-cylindrical (peri-

such that, in the complement of any of its open neighborhood, odic) transformation, where ~ depends on the neighborhood. (periodic)

gence on any closed set lying in the complement of some nowhere dense set. An example of a transformation of class restrict ourselves in the sequel, ~ of a very general form, to which we shall

is obtained in the following manner. ~ by natural numbers from i to ~ ~i , ~=~... for all On the

We index the elements of the partitions Thus, we can introduce a lexicographic assuming space ~ (~,...,~)~(~,00.,~) , if

I

there emerges a partial ordering in which the sequences coinciding from some place the order type in each class of comparable elements is either , or ~ i~" , or

A Markov compactum together with the ordering of the partiZ , one by type

tions is said to be minimal if all except two classes are ordered by type ~+ and one by type ~ Z_ : El< K~ < ...

~'

~=i,~,...

Clearly,

; by the change of the indexing only the one-sided orbits are changed. By an adic transformation of a Markov compactum with ordered partitions T which assigns to an element (If ~ ~ the element then T ~/ which is is not de-

Definition 2. ~ ,

we mean a transformation

Proposition 3. class

The proof follows directly from the definition of the ordering, verse set in this case consisting of one point origin of the orbits Remark. (i.e., ~+ , respectively).

The trajectory partition of an adic transformation ~ ~ ~ , where the symbol ~ is the set

theoretic

Thus, an adic shift is the limit of cylindrical tions of the first coordinates of the sequence. sive substitutions

transformations,

which we reduce an arbitrary ergodic automorphism of the Lebesgue space (see the examples in Sec. 4).

670

3.

Fundamental Theorem THEOREM. Let CX,~) ; 0~o be a Lebesgue space and let ~ be its ergodic automorphism with $ , invariant and an auto(with ordered eleare iso-

(~, T , ~)

defined everywhere on

on

with the

will correspond to cylindrical periodic transformations in the image. If ~ is an arbitrary measurable set, ~>0 , in X , ~B ~) then each ergodic autorelative to the subset =~CB)~) and ~ B ) =

morphism can be represented as an integral over the derivative (see [ii]). ~C~,$) We fix an automorphism and we form partitions K~)

consists of at most a countable number of elements and the elements of ~eB ~) are ordered in the natural

manner; the element ~ since Let , 5 where ~ ~(8)(~)) ; ~ is ergodic, we have if

, consists of all points of the form If %6[~)= I~C~)[~)I , ~8,5 =Su~55 ~s <~) 9 ;

S~B)~ = S ~

S~e~B) C~)

~8)~

=~-~t~)Z

if

~ ~ ) ~ )

~B)

is a

periodic automorphism with period depending on the point. LEMMA. Let ~0 be an everywhere dense algebra of measurable sets, invariant with re5 There exists a sequence of sets %A~<~176 for all ' ~AI <

~=i,...

"

A4D ~

~...,

A{6%

for which

We select an arbitrary

' A,

6~o

~o

"

We denote

Ai

:a

a ~ '

where

A~

is the union of all but a finite number of elements of the partition ~ ~ ~Ai < ~ A~ and since A4 is invariant ~

I

then

I

~CAI)

lies in ~ and on

I

DA~,~ <co

sider , ~ = ~A~

, the derivative of A4 , ~4

A4 and

, ~A~ < ~ ~ ~ , A~

~'z as for

A~A4

, %~,$ < c o

and, therefore .

we have

.~& < ~ + ~ = ~

A,

;

...

from

(~,.),rt)A.<C~)"

~A~,S < o o ,

which is what we

6{~h.) ~ ~ ~

the required periodic automorphisms have been constructed. =0 Now we construct a sequence of refinements K ( A ~ )

~I~:

which brings in the structure of a Markov compactum. Let ~./~ 6 be an increasing sequence of finite partitions (here 6 is the partition of sets from ~o and generating 0~o ~ We identify Let

671

% :

Obviously, Let ~ ~_~ = ~ ;~) V.p~ 9 for all ~ since

--,- A,,.

A~

h~.

:

~ = ~

~=~,$, . . . .

The

elements

of ~K

~(AK; SAKe) .

verify that the required properties hold. we have ~ ~) "~'~'~=I ~ and, therefore,

We V %C~C~;S~))...~.IC~CAK;~A~_~)) -t -I , ~(A~; ~) , ~ ~ ,

i.e., to the trajectory partition of the periodic automorphism since ~[~ ~'<~(~;~) V~ ; consequently,~_i~~fn p ~ = 6 .

construction,

the sequence

the automorphism

being moved while the elements of ~=~ .~ lie in ~ ~0. with respect to the partitions

[~;I

and we re-

From what has been said it is clear that the mapping monomorphism and the closure of the image of a set of ~c ~ ; the image ~ is the algebra of cylini~l~ '

~o~O

complete measure is a Markov compactum drical sets; the Markov property of where the elements ~ ~

one can see from the construction. we note that from the erogodicity of E E ~s there exists ~ = ~(~,6) ~ and

for which

{~I

is not accompanied by the lengthening of the trajectories of ~ must be "almost" an independent complement to ~

realizations is a complex problem (see the examples). 2. By the theorem of [12], there exist an invariant algebra consisting of strictly ergodic sets. ~o and a relatively

ergodic automorphism,

from this algebra, then the corresponding adic transformation will be strictly ergodic. 3. [~i The asymptotic properties of the matrices of the intersections of the partitions contain ample information about the metric invariants of the automorphism of the

scale type (see [6]). 4. The theorem can be easily generalized to nonergodic automorphisms; in this case the

Markov compactum will not be minimal. 5. The theorem is valid for any countable group G of automorphisms for which the

672

4.

