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Boiler Performance Improvement through Monitoring & Optimization

BEE Technical Workshop PMI B M Singh , Consultant Evonik Energy India 09560867733

Power Plant Fossil fuels


Fossil fueled fired generating stations have very precise definition of Thermal efficiency. It is the ratio of heat equivalent of Fuel fired to the heat equivalent of electricity sent to transmission net work. Even the best designed P F fired stations are currently operating at efficiency level less than 40% (Sub Critical design).

Power Plant Fossil fuels


Thermal efficiency is an important criteria for determination of cost of electricity. Increased capital cost while designing new plant can bring about higher design efficiency. Increased cost to built up redundancy helps improve availability. It enables a station to sustain optimum operating efficiency from one overhaul to next overhaul.

Power plant cycle efficiency

Role of Steam Generator is to generate steam which is used to convert heat energy into kinetic energy. Boilers generally operate at Gross efficiency of 87.5%. Level of boiler efficiency is marginally dependant on unit size Once through or Supercritical brand Gross boiler efficiency level depend more on coal quality and less on type of cycle. Improvement in boiler efficiency with better coal comes at a cost . Why not use better coal, an optimum performance can be sustained with less expenditure on O&M Cost. ( This could be an Important Optimization)

Power plant cycle efficiency


Boiler Efficiency varies with output & boiler efficiency at MCR rating would be around 0.3 less as compared to at nominal load Gross boiler efficiency at any point of operation can be improved by consuming more electricity through Mills & fans. When we are using low cost inferior coals- we consume more auxiliary power consumption to improve operating efficiency. Usage of an additional pulverizer to handle poor coal results in increased power consumption , however, corresponding improvement in Gross boiler efficiency may not be achieved in each case.

All Performance Indicies except Turbine Heat Rate linked with Coal quality. UNIT HEAT RATE NET UNIT HEAT RATE TURBINE HEAT RATE BOILER EFFICIENCY UNIT AUXILIARY POWER CONSUMPTION

Heat Input into a Large Coal Fueled Power PlantSub Critical design.
3% 5% 10% Stack Auxiliary Stack Clean-up Losses Equipment Power 37% Electricity Production 45% Rejected Heat to Cooling Water/ Cooling Tower

# CYCLE EFFICIENCY Over all Efficiency of a power Station depends upon. Steam Cycle Efficiency-45% Boiler Efficiency based on HHV-88 to 89% Auxiliary Power( in Station Energy consumption)- 5 to 7%

# Operational Efficiencies are generally


worse than design due to
Sootblwing frequency-which is coal dictated. Varitation in Steam Temperature & pressures due to load variation. Variation in flue gas oxygen content due to changing load and change in coal quality. Less than optimum operation of Primary and Secondary Air heaters.( Coal Quality related) Off design steam conditions due to normal inaccuracies in commercial instruments. Losses during startup and shut down. Off design SH & RH sprays ( linked with coal Qua)

CONDITION MONITORING IMPORTANT


Air in leakage to boiler gas enclosure Fouling of Boiler heating Surface higher dry gas loss. Higher draft loss due to air ingress and ash deposition. Air heater leakage / Air ingress after APHs INCREASED COAL CONSUMPTION Deterioration of Turbine Steam Path Condition. Condenser pressure/ condenser cleanliness- air ingress and extent of tube pluggage. Boiler operation at low oxygen when operating at high outputs

Opertional Efficiency vs Design efficiency in a typical plant


Extent of difference between design & operational Efficiency would depend on Plant design Type of Coal Site conditions Output factor In a new plant, difference could be 3% where soot blowing is not excessive . In an old plant ,difference could be10%.

Boiler design Criterias


1. Boiler Exit Temperature- Boiler would be generally designed for a particular exit temperature( 125-135 degree Centigrade) 2. Temperature is COAL dependant 3. Excess air controls this temperature .( Whether excess air is Coal quality dependant) While evaluating Thermal efficiency , Flue gas exit at Economizer should be considered whereas for boiler efficiency , flue gas exit at Air heater outlet should be reviewed. On Line Flue gas exit at AH outlet measured more accurately compared to Economizer outlet.

Heat content of Coal/ No information with Operator


Boiler Efficiency Calculation requires knowledge of Calorific Value of Coal and its composition. Whether Efficiency Calculation should be based on value of Gross CV or Net CV of Coal. Any convention can be used, Contractual Boiler Efficiency is generally based on GCV. Another efficiency term used in Performance Analysis is Expected Efficiency.

