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CORE Principles of ReliabilityCentered Maintenance

Rich Overman, Overman CMRP (904) 655-0787 Cell Rich@coreprinciplesllc.com

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Introduction
L Late t 1970s 1970 ushered h d in i a new era of f asset t maintenance United States Department of Defense published the seminal book entitled Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Entire industries have g grown from this one book Growth brings variability
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Definition of RCM
a logical discipline for the development of programs. g Nolan and scheduled maintenance p Heap Reliability-centered Reliability centered Maintenance: a process used to determine what must be done to ensure that any physical asset continues to do what its users wanted it to do in its present operating context. John Moubray

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Definitions of RCM
RCM is the best way to develop a maintenance improvement program. program A.M. A M Smith RCM uses a cross-functional team to develop a complete l t maintenance i t strategy t t designed d i d to t ensure inherent design reliability for a process or piece of equipment. i t Doug D Pl Plucknett k tt RCM is to identify components whose functional failures can cause unwanted consequences to ones plant or facility. Neil Bloom
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Process Variants
Jack Nicholas categorized various RCM p processes:
Classical Variants Derivatives

Result is RCM has come to mean different things to different people


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CORE Principles of RCM


Not presenting:
RCM process RCM philosophy

Primary or CORE Principles of RCM Underlying principles upon which all RCM processes are based. b d

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Core Principles of RCM


Components Fail Operational Impact Reliability Engineering Solutions

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Components Fail
Without intervention everything will eventually fail Each component has failure characteristic Nolan and Heap identified six failure characteristics

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Components Fail
Failure characteristic curves basis for all of the RCM processes One fundamental principle of RCM is identification of component failure characteristic The Th goal l is i to t attempt tt t to t understand d t d failure f il characteristic to identify appropriate i t intervention ti

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Failure Characteristics

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But There is More


It is intuitively obvious that components will fail It is possible to intervene in some way to try to prevent all failures p It is equally intuitively obