Anda di halaman 1dari 6

1974-75

26
42082
38184
17800
1228
2229
2738
5924
714
4220
1340
438
688
690
1091
705
381
2063
568
5838
4999
719
12765
11517
2109
168
37
329
1678

1975-76
27
41375
37383
16649
1204
2286
2309
5647
681
4747
1447
506
795
799
1047
678
367
2244
606
5975
5078
849
14020
12551
2360
188
41
368
1878

1976-77
28
40711
36588
14482
1210
2606
2099
6688
806
4914
1491
565
888
891
1146
742
401
2237
628
7132
6107
881
15410
13636
2668
213
46
416
2122

1977-78
29
47718
43019
17155
1755
2254
3235
8068
973
5447
1637
650
1023
1027
1294
837
453
2541
719
8197
7040
954
17014
14788
3067
244
53
478
2440

1978-79
30
50663
45315
17627
1893
2555
3232
8551
1031
5760
1885
711
1117
1122
1538
994
538
2931
753
9480
8119
1168
18647
15954
3475
277
61
542
2766

1979-80
31
53844
48041
17046
1651
4418
3276
8914
1075
6273
2155
748
1176
1181
1592
1029
557
3241
897
10280
8741
1447
20839
17385
4087
326
71
637
3252

1980-81
32
67737
60699
22487
2290
4847
4975
10732
1294
7722
2556
842
1325
1331
1747
1130
611
4173
1123
11401
9629
1794
23482
18742
4992
398
87
778
3972

1981-82
33
78013
69732
24961
2307
4946
5928
13654
1234
9713
3167
811
1425
1282
1718
1101
610
5295
1369
12204
10284
1952
27453
21894
5852
487
128
961
4543

1982-83
34
81269
71935
26678
2310
4569
5613
13688
1499
10767
3603
554
1531
997
1155
523
610
7119
1542
12850
10855
2017
30767
24255
6814
589
165
1256
5083

1983-84
35
99478
88951
34039
3225
5726
7474
15783
2034
12172
4333
960
1644
1122
1478
857
608
7533
1765
13989
11821
2191
33737
26293
7746
664
202
1433
5762

1984-85
36
108145
96940
32866
3431
6473
8395
19327
1750
14460
5142
1346
1765
1335
2095
1215
861
7184
1967
16113
13632
2499
37542
29348
8539
790
289
1579
6205

1985-86
37
114998
103074
34840
3730
7562
6975
21192
2033
16407
5954
1068
1897
1295
2207
1149
1028
7446
2243
19651
16638
3031
41346
32397
9337
927
390
1807
6527

1986-87
38
126979
113386
36708
3347
7081
9237
25251
2877
17939
6658
909
2034
1044
1591
553
994
9858
2474
19466
16344
3201
45913
35562
10743
1065
527
2025
7483

1987-88
39
140702
126112
39543
3904
8288
13317
24249
2821
20514
7642
1142
2181
1319
1881
886
961
10039
2783
21473
17848
3794
50620
38686
12318
1288
557
2306
8576

1988-89
40
160671
142872
48987
5918
9413
10111
28433
3101
23328
8687
962
2347
1213
1323
211
1055
13806
3364
26205
21442
5121
55438
42222
13622
1446
627
2465
9546

1989-90
41
179860
160179
50018
5865
11833
10861
33482
3371
27303
10633
2195
2448
1736
2474
1121
1305
13521
4020
32120
27666
4270
61539
47107
14904
1774
712
2628
10269

1990-91
42
205670
180984
56053
7387
12187
13293
37858
4131
30429
11991
2323
2706
1688
4767
2849
1883
16179
4652
36145
29661
6939
67674
51770
16420
2047
745
2984
11145

1991-92
43
239408
212365
66719
6501
13747
16628
43469
5087
36988
13999
2792
3121
2558
6885
4418
2440
14857
5372
38961
32192
7161
74304
57071
17822
2501
1005
2998
11818

1992-93
44
266756
234476
71324
7609
16522
16420
49666
4944
41860
16960
2736
3588
2326
7257
3791
3368
19741
6247
43689
37266
6337
81509
62890
19291
3034
1087
3064
12621

1993-94
45
310511
277235
83720
9350
20972
17805
58714
6262
46607
20706
4463
4122
3837
7823
3634
4047
17166
7521
53118
45077
8040
87741
65584
22684
3926
1620
3222
14463

1994-95
46
353237
312243
95169
10013
21603
17989
69128
6677
53830
25545
3301
5692
3268
6785
1806
4749
26265
8765
61506
52829
8392
96604
71330
25772
4730
2014
3318
16313