Examples i. Let ~ be an ergodic automorphism with rational spectrum, i.e., with a spectrum PI, P2,". ; Pil~ ;

In this case the adic realization is the following. and the transformation T is given by r~

The compactum

= ~Z/~

integer ~ -adic numbers which explains the term "adic automorphism." 2. then ~ Let ~ =C~+~) ~ , where ~e[0,1) .If =L~[O,i) is irrational, Let ; for

is ergodic and its adic realization can be given in the following manner. be the expansion of o& into a continuous fraction; ~ = [~] ~ of order ~ x ~+i : ~'~ =i d~

~=C~I,~,...)

~=~,~, ....

In other words,

~C ~

is constructed on ~

{~J

and

[~I

there is a unique measure, invariant relative to the adic shift) reIndeed, in this case the isomorphism is the Borel isomorphism ). This model is the modification of the

to an adic shift.

constructions from [2, 13]; however, there, the constructions are used for other purposes. At the suggestion of the author, M. and L. Gandel'sman have established the isomorphism which has been mentioned above. Another adic realization of the rotation of the circumference is the folllowing: ~:iall =$o=~ ,

{~i--i]

j,R

@~=~$~

_ [= ~ ~ _ ~ I ]+it

(~,~

~=i,~,.. ; M~ ~i~,~ =0 .

M~=(~" ) ,

=i

for

except

. . . . . .

. ' . . . o

. . . .

..

J. . . . . . . . . .

Mi

~ (FC[~;],

[M~])

gives

the required compactum. 3. A shift on tori and so much more the automorphisms with continuous spectrum involve Here the Perron algorithm and the generalized expansions into a continuous It is interesting to pose inverse problems, i.e., to investigate the The Pascal graph,

the Young graph generate examples of shifts about which one does not know anything. LITERATURE CITED i. 2. A. M. Vershik, "Uniform algebraic approximation of the shift and multiplication operators," Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 259, No. 3, 526-529 (1981). M. Pimsner and D. Voiculescu, "Imbedding the irrational rotation C*-algebra into an AFalgebra," J. Operator Theory, 4, 201-210 (1980).

673

A. M. Vershik, "Countable groups which are close to finite groups," in: F. P. Greenleaf, Invariant Means on Topological Groups [Russian translation], Mir, Moscow (1973). A. M. Vershik, "Is the uniform algebraic approximation of the multiplication and convolution operators possible?." J. Soy. Math., 26, No. 5 (1984). M. A. Rieffel, "Irrational rotation of C*-algebras," in: Internat. Congress Math., Helsinki (1978). A. M. Vershik, "Four definitions of the scale of an automorphism," Funkts. Anal. Prilozhen., ~, No. 3, 1-17 (1973). A. B. Katok, Ya. G. Sinai, and A. M. Stepin, "The theory of dynamical systems and general transformation groups with invariant measure," J. Soy. Math., 7, No. 6 (1977). A. M. Vershik, "Multivalued mappings with invariant measure (polymorphisms) and Markov operators," J. Sov. Math., 23, No. 3 (1983). A. M. Vershik and O. A. Ladyzhenskaya, "The evolution of measures determined by the Navier--Stokes equations and on the solvability of the Cauchy problem for the Hopf statistical equation," J. Soy. Math., i0, No. 2 (1978). E. G. Effros, The Dimension Group. Preprint. I. P. Kornfel'd, Ya. G. Sinai, and S. V. Fomin, Ergodic Theory [in Russian], Nauka, Moscow (1980). G. Hansel and J. P. Raoult, "Ergodicity, uniformity and unique ergodicity," Indiana Univ. Math. J., 23, No. 3, 221-237 (1973). E. G. Effrosand C. L. Shen, "Approximately finite C*-algebras and continued fractions," Preprint.

UDC 517.9

For second-order quasilinear degenerate elliptic equations, having the structure of ~ , ~ ) -elliptic equations in a bounded domain ~c~ , ~ , one estab-

solutions of the

first boundary-value problem, bounded together with their first order and also of first and second order. (A,O)

~ -derivatives of

In the early sixties, O. A. Ladyzhenskaya and N. N. UraL'tseva have constructed theory of solvability of boundary-value elliptic and parabolic equations [i, 2].

the

problems for quasilinear second-order uniformly These results have formed the necessary foundaproblems for quasilinear

tion for the subsequent development of the theory of boundary-value elliptic and parabolic equations.

in this area is based to a certain extent on the mentioned results of Ladyzhenskaya and Ural'tseva. In this respect, the present paper is not an exception; we investigate the

question of the existence and uniqueness of the regular solutions of the first boundaryvalue problem for a class of quasilinear degenerate second-order elliptic equations. The

results obtained here are new even for the case of linear equations with a nonnegative characteristic form. Other results regarding the existence and the uniqueness of regular solu-

Translated from Zapiski Nauchnykh Seminarov Leningradskogo Otdeleniya Matematicheskogo Institutaim. V. A. Steklova AN SSSR, Vol. 115, pp. 83-96, 1982.

674

0090-4104/85/2805- 0674509.50

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