#Operating Efficiency depends on Coal Composition & its Rank


Coal Moisture affects efficiency mainly due to loss of latent heat, 0.15% per 1% change in Moisture. Ash content in Coal affects efficiency in two waysloss of heat along with ash/Loss due to carbon 1% change in ash content results in0.025% change in efficiency. Change in flue gas temperature to avoid low temperature corrosion- Efficiency changes by 0.5% for a 10 degree C change in temperature. High moisture Coals such as Lignite results in low cycle efficiency.

#Site temperature and Humidity


Site temperature and humidity have influence on both boiler and turbine efficiency. Condenser pressure is regulated by CW temperature and Cooling tower performance by humidity of air. Loss of boiler efficiency is dependant upon ambient temperature and moisture in air. Boilers typically operate in the range of -2 to 45 degree C in Northern Part of India. However, where ever SCAPH is taken in to service at low temperature ,its impact on Boiler Efficiency is dependant on coal quality. ( Status of Scaph in your station)

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT
High PLF & availability should translate into Optimum operating EFFICIENCY. However, even at best Boiler Efficiency, Operating heat rate can be worse by 10% due to high steam consumption. Degradation in coal quality beyond station control , however loss of operating efficiency can be minimized by effective maintenance of Turbine cycle. Increased Auxiliary power Consumption is first sign of performance degradation.

Plant Modifications to Improve Performance


Once a unit has been built, up gradation of Steam Conditions can be done only at very high cost . Loss of Capability due to deterioration in coal quality has not been faced in NTPC however, degradation of Efficiency observed Not achieving rated Steam Parameters in a new plant set up may not be due to Coal Is It due to large difference between design coal and worst coal specified ? ( Any Specific Problem in your Station)

Plant Modifications to Improve heat Rate


Increasing Mills Capacity has been envisaged . Increase in operating HR due to coal degradation/ deterioration in equipment Performance due to coal quality very common. Cycle efficiency of older turbine can be improved by around 2% by incorporating new turbine blades. Reduction of Condenser back pressure by upgrading condenser, Improving performance of cooling Tower, integrating OLTC system.

IMPORTANCE OF GUARANTEE TESTING


PG testing is undertaken to comply with contractual requirement at a cost to utility. It could serve as a Bench mark for performance monitoring & testing. This provides first opportunity to learn about Performance Analysis & importance of Performance Monitoring Regular Performance Testing which I believe is the recommendation of BEE as well, should be conducted because on line data not enough to assess degradation.

Boiler Efficiency Tests/Full load, Part load Auxiliary Power Consumption/Analyse Losses.
Heat losses Design 3.65 2.00 5.50 Uncorrected Test Value

Last Test
Dry Gas Loss Unburnt C loss Wet flue gas loss CO Loss Moisture in Air Loss Radiation & Unacc. Loss Boiler Efficiency % % % % % % % 5.90 0.76 6.42

Test
5.93 0.73 6.55

0
0.35 0.2/0.8 87.5

0.01
0.09 1.00 85.83

0.01
0.16 1.00 85.62

BOILER EFFICIENCY LOSS ANALYSIS


EFFICIENCY LOSSES OF BOILER ARE COAL DEPENDENT.( 10 TO 13% LOSS) DRY GAS LOSS & CARBON IN ASHES ARE CONTROLLABLE LOSSES. CHANGE OF COAL WITH RESPECT TO DESIGN WOULD CALL FOR WORKING OUT NEW TARGET VALUES. UTILITIES CONTINUE TO COMPARE PERFORMANCE WITH DESIGN COAL.

Power plant cycle efficiency


Impact of coal quality on design Boiler Efficiency is rather difficult to predict. Modeling tools are generally not available with a station to understand the role of change in operating regime on expected performance. Based on actual Performance, we can revise our targets and instead of comparing performance with design values , we can compare with expected values. Combustion efficiency is quite a different term as compared to thermal efficiency ?

GROSS POWER GENERATION


Gross power output is controlled by MCR Capacity of Boiler. ( 210-220 MW) Rated Generator output demands very high through put from Boiler under adverse regime (. Some times more than MCR) We always look at MW meter & not at FW flow Unit operation at optimum boiler loading would facilitate trouble free operation.. Clinkering, slagging and tube failures outages could be ascribed to high boiler loading with deterioration in coal quality .

OXYGEN SET POINT TO BE REPRESENTATIVE OF DUCT CONDITIONS & CONDITIONS IN THE FURNACE

Oxygen as measured On line using Zirconia Probes should represent the process. Left & right difference of Oxygen value could be a realistic statement and not instrument error. No of Zirconia probes to be increased to improve the reliability of feedback. Probes provided at AH outlet to work out on line leakage.

UNIT AUXILIARY POWER CONSUMPTION Unit Aux. Power consumption has direct co-relation with equipment conditions & Coal quality. Higher aux. power consumption basically reflects degradation of equipment. Deviation from target Aux. power consumption could be on account of change in operating Regime , Coal quality and steam demand.

MAIN STEAM TEMPERATURE


NORMATIVE STEAM TEMPERATURE - 535 C +/5C FOR SUBCRITICAL BOILERS. Is steam temperature monitored accurately ? RATED TEMPERATURE NOT ACHIEVED IN MANY BOILERS DUE TO COAL QUALITY CHANGE. HIGH SPRAY RATES IN A PROPERLY DESIGNED BOILER IS A REFELECTION OF DEGRADATION OF COAL QUALITY & POOR OPERATING REGIME.. AVAILABILITY OF BURNER TILT CONTROL ESSENTIAL TO ACHIEVE & MAINTAIN TEMP.

EXCESS AIR LEVEL /IS IT COAL QUALITY DEPENDANT?


THIS PARAMETER HAS MAXIMUM OPTIMIZATION POTENTIAL. BOILER TO BE RUN AT AN OXYGEN LEVEL OF WHICH RESULTS IN MINIMUM OF LOSSES. STATION OXYGEN SENSOR TO BE PLACED AT REPRESENTATIVE LOCATION. IS EXCESS AIR MONITORED ACCURTAELY ? AIR INGRESS UPSTREAM OF THIS SECTION CAN ADVERSELY AFFECT THIS FEEDBACK.

Oxygen Levels at AH Inlet / Outlet- Grid testing


Oxygen in Flue Gas at AH A Inlet / Outlet
10 8
Inlet O2 %

Oxygen in Flue Gas at AH B Inlet / Outlet


12 10
Outlet O2 %

10 8
Inlet O2

10 8 6 4 2 0 A B C Inlet O2 Probe D E Outlet O2 F


Outlet O2

6 4 2 0 A B C Inlet O2 Probe D E Outlet O2 F

8 6 4 2 0

6 4 2 0

AIR HEATER LEAKAGE


AIR HEATER LEAKAGE LEVELS AFFECT EXIT TEMPERATURE AND AUXILIARY POWER OF FANS. ACCURATE MEASUREMENT OF AH LEAKAGE IMPORTANT TO ASSESS DEGRADATION OF PERFORMANCE LEVEL FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION HIGH LEAKAGE CAN EVEN ADVERSELY AFFECT UNIT CAPABILITY. FIVE MILL OPERATION RESULTS IN HIGHER LEVEL OF LEAKAGE IN 210/200 MW UNITS. COAL QUALITY DETERIORATION PRIME CASUE FOR ADDITIONAL MILL OPERATION.

Typical % Oxygen / CO in flue gas across AH Inlet ducts (Test 3 data)


Average values of Oxygen in flue gas obtained in the sampling grid at AH A and B Inlet in Test 3

A 1 2 3 3.46 2.96 3.15

B 3.06 3.61 2.90

C 1.72 3.39 3.13

D 0.60 0.97 1.11

E 0.56 1.10 1.30

F 1.05 1.22 1.82 1 2 3

A 1.98 3.18 2.66

B 2.10 2.38 2.55

C 2.87 2.66 2.67

D 2.52 3.25 3.02

E 3.12 3.00 3.08

F XXX XXX XXX

Air heater A - Zirconia average - 1.2 %

Air heater B - Zirconia average - 2.7 %

Average values of CO in flue gas obtained in the sampling grid at AH A and B Inlet in Test 3

A 1 2 3 2973 2485 2361

B 2563 2104 2289

C 2882 2498 1976

D 2495 1990 2063

E 2536 1902 1982

F 1734 976 1064 1 2 3

A 220 124 101

B 187 105 98

C 119 53 111

D 75 62 194

E 142 181 60

F XXX XXX XXX

Air heater A - CO average - 2159 ppm

Air heater B - CO average - 122 ppm

AIR DISTRIBUTION IMPROVEMENT


Role of Excess air is important to achieve efficient combustion. Equally important is to achieve improvement in air distribution to reduce NOx emissions. SADC help mitigate minor deficiencies in equal distribution of combustion air. Typical upgrade in this area cover use of baffles, perforated plate or compartmentalization of wind box. This is the only control with operator to respond to change in coal quality.

