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# BM 503 Basic Mathematics for Biomedical Science

1
H. . Glr
Formulae Sheet

Inverse of a 2x2
matrix
1
1
a b d b
c d c a ad bc

( (
=
( (

Solution of the
equation
2
2
1,2
0
4
2
ax bx c
b b ac
x
a
+ + =

=

Eulers equation cos sin
j
e j
u
u u

=
-
-
1
cos ( )
2
1
sin ( )
2
j j
j j
e e
e e
j
| |
| |
|
|
= +
=

Fourier series
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
n=1
0 0
2
0
2
0
( ) ( cos sin )
1 1
2 , , ( ) ,
( ) cos( )
( ) sin( )
n n
t T
t
t T
n T
t
t T
n T
t
f t a a n b n
f f a f t dt
T T
a f t n t dt
b f t n t dt
e e
e t
e
e

+
+
+
= + +
= = =
=
=

}
}
}

Condition for existence
0
0
2
( )
t T
t
f t dt
+
<
}

Fourier series
| |
0 0
n=1
2 2 -1
( ) cos ( )
, = - tan
n n
n
n n n n
n
f t a A n
b
A a b
a
e u
u

= + +
= +

Condition for existence
0
0
2
( )
t T
t
f t dt
+
<
}

Fourier series
(complex form)
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
( )
1
( )
For a real-valued function ( ) 2Re .
When is also real ( ) 2 cos .
jn t
n
n
t T
jn t
n
t
n
jn t
n
n
n
n n
n
f t c e
c f t e dt
T
f t c e
c f t c n t
e
e
e
e

=
+

=+
=
=+
=
=
=
=
=

Condition for existence
0
0
2
( )
t T
t
f t dt
+
<
}

Fourier
transformation
| |
| |
-1
( ) ( ) ( )
1
( ) ( ) ( )
2
j t
j t
G f t e dt f t
f t G e dt G
e
e
e
e e
t

= =
= =
}
}
F
F

-
( ) must be single-valued,
with a finite number of maxima, minima,
discontinuities, and ( ) .
f t
f t dt

<
}

Laplace
transformation
| |
| |
-
1
1
2
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
st
j
st
j
j
f t f t e dt F s
f t F s e ds F s
o
t
o

+

= =
= =
}
}
L
L

z-Transformation
| |
-
-1
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) Residues of ( )
k
n
f t f kT z F z
f nT F z z

= =
( =

Z

BM 503 Basic Mathematics for Biomedical Science

2
H. . Glr
Average (mean)
value
0
0
1
( )
t T
av T
t
x f t dt
+
=
}

Root-mean-
square (rms)
value (effective
value)
0
0
1/ 2
2
1
( )
t T
rms T
t
x f t dt
+
(
=
(

}

Orthogonality of
trigonometric
functions
2
0
0 for
2 for
jn jm
n m
e e d
n m
t
u u
u
t
=
=

=

}

Integration by
parts
uv uv u v ' ' =
} }

Laplace Transforms

( ) f t ( ) F s Region of Convergence
( ) t o
1
o >
( ) t
1
s
0 o >
-
( )
at
e t
1
s a +
-a o >
cos( ) ( ) t t e
2 2
( )
s
s e +

0 o >
sin( ) ( ) t t e
2 2
( ) s
e
e +

0 o >
-
( ),
( 1, 2..)
at
e t t
n

=

1
!
( )
n
n
s a
+
+
-a o >
-
cos( ) ( )
at
e t t e
2 2
( )
s a
s a e
+
+ +
a o >
-
sin( ) ( )
at
e t t e
2 2
( ) s a
e
e + +
a o >
cos( ) ( ) t t t e
2 2
2 2 2
( )
s
s
e
e

+
0 o >
sin( ) ( ) t t t e
2 2 2
2
( ) s
e
e +

0 o >
( ) ( )
0
t a f t a
a

>
( ) F s a 0 o >
1
( ) ( 1, 2..)
( 1)!
at n
e t
t n
n

=

1
( )
n
s a +
a o >
( )
d
f t
dt
( ) (0 ) sF s f
+

0
( )
t
f d t t
}

( ) F s
s

BM 503 Basic Mathematics for Biomedical Science

3
H. . Glr

BM 503 Basic Mathematics for Biomedical Science

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H. . Glr

BM 503 Basic Mathematics for Biomedical Science

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H. . Glr