1995-96
47
402416
355930
105223
10594
22449
20550
77698
9119
62301
29497
5147
7585
5469
9533
4429
4931
25328
11365
73439
63449
9484
104175
77652
27128
5203
2258
3449
16794

1996-97
48
488709
437134
132765
13449
29984
25075
93289
11127
70205
34361
8313
9538
8189
13336
7843
5384
22527
13214
78027
67351
10165
114461
84613
30448
5929
3005
3583
18526

1997-98
49
507390
441397
129775
12088
29115
20187
103610
10102
78070
37547
5931
10433
5672
9669
3054
6324
44075
15176
86957
75099
11270
129177
91317
38149
7404
3786
3682
24172

1998-99
50
598739
528983
146958
15629
34730
32339
121497
12318
87569
42716
8954
14177
10594
19233
11956
7171
30960
17886
78990
67093
11870
144614
103371
41672
8202
4565
3947
25849

1999-00
51
644044
553054
169731
14845
37885
24189
112669
10918
105426
45620
7147
16068
8556
22394
11471
10923
47816
20781
92396
76418
15977
167144
118353
48791
9859
5971
4036
28925

2000-01
52
629509
539914
144104
13291
39953
20711
125554
10492
104658
49655
6245
15301
9950
22842
12447
10395
43609
23144
110996
93537
17459
193874
131434
62440
11680
9195
10171
31394

2001-02
53
677868
587642
172004
16756
37815
21758
129818
14195
111509
53641
5811
15126
9209
25295
15427
9868
39388
25543
106810
89345
17465
212988
144846
68142
13533
10881
10557
33171

2002-03
54
685969
584880
163624
14083
31069
21676
136716
13864
115878
56921
5635
16599
8815
32970
22132
10838
39908
28211
110131
94660
15471
228598
156986
71612
15088
12160
9744
34620

2003-04
55
733036
627391
173942
17418
28912
35114
145602
12654
122243
58999
5121
18657
8728
35851
24467
11384
38246
31549
119213
102412
16801
246573
169026
77546
17192
13612
9524
37218

2004-05
56
769500
650364
165490
15873
33339
37778
150855
17046
134069
62424
6153
18213
9124
39197
27049
12148
42341
37598
127829
108477
19352
266434
181949
84485
18666
16288
8738
40793
856556
714236
180320
19015
36852
34306
171411
20707
143542
70150
6420
19968
11545
45887
32271
13616
46773
49660
151143
127098
24045
290838
198190
92648
19384
17941
8865
46458

57
956959
788719
202452
23713
38589
33593
189724
21309
156950
79645
6768
21887
14089
58510
42562
15948
49171
60559
189593
162343
27250
329053
225418
103635
22065
18615
8804
54151

58
1088983
894525
229799
26453
37627
41570
216603
30172
177822
88963
7252
23985
14279
72933
56176
16757
49451
72074
204639
166799
37840
380037
265150
114887
24572
21506
8674
60135

59
1210613
990511
249839
29050
45834
45257
241989
18839
208124
101087
8478
26280
15734
78513
61457
17056
65848
75741
220661
181402
39259
444119
317904
126215
26612
21555
8622
69426

60
1371888
1139376
250651
33115
65062
44177
269411
50340
246909
119646
10633
28789
20643
79900
62093
17807
72186
80426
266582
218257
48325
501495
359988
141507
30087
24248
8774
78398

61
1591412
1317591
290043
38196
64527
55764
331524
36173
290866
143414
9862
31531
25691
88953
71455
17498
86210
98658
362166
312353
49813
585149
425253
159896
34617
27618
8567
89094

62
1815809
1472086
323592
38441
71620
64028
372727
33617
332728
160219
9818
34529
30767
103803
81164
22639
106024
133896
379336
326136
53200
672661
490321
182340
38820
31458
8718
103344

63

2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12

479
128
321
494
389
811
1570
413
290
858
153
808
289
236
347
1864
1074
279
563
44381

520
139
350
540
407
951
1683
445
315
919
164
871
303
247
387
2003
1153
300
604
48915

546
146
366
564
445
1119
2058
532
466
1078
184
965
338
276
427
2202
1268
329
665
58968

682
182
458
707
532
1315
2877
608
669
1571
206
1141
387
316
520
2642
1522
396
798
71443

822
219
549
847
558
1545
3240
613
753
1775
246
1263
415
339
595
2989
1722
447
902
73063

900
239
601
928
564
1815
3474
757
734
1889
317
1423
437
356
713
3418
1969
512
1033
75962

994
265
664
1025
593
2134
3822
757
829
2088
341
1546
468
382
784
3948
2274
591
1192
87473

1176
314
789
1216
613
2475
4400
816
959
2416
389
1707
508
414
878
4207
2423
630
1270
95133

