Anda di halaman 1dari 6

RUNNING HEADER: Module 2

Module 2 Sandy Castellanos October 29, 2013 California State University, San Bernardino

Module 2

A. Parabens are a type of chemical compound used for antifungal agents, preservatives, and antimicrobial solutions in the lotions, creams, ointments, and other cosmetics. The argument that the website is making is that it parabens can increase the expression of many genes that are usually regulated by the natural estrogen estradiol and cause human breast tumor cells. Basically it is like one of the leading factor of cancer because small traces of paraben are found in the biopsys acquired. In the section that involved the claims, I earned that women tend to be more susceptible to having parabens in their upper quadrant by the underarm. Cancercausing substances in antiperspirants are absorbed through razor nicks from underarm shaving (American Cancer Society 1). Women are the ones who are more likely to shave their underarms compared to men. Substances like these are absorbed through the lymph nodes when the underarms get shaved. You would think the chemicals would be released when sweating but when someone uses an antiperspirant, it keeps you from perspiring. But since men do not shave, the chemicals from the antiperspirants are absorbed onto the hairs and not absorbed into the skin. In the following section, I learned that researchers looked only for the presence of parabens in breast cancer samples. The study did not show that parabens caused or contributed to breast cancer development in the cases it only showed that they were there. What this meant is not yet clear (American Cancer Society 1). This shows that they only had a focus, which was on the breast cancer samples. Also the study did not show if parabens are released from the antiperspirants. In addition, there has not been a direct link between health problems and parabens.

Module 2

In this article I learned that parabens were used in various items that we use for ourselves each and every day. Items including shampoos, moisturizers, hair products, and also food additives. Staying focused on a study of 1998, (Routledge et al., in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology) they had found that the most potent paraben tested in the study, butylparaben, showed from 10,000- to 100,000-fold less activity than naturally occurring estradiol (a form of estrogen) (U.S. food & Drug Administration 1). Further, parabens are used at very low levels in cosmetics. In a review of the estrogenic activity of parabens, (Golden et al., in Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 2005) the author concluded that based on maximum daily exposure estimates, it was implausible that parabens could increase the risk associated with exposure to estrogenic chemicals. B. There have been 28 million doses of Gardasil distributed as of January 1, 2010. There were 16,000 events following the Gardasil vaccination. The percent of 16,000 in 28 million is 5.72%. Most of the adverse events following the Gardasil vaccination were non-serious. These findings are similar to other safety reviews of other vaccines. In the patients that experienced serious adverse events following the Gardasil vaccination, there were other high-risk conditions also present in these patients, these included oral contraceptives, smoking, obesity, or other contributing factors. My thought on the HPV vaccine is that if we do not feel like it is good for us, then we dont have to get it. Its our right to choose what we want injected into our body and if we do get it we hold partial responsibility of our decision for obtaining the shot. A main key is to always be aware of the shots being provided. Knowing what may be some defects and knowing what some benefits you may obtain is a plus. I have the HPV vaccine and I have not had any

Module 2

defects. I would have to say that in the beginning of the injections I would feel a bit of pain on my arm but days after it had went away. In my opinion, I would say that it can be a preventative to cervical cancer but if you are destined to get it then no shot will have an effect on the disease from stopping. C. The disadvantages of searching for information on the web are that since the government is not governing the website, the information is not always complete. Also anyone can be an author to any website resulting that the content in the website may not be accurate and it can be unreliable. The advantages of searching for information at the library are that the information there are best, carefully selected research. They are developed by information specialists to meet the needs of researchers. A peer reviewed journal article is an evaluation of research work by one or more people of similar interest of an idea to the producers of the work. It is a form of self-regulation by qualified members of a profession within the relevant field. It important to gather your information from peer reviewed articles and not other sources, such as the news on television because of bias viewpoints as well as the television not providing their sources of information which may be unreliable and inaccurate. D. An interesting thing that I read about while doing this module was mainly about the chemical parabens. I am not so aware of the chemicals in the items we use but just reading about it makes me come up with questions of it actually being true that it may be a cause of cancer. However reading that it has not been proven shows me that it

Module 2

may not be true as well so that just leaves me in a debate of who to believe. It makes me want to look up more information on parabens. I was not so shocked about the HPV vaccine because I had an idea of what they were talking about since I had received the shot. I was also aware of the credibility and accurateness a library database and peer reviewed articles provide the researcher compared to that of the internet. This reinforces the concept of why you should gather information from accurate sources that have reliability compared to those that may be placed on the web with authors who are not legit. I understand that there are website that provide researchers with accurate data but we just have to be aware of who is publishing the information and if the information has been provided with sources that we are able to look into if any doubts were given.

Module 2

References

Antiperspirants and Breast Cancer Risk. (2013, September 20). Antiperspirants and Breast Cancer Risk. Retrieved October 28, 2013, from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/othercarcinogens/athome/antiperspirantsand-breast-cancer-risk Chemicals in Cosmetics. (n.d.). Chemicals in Cosmetics. Retrieved October 28, 2013, from http://www.breastcancerfund.org/clear-science/environmental-breast-cancerlinks/cosmetics/ Parabens. (n.d.). Parabens. Retrieved October 28, 2013, from http://www.breastcancerfund.org/clear-science/radiation-chemicals-and-breastcancer/parabens.html Postnatal Confinement Care. (2010, June 24). : CDC Commentary: New Safety Data on the HPV Vaccine. Retrieved October 28, 2013, from http://postnatalconfinement.blogspot.com/2010/06/cdc-commentary-new-safety-data-onhpv.html Department of Health and Services. (2006, March 24). Cosmetics. Parabens. Retrieved October 28, 2013, from http://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/productandingredientsafety/selectedcosmeticingredients/u cm128042.htm