FLUE GAS EXIT TEMPERATURE A DESIGN CRITERIA


FLUE GAS TEMP. AT AH OUTLET IS INDICATIVE OF HEAT LEAVING THE UNIT UNUTILIZED FLUE GAS TEMP. IS LOWERED ON ACCOUNT OF AIR HEATER LEAKAGE. FG TEMP. TO BE MEASURED AT A LOCATION SLIGHTLY AWAY FROM AIR HEATER NO OF TEMPERATURE SENSOR PROVIDED SHOULD COVER THE DUCT ADEQUATELY. CORRECTED FLUE GAS TEMPERATURE SHOULD BE USED FOR COMPARISION BETWEEN DIFFERENT TEST CONDITIONS.

AIR PREHEATER IMPROVEMENTS


On Line Monitoring of APH Performance essential to track efficiency loss. 500 mw units provided with such a facility, its utilization need to be improved. Regenerative air heaters are ideal for low cost upgrade of baskets with new design and new seals to minimize leakage of air. 2% Gain in Unit Efficiency is achievable where ever new air heater replacement is warranted. A n effective Air Heater overhaul should restore efficiency by around 0.25%.

UNBURNT CARBON
UNBURNT CARBON IN ASH IS A CONTROLLABLE PARAMETER. ITS DETERMINATION SUFFERS FROM UNCERTAINTIES ON ACCOUNT OF SAMPLING ERRORS. SAMPLES ARE COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT HOPPERS TO KEEP UNBURNT CARBON LOSS IN CHECK. IN ONE OF THE STATIONS, UNBURNT CARBON WAS BEING MEASURED FROM LAST ESP FIELD? HIGH VOLUME SAMPLER IS AN EXCELLENT DEVICE FOR COLLECTING AN ISO KINETIC SAMPLE WHICH CAN BE CHECKED ON DAILY BASIS.

UNBURNT CARBON
TARGET LOSS DUE TO UNBURNT CARBON IN ASH IS GENERALLY CONSERVATIVE. IT IS INTERDEPENDENT ON OTHER LOSSES. MILL FINENESS NEEDS TO BE CLOSELY MONITORED. COAL DISTRIBUTION IS KEY TO REDUCE THIS LOSS. EFFECTIVE AIR DISTRIBUTION HELPS IN REDUCING THIS LOSSS.

Boiler Efficiency Tests/Full load, Part load Auxiliary Power Consumption/Analyse Losses.
Heat losses Design 3.65 2.00 5.50 Uncorrected Test Value

Last Test
Dry Gas Loss Unburnt C loss Wet flue gas loss CO Loss Moisture in Air Loss Radiation & Unacc. Loss Boiler Efficiency % % % % % % % 5.90 0.76 6.42

Test
5.93 0.73 6.55

0
0.35 0.2/0.8 87.5

0.01
0.09 1.00 85.83

0.01
0.16 1.00 85.62

UNBURNT CARBON IN ASH - A CONTROLLABLE PARAMETER

Load Average Oxygen

177 4.1

190 3.3

183 2.8

183 3.2

172 4.1

Unburnt Carbon in Flyash - Left Unburnt Carbon in Flyash - Right

4.0 3.9

6.2 5.1

7.1 5.1

5.2 5.6

2.4 2.3

SPARAY RATES

H. R. DEVIATION ON ACCOUNT OF VARIATION IN SPRAY RATE SHOULD BE INVESTIGATED. SPRAY RATE - DEVIATION IS DEPENDENT ON TYPE OF COAL, EXCESS AIR LEVEL , MILL COMBINATION & AVAILABILITY OF BURNER TILT CONTROL.. . FURNACE CLEANLINESS AFFECT SPRAY RATES WHICH IS COAL DEPENDENT. THIS COULD BE EVEN A DESIGN PROBLEM.

Typical HR multiplier vs RH Attemperation Curve


1.001 1

HR multiplier

0.999 0.998 0.997 0.996 0.995 0 0.5 1 1.5

y = -0.0015500x + 1.0000000 R2 = 0.9987529

2.5

3.5

RH Att (%)

ESP Performance-linkage with Boiler Efficiency


ESPs handle very high flue gas volumes. Particulate properties and gas stream conditions dictate ESP Performance. Particle Size distribution, ash resisitivity, flue gas flow , Coal quality and process temperature affect the ability of ash to be collected and removed from ESPs. Increase in flue gas velocities and temperature in Electric fields can all be related to degradation of boiler and Air heater Performance. A good part of this can be ascribed to Coal.

ROUTINE PERFORMANCE TESTING


ROUTINE PERFORMANCE TESTS TO BE CARRIED OUT WITH SPECIAL INSTRUMENTS DUALLY CALIBRATED FEEDBACK FROM SUCH TESTS WOULD FORM THE BASIS FOR TARGET FIXATION TEST PROCEDURES FOR THESE TESTS ARE IN LINE WITH PG TEST PROCEDURES. ONLY SUCH PRECSION TESTING CAN ESTABLISH REASONS FOR SPECIFIC CAUSE FOR PERFORMANCE DEGRADATION.

Overview - Boiler Performance Assessment Modules


1. Mills Performance Testing 2. A .H Performance Tests (Pre & Post Outage) 3. Boiler Efficiency Tests (Pre & Post Outage) 4. Boiler Furnace Performance Tests

5. Boiler Performance Optimization


6. Auxiliary Power Consumption Tests 7 Draft Margins Test.

Boiler Performance Optimization


To evolve an optimum operating regime for a boiler; a set of operating parameters and equipment settings for safe, reliable and efficient operation. To establish interrelationships between different operating parameters. 6 to 11 test runs are conducted using accurate Off-line instruments used as per ASME test code. To build a database by various parametric tests; a repeatable database for problem solving and diagnosis.

Optimum Combustion Performance Preservation Outline


Performance preservation requires the combined efforts of operations, maintenance, and engineering test personnel.

Boiler Performance Optimization a must to reduce CO2 emissions in coal fired plants

Boiler performance optimization regime was worked out and its effectiveness demonstrated at various stations.
Station Nominal Optimum Eff.Imp HR Imp. O2 % O 2 % % kcal/kWh (approx.)

210 MW -WR 3.8 2.5 0.3 8 210 MW 3.8 3.8 0.3 8 67.5 MW 3.5 2.4 0.4 10 210 MW-SR 3.8 0.8 - 2.54 $ 210 MW -NR 3.8 2.25 0.65 17 $ Loss in boiler efficiency on account of operation at lower level of oxygen as compared to a rated value.

Typical Optimum Combustion Regime


Unit load 205 MW Main steam flow 640-650 T/hr Total air flow 880 to 890 T/hr Control room O2% 5.5% PA header Pressure 740 mmWC W B Pressure 100 mmWC Fuel air damper closed AA dampers 10 % open Burner tilt -20 degree.

Each Outage
Rebuild pulverizer grinding elements Refurbish burners to design dimensions and tilt strokes Verify damper strokes Leak check and repair sensing lines to airflow measuring devices Inspect, repair and functionally check all dampers from inside ductwork Set airheater seals, clean baskets, check and repair sector plates and all moving parts Inspect and repair all primary and secondary dampers and ductwork Thoroughly inspect and repair all ductwork and expansion joints

Each Shift or Daily


Check fuel and ash analyses Excess oxygen on curve, airflow on curve Windbox to furnace pressure drop is optimum Feeders balanced Damper strokes proper Steam temperatures at 1005/1005F Spray flows normal Soot blower steam temperatures, pressures, and condensate drains Air heater temperature checks Normal operator checks Raw coal sizing Burner tilt angles, and similarity of angles (corner fired boilers) Air registers and air slides, impeller settings(wall fired boilers) Pulverizer coal reject quantity Pulverizer outlet temperatures Pulverizer drive motor power or amps Visual appearance of coal flames Nose arch and superheater area for slag appearance Superheater inlet for flame carryover by visual appearance Lower furnace for possible slag bridging, bright appearance Air heater inlet gas duct hoppers, hot, not plugged Normal operational checks

Each Three Months


Leak checks of airflow measuring elements Hot K calibrations of airflow measuring elements (primary and secondary) Furnace excess oxygen traverse by HVT probe to check oxygen and stratifications Measure oxygen rise from furnace to stack