1332
355
891
1375
657
2872
5234
877
1213
2874
426
1870
551
450
969
4731
2725
708
1429
103304

1421
379
951
1468
725
3310
6719
945
1629
3753
465
2216
631
515
1178
5831
3359
873
1761
125129

1655
438
1137
1761
768
3849
8387
1136
2157
4644
546
2520
742
594
1309
6535
3705
1092
1876
144187

1660
515
1413
1931
835
4474
10117
1295
2594
5644
658
2879
902
678
1441
7161
4097
1176
2049
155270

1868
631
1670
2052
896
5200
12786
2323
3159
7029
747
3278
1134
671
1609
8008
4589
1268
2347
183399

2071
748
1743
2166
1015
5382
14933
2694
3668
8281
834
3636
1263
795
1740
8837
5063
1326
2688
201630

2586
1027
1858
2511
1156
5671
17562
3402
4361
9681
912
4080
1662
863
1728
10566
5606
1689
3494
221275

2904
1157
2017
2781
1288
5968
21971
3906
6222
11585
1184
4843
1906
807
2283
11671
6249
2106
3488
245279

2050
1357
2294
3043
1411
6601
26405
3847
7748
13751
1693
5637
2260
781
2734
13419
7158
2619
3772
274064

2487
1723
2851
3425
1547
8095
32264
4773
9770
16313
2240
6842
2900
939
3166
15284
8137
2808
4544
315430

2654
2421
3684
4029
1752
8495
37128
5014
11191
19050
2557
7690
3108
944
3796
17942
9048
3420
5640
357392

2977
2967
4074
4362
1971
9207
46881
6016
14796
23896
3027
9005
3398
993
4775
20135
10323
3721
6327
408583

2248
3217
4379
4564
2372
10064
57793
6099
19491
29225
3559
10664
4363
1034
5420
23976
12303
4146
7903
470757

2586
3253
4402
5238
2580
10998
68895
6543
23495
35332
3927
12079
5174
1075
5978
28006
14035
5433
8760
528167

3617
3994
5206
5457
2777
12242
79657
8429
27167
39949
4968
13284
5571
1143
6724
31312
15954
5639
10129
605824

4272
4637
5585
6258
3250
17452
94479
11722
32159
46417
6104
15965
7452
1110
7515
37285
18524
6932
12212
697177

5844
6073
6884
7431
3776
20624
109888
16216
37050
52892
7300
18882
8639
1434
8972
46332
21473
8563
16684
801805

6848
6342
7540
7828
4383
23391
134980
17757
47750
64246
8839
21048
9007
1623
10614
52829
24917
10254
17968
943642

8185
6117
8398
8417
4951
28752
154217
16868
53702
75206
10433
25090
10471
2111
12788
59771
28201
11387
20606
1022401

8799
6906
9758
8610
5886
40960
175983
17017
58230
88980
12172
28571
11313
1890
15568
68047
33063
13312
22105
1177600

8576
7923
10446
9023
6566
52844
198672
22417
62120
101198
12937
32660
12822
1851
17988
86142
36989
17953
31199
1316435

8982
8904
10882
11019
7189
62436
233047
23624
75045
119106
15272
37699
14910
2455
20334
98434
38445
20376
39614
1412970

8206
8999
11447
13077
7939
73760
255232
24926
83235
128541
18530
41187
16639
1688
22860
117266
41900
21860
53506
1534778

7426
9479
12054
13499
8809
78209
285443
28597
88675
148486
19686
43815
16422
1665
25728
138117
44366
22524
71226
1621546

8180
10839
13372
14612
9780
82889
329782
32583
108440
164850
23910
49982
19164
1868
28950
157106
48261
25370
83475
1775366

8404
13409
15462
17067
10832
95560
371800
35995
124528
180040
31237
57213
22522
2136
32555
172082
52082
30445
89555
1925592

10101
17518
17362
19773
12054
105244
411614
33075
143977
197637
36925
65473
27292
1419
36762
201861
60506
35587
105768
2159537

10954
22239
22818
24001
13801
115900
472391
38915
164738
225082
43656
74359
31994
1567
40798
256620
70539
41438
144643
2488688

12122
27905
29309
27186
15747
127648
509623
42151
169507
247159
50806
84643
38338
1766
44539
342552
82047
47269
213236
2850394

13537
32903
36300
29784
18446
140595
570091
46189
189508
276053
58341
95116
44277
2215
48624
445780
98144
57653
289983
3257945

18933
35226
38005
34377
22297
154872
625354
60871
194751
307403
62329
104258
48803
2367
53088
548167
121937
69614
356616
3721454

20558
46860
45826
40706
26411
170624
721821
79129
233858
352416
56418
121886
61513
2410
57963
640543
148850
73273
418420
4373962

23511
49749
50493
45049
30784
187922
864300
89771
295691
422804
56034
141949
71291
3218
67440
820206
179665
79339
561202
5081769

375
100
251
387
379
689
1401
376
235
783
138
719
257
210
310
1656
954
248
500
41149

1973-74
25
34358
30997
13049
1039
2223
2551
5413
653
3431
1092
371
584
586
913
591
320
1957
420
4779
4102
560
11572
10507
1881
150
33
293
1497

fur. furnishing & repairs


ref. cooking,washing appl.
glassware,tableware & utn.
other goods
services
medical care & health services
transport & communication
personal tpt. equipment
operation of tpt. eqpts.
purchase of tpt. serv.
communication
recreation, education & cultural services
eqpt., paper & stationery
recreation & cul.services
education
misc. good & services
personal care & effect
personal goods n.e.c.
other misc. services
PFCE in domestic market

1972-73
24
27918
24932
10503
939
1989
1604
4174
504
2815
885
333
523
525
803
520
280
1853
337
3762
3203
520
10266
9637
1526
122
27
238
1214

1319 1596 1727 1822 2260 2635 2841 3110 3608 4041 4339 5052 5768 6465 6964 7973 8803 9618 11347 13993 15650 16847 17926 20318 22896 28029 30529 33147 37179 42533 46977 49668 51265 56783 65174 76808 93813 112269 130970 148838 180361 199586

1971-72
23
24994
22148
9723
688
1579
1459
3605
435
2517
795
304
478
480
882
570
309
1621
294
3554
3036
461
9504
8888
1426
114
25
222
1135

Kaki Maheedhar (PGP29372)

furniture, furnishing, appliances &


services

food, beverages and tobacco


food
cereals and bread
pulses
sugar and gur
oils and oilseeds
fruits and vegetables
potatoe & other tuber
milk & milk products
meat, egg & fish
coffee, tea & cocoa
spices
other foods
beverages, pan & intoxicant
beverages
pan & other intoxicant
tobacco and its products
hotels & restaurants
clothing & footwear
clothing
footwear
gross rent, Fuel & power
gross rent & water charges
fuel & power
electricity
liquified petrol'm gas
kerosene
other fuel

1970-71
22
23949
21352
9497
647
1152
1713
3891
469
2332
751
256
403
404
834
539
291
1399
270
2933
2503
384
8740
8218
1291
103
23
201
1028

Assignment-2 : Consumption and Savings Pattern in India

We, _______________ and _________________ hereby declare that the report is our joint effort and
that no part of the report is copied from others.

Nihar Sreeram Shetty (PGP29406)

a) Raw Data in nominal GDP with Consumption, Government expenditure and trade
components

1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12

Year

68.21
76.87
79.52
114.66
134.82
150.66
175.82
203.45
241.1
250.68
265.9
306.92
349.56
392.39
457.86
534.14
586.93
737.07
874.92
1067.3
1344.08
1435.3
1646.21
1929.94
2466.68
2892.65
3183.87
3797.9
4181.59
5168.46
5155.45
5853.75
6562.29
8237.75
10507.03
12351.51
14859.09
18363.32
18026.2
21823.38
26519.34
27652.9

13.71
15.55
21.28
36.12
23.74
39.18
48.52
58.53
66.58
60.81
86.1
96.14
127.39
132.94
178.79
185.38
233.36
268.2
271.83
379.98
496.4
621.01
653.67
947.38
1207.33
1057.19
1416.61
1467.77
1803.46
2066.03
2152.19
2474.75
2532.55
3132.6
3279.56
4383.31
4842.56
5802.1
5710.26
7747.53
8083.34
7195.29

31.6
36.74
32.02
44.08
63.03
58.72
63.54
78.26
98.24
102.57
95.06
93.99
92.33
136.61
149.17
181.28
187.75
304.84
398.8
449.87
589.63
435.31
625.76
567.16
664.08
928.66
829.93
1373.5
1717.68
2322.48
2485.3
2978.13
3109.06
3443.27
4357.29
4306.57
5101.4
5381.37
7598.46
8560.46
10245.7
12841.9

45.31
52.29
53.3
80.2
86.77
97.9
112.06
136.79
164.82
163.38
181.16
190.13
219.72
269.55
327.96
366.66
421.11
573.04
670.63
829.85
1086.03
1056.32
1279.43
1514.54
1871.42
1985.85
2246.53
2841.27
3521.14
4388.51
4637.5
5452.88
5641.61
6575.87
7636.85
8689.88
9943.96
11183.5
13308.7
16308
18329
20037.2

Household Sector
Gross
Domestic
Financial Physical
Savings
Total
Savings Savings
(GDS)

6.72
7.69
8.06
10.83
14.65
10.83
11.81
14.13
16.52
23.98
23.39
25.6
29.8
32.54
40.4
54.26
53.36
59.32
84.86
118.45
151.64
203.04
199.68
298.66
352.6
591.53
625.4
660.8
691.91
872.34
810.62
769.06
992.17
1298.16
2125.19
2772.08
3385.84
4690.23
4174.67
5409.55
6193.7
6444.73

16.18
16.89
18.16
23.63
33.4
41.92
51.95
52.53
59.76
63.31
61.35
91.2
100.04
90.3
89.5
113.22
112.46
104.71
119.43
119
106.41
175.94
167.09
116.74
242.66
315.27
311.94
295.83
-31.46
-92.38
-292.66
-368.2
-71.48
363.72
744.99
889.55
1529.29
2489.62
542.8
105.85
1996.62
1170.97

Private Public
Savings Savings

Personal
Financial Savings
Disposab Gross
Providen Claims
Changes
NonLife
Shares
Trade
le
Domestic
Currenc Bank
Units of
t and
on
in
banking
insuranc
&
debentDebt
Income Consump
y
deposits
UTI
pension Governfinancial
deposits e fund
ures
(Net)
(Yd)
tion(C)
fund
ment
assets
400.42 384.74
424.46 414.96
470.29 457.36
6.37
12.14
1.08
3.07
5.23
0.8
0.27
0.19
0.67
29.82
578.59 551.35
7.69
15.11
0.45
3.56
6.03
0.87
-0.16
0.24
1.99
35.78
673.56 667.99
0.18
16.54
0.92
3.44
7.87
0.72
0.62
-0.03
3.45
33.71
716.05 683.14
3.42
21.2
1.3
4.23
12.24
8.99
0.41
0.16
-1.28
50.67
762.54 710.24
11.4
39.2
1.14
5.24
11.72
0.19
-0.05
0.2
-2.53
66.51
882.28 817.88
7.03
35.21
2.27
5.92
13.16
3.25
2.01
0.34
2.35
71.54
948.59
889.5
14.3
46.26
2.32
6.83
16.05
2.27
2.04
0.79
3.97
94.83
1033.37
965.9
13.32
46.59
4.77
7.73
17.48
5.31
2.53
0.41
4.35 102.49
1277.03 1180.68
16.25
55.5
3.78
9.15
21.22
7.12
4.12
0.31
3.73 121.18
1473.26 1356.76
9.65
51.94
8.94
10.37
24.8
17.84
5.1
1.14
6.43 136.21
1630.5 1497.73
20.26
66.61
8.7
12.35
28.65
12.43
6.46
1.22
4.29 160.97
1927.54 1753.57
27.76
79.78
10.19
13.76
30.52
19.76
5.55
2.22
-1.64
187.9
2151.22 1940.37
29.38
98.59
9.6
15.56
37.59
31.07
7.62
5.67
0.41 235.49
2376.77 2141.54
22.2 106.03
14.23
17.79
41.88
34.13
13.94
5.86
-0.44 255.62
2657.25 2402.09
30.9
145.1
15.12
21.59
50.55
30.92
17.68
9.43
-2.8 318.49
3012.53 2666.49
48.15 146.74
13.26
25.89
65.09
36.8
8.13
11.96
5.04 361.06
3565.52 3104.97
42.56 147.47
15.8
34.23
75.52
54.78
11.36
14.27
3.59 399.58
4090.4 3468.07
76.55 139.87
18.39
44.15
95.08
67.58
26.55
21.79
-7.63 482.33
4797.12 3985.29
62.51 187.77
12.86
55.99 111.55
78.83
49.72
34.38
-4.53 589.08
5478.98 4577.35
81.57 178.48
22.18
70.03 125.01
48.45
68
90.87
-4.14 680.45
6385.28 5161.18
65.62 295.18
60.35
71.14 148.14
38.85
82.12
56.12 -13.98 803.54
7394.64 5913.08 133.67 362.36 116.54
95.48 183.23
69.08 100.67
47.05
-11.9 1096.18
8678.09 6871.54 159.16 558.35 115.47
113.7 214.14 131.86 134.73
39.08 -11.48 1455.01
9917.26 7920.15 165.25 399.41 131.98 138.94 223.43
95.88
88.39
2.62
-2.52 1243.37
11837.3 9286.29 136.43 509.02
259.8 161.21
303.9 117.83
66.31
37.76
-7.08 1585.19
13047.7 10185.6
127.8 740.99
67.33
194.1 322.67 221.62
44.64
5.95
-7.7 1717.4
15231.6 11663 218.22 794.33
76.7 234.28 464.08
282.2
51.05
18.87
-68.7 2071.03
16711.5 13125.4 208.45 828.92
38.44 286.44 539.07 289.85 163.08
18.11 -10.23 2362.13
18314.9 14066.6 156.32 947.09
30.04 338.61 508.63 390.07 111.48
-9.34
1.83 2474.75
20171.5 15316.7 281.56 1130.33
-3.47 412.37 442.23 519.38
98.34 -18.57
-1.83 2860.34
21357.9 16202.9 286.32 1226.97 124.96 520.09 459.46 560.87
71.23 -16.18
0 3233.72
23565 17713.1 426.75 1559.34
19.45
522.4 489.52 873.72
90.78 -85.86
-1.37 3894.73
25822.8 19175.1 369.77 1750.45
0.83 679.86 557.94 1064.2
81.13 -31.46
-1.07 4471.65
29109.1 21527 521.51 2657.16
5.22 834.94
619.5 871.68 338.57
-4.44
-2.22 5841.92
33285.9 24766.7 671.94 4292.82
45.84 1148.51 725.03 191.98 508.47
-3.1
65.23 7646.71
37347.6 28407.3 812.78 3890.08
12.86 1698.48 715.44 -283.27 743.08
-3.24 137.65 7723.85
45314.4 32492.8 921.88 4178.33 147.42 1528.61 733.98 -275.51 -23.33 -27.37
84.88 7268.89
51984.5 37075.7
969.4 3981.41 185.16 2598.21 1298.49 434.75 448.41
0 -17.84 9897.98
60158.2 43498.9 1371.31 5482.99
50.99 2101.02 1411.39 295.45
17.29
0
68.23 10798.7
71640.9 50562.2 1089.27 5281.51 208.94 1892.93 1363.98 -272.23 -44.94
0
45.09 9564.55
4.93
6.74
6.05
8.99
12.32
14.81
21.25
28.68
30.93
35.07
29.46
44.69
50.02
60.43
73.45
81.59
114.36
83.03
74.29
36.89
114.21
119.72
216.18
156.05
136.75
198.85
207.93
298.59
254.39
433.54
543.88
578.85
1119.71
1755.64
2736.66
1795.02
1547.35
1944.43
2690.1
2720.1

0.45
0.44
0.79
0.78
0.87
1.25
3.52
3.93
1.82
2.44
3.49
4.6
4.2
6.46
5.22
5.55
7.13
10.53
11.54
15.51
28.97
18.67
24.09
23.98
25.93
42.03
46.88
46.31
47.41
68.78
52.47
122.61
83.1
83.98
93.62
86.82
88.12
88.99
88.04
88.12

0.66
0.21
0.6
0.67
1.18
0.95
1.81
1.97
1.51
1.48
1.33
2.03
1.97
2.05
4.35
3.47
4.74
7.47
6.11
4.69
4.43
7.1
4.17
2.75
2.29
4.88
9.44
12.27
13.19
11.11
2.16
-2.69
-5.15
-4.89
-6.5
-2.48
-1.99
-1.47
-0.99
7.83

0.11
0.36
0.26
0.25
0.19
0.1
0.8
0.93
0.82
1.34
1.03
1.06
1.14
0.89
2.08
2.26
2.03
0.85
0.73
2.88
2.95
3.1
3.26
3.42
3.6
3.43
3.48
3.5
2.8
3.84
4.23
1.05
3.04
2.77
2.29
2.45
2.5
2.52
2.6
2.57

6.15
7.75
7.7
10.69
14.56
17.11
27.38
35.51
35.08
40.33
35.31
52.38
57.33
69.83
85.1
92.87
128.26
101.88
92.67
59.97
150.56
148.59
247.7
186.2
168.57
249.19
267.73
360.67
317.79
517.27
602.74
699.82
1200.69
1837.5
2826.06
1881.81
1635.98
2034.48
2779.75
2818.62

Loans & Loans & Loans & Changes


Bank
advance advance advance
in
advance
s from s from s from financial
s
other Govern
coliabilities

b) Table for sources of Gross Domestic Savings and their relative share of each component of India
from 1970 to 2012
Year

1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91
1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97
1997-98
1998-99
1999-00
2000-01
2001-02
2002-03
2003-04
2004-05
2005-06
2006-07
2007-08
2008-09
2009-10
2010-11
2011-12

Household Sector
Financial
Physical
Total Household
Savings
Savings
Savings
Value
%
Value
%
Value
%
13.71 20%
31.60 46%
45.31 66%
15.55 20%
36.74 48%
52.29 68%
21.28 27%
32.02 40%
53.30 67%
36.12 32%
44.08 38%
80.20 70%
23.74 18%
63.03 47%
86.77 64%
39.18 26%
58.72 39%
97.90 65%
48.52 28%
63.54 36%
112.06 64%
58.53 29%
78.26 38%
136.79 67%
66.58 28%
98.24 41%
164.82 68%
60.81 24%
102.57 41%
163.38 65%
86.10 32%
95.06 36%
181.16 68%
96.14 31%
93.99 31%
190.13 62%
127.39 36%
92.33 26%
219.72 63%
132.94 34%
136.61 35%
269.55 69%
178.79 39%
149.17 33%
327.96 72%
185.38 35%
181.28 34%
366.66 69%
233.36 40%
187.75 32%
421.11 72%
268.20 36%
304.84 41%
573.04 78%
271.83 31%
398.80 46%
670.63 77%
379.98 36%
449.87 42%
829.85 78%
496.40 37%
589.63 44% 1086.03 81%
621.01 43%
435.31 30% 1056.32 74%
653.67 40%
625.76 38% 1279.43 78%
947.38 49%
567.16 29% 1514.54 78%
1207.33 49%
664.08 27% 1871.42 76%
1057.19 37%
928.66 32% 1985.85 69%
1416.61 44%
829.93 26% 2246.53 71%
1467.77 39% 1373.50 36% 2841.27 75%
1803.46 43% 1717.68 41% 3521.14 84%
2066.03 40% 2322.48 45% 4388.51 85%
2152.19 42% 2485.30 48% 4637.50 90%
2474.75 42% 2978.13 51% 5452.88 93%
2532.55 39% 3109.06 47% 5641.61 86%
3132.60 38% 3443.27 42% 6575.87 80%
3279.56 31% 4357.29 41% 7636.85 73%
4383.31 35% 4306.57 35% 8689.88 70%
4842.56 33% 5101.40 34% 9943.96 67%
5802.10 32% 5381.37 29% 11183.47 61%
5710.26 32% 7598.46 42% 13308.73 74%
7747.53 36% 8560.46 39% 16307.99 75%
8083.34 30% 10245.67 39% 18329.01 69%
7195.29 26% 12841.91 46% 20037.20 72%

Private
Corporate
Sector
Value
6.72
7.69
8.06
10.83
14.65
10.83
11.81
14.13
16.52
23.98
23.39
25.60
29.80
32.54
40.40
54.26
53.36
59.32
84.86
118.45
151.64
203.04
199.68
298.66
352.60
591.53
625.40
660.80
691.91
872.34
810.62
769.06
992.17
1298.16
2125.19
2772.08
3385.84
4690.23
4174.67
5409.55
6193.70
6444.73

%
10%
10%
10%
9%
11%
7%
7%
7%
7%
10%
9%
8%
9%
8%
9%
10%
9%
8%
10%
11%
11%
14%
12%
15%
14%
20%
20%
17%
17%
17%
16%
13%
15%
16%
20%
22%
23%
26%
23%
25%
23%
23%

Public Sector
Value
16.18
16.89
18.16
23.63
33.40
41.92
51.95
52.53
59.76
63.31
61.35
91.20
100.04
90.30
89.50
113.22
112.46
104.71
119.43
119.00
106.41
175.94
167.09
116.74
242.66
315.27
311.94
295.83
-31.46
-92.38
-292.66
-368.20
-71.48
363.72
744.99
889.55
1529.29
2489.62
542.80
105.85
1996.62
1170.97

%
24%
22%
23%
21%
25%
28%
30%
26%
25%
25%
23%
30%
29%
23%
20%
21%
19%
14%
14%
11%
8%
12%
10%
6%
10%
11%
10%
8%
-1%
-2%
-6%
-6%
-1%
4%
7%
7%
10%
14%
3%
0%
8%
4%

Gross
Domestic
Savings
68.21
76.87
79.52
114.66
134.82
150.66
175.82
203.45
241.10
250.68
265.90
306.92
349.56
392.39
457.86
534.14
586.93
737.07
874.92
1067.30
1344.08
1435.30
1646.21
1929.94
2466.68
2892.65
3183.87
3797.90
4181.59
5168.46
5155.45
5853.75
6562.29
8237.75
10507.03
12351.51
14859.09
18363.32
18026.20
21823.38
26519.34
27652.90

Gross Domestic Savings


100%
80%
60%

Public Sector Savings

40%

Private Corporate Sector Savings

20%

Household Savings

1970-71
1972-73
1974-75
1976-77
1978-79
1980-81
1982-83
1984-85
1986-87
1988-89
1990-91
1992-93
1994-95
1996-97
1998-99
2000-01
2002-03
2004-05
2006-07
2008-09
2010-11

0%

As per the above data and graph, it can be inferred that there is a decreasing trend in the
public/government sector savings. The decrease was close to 10% post liberalization as government
started to invest more. The public sector savings are negative in the period 2000 to 2004, and this is
due to heavy investment of the government into the infrastructure sector such as construction of
roads and national highways for improving connectivity, investment into Metro Railway and some
major water dam projects.
c) Consumption function and estimates of MPC and autonomous consumption
C = a+bYd
a= autonomous consumption, a minimum consumption that will be expected even at zero income
level.
b= Slope of the curve (or) Marginal Propensity to Consume, it gives us the idea of how consumption
increases per unit increase in disposable income
India being a middle income country, will have high MPC and low autonomous consumption

Consumption Curve
60000
C = 0.7151Yd + 498.48

Consumption (C)

50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0
0

10000

20000

30000

40000

50000

60000

70000

80000

Disposable Income (Yd)

From the above linear estimate of the scatter data between Consumption and Disposable Income

a = 498.48 billion

MPC = 0.7151

Savings Function :
Yd = C+S
S = Yd-C = Yd- (0.7151Yd + 498.48)

S = -498.48 + 0.2849Yd

d) Explanation of the estimates derived in c


The consumption has been observed to increase along with the disposable income. There were slight
deviations from the suggested linear curve. Most of the points before 2008 fell above the estimated
line, while points after 2008 were below the line, showing that the 2008 financial crisis had an impact
on the consumption. Although it increased with Yd but not at the same rate as earlier.
India being a developing economy and a lower middle income country the MPC of 71.51% is justified.
Although it is expected to be slightly higher, due to the heavy incentive on savings the MPS is slightly
higher at 28.5%.
e) Study of MPC values across different items of consumption in pre-liberalisation and post
liberalisation periods
Consumption
Item

MPC (1970-1991)

MPC(1992-2012)

0.2085
0.0865
0.0276

Autonomous
Consumption
(1970-1991)
176.45
76.312
2.833

Autonomous
Consumption
(1992-2012)
2214.3
290.17
-19.447

Food
Rent & Fuel
Furniture
&
Appliances
Clothing
Medical
Transport
&
communication
Education
&
Recreation
Misc

0.4195
0.1412
0.0327
0.0734
0.0213
0.1084

0.0479
0.0282
0.1172

15.063
4.015
-84.561

160.38
29.168
144.33

0.0194

0.0194

-2.879

15.071

0.0441

0.1161

-1.755

-893.62

The values were derived from linear regression estimates of the scatter plots between per capita
consumption of each item and the per capita income of the pre-liberalisation and post-liberalisation
years. The observations from the above values are as follows:
i)

ii)

The MPC values for basic necessities like food, clothing, rent & fuel have reduced while
those for Medical and Transportation have increased. This shows that as Income increases
the proportionate consumption of basic necessities decreases.
The autonomous consumptions have shown an increase which concludes that the
standard of living has increased in the post-liberalisation period.

f) Study of the distribution of Savings

Distribution of Savings

Financial Savings

Physical Savings

2010-11

2008-09

2006-07

2004-05

2002-03

2000-01

1998-99

1996-97

1994-95

1992-93

1990-91

1988-89

1986-87

1984-85

1982-83

1980-81

1978-79

1976-77

1974-75

1972-73

1970-71

100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0%

Earlier years of 1970s marked a high proportion of physical savings as the financial markets has very
less awareness. Slowly the financial savings started increasing and peaked in the late 90s. The ratio
was almost constant until 2008, when it started dipping as the people started losing confidence in
financial investments.

g) Study of the composition of the financial assets from 1970 to 2012.

DISTRIBUTION OF FINANCIAL ASSETS


Currency

Bank Deposits

Non-Banking Deposits

Life Insurance

PF

Claims on Government

Shares & Debentures

UTI units

Trade Debt

120.00%
100.00%
80.00%
60.00%
40.00%
20.00%
0.00%

The observations from the above graph are as follows:


i)

ii)

iii)

iv)
v)

The bank deposits share a major part (40 to 60%) of the financial savings. This is a very
strength for the economy as low cost funds are increasing in the economy. The share of
bank deposits decreased from 1970s to 1990s, mostly because of the increased
availability of better alternatives like Units of UTI. But from 1990s to 2013 it gradually
increased with interest rates getting better in banks.
The share of Provident Funds has been constant from 1970s to early 2000s, but with the
New Pension Scheme introduced in 2003, the share of pension savings has reduced only
to increase again after 2008. These savings increases the long term funds in the economy.
The share of Life Insurance Savings have gradually increased along the years from about
9% to 25%. This increases the long term money availability in the economy for any other
investments.
The share of claims on government which had a considerable share from 80s to early
2000s became negligible towards 2012.
The present economy seems to have only four major components, which are Currency,
Bank deposits, Life Insurance and Provident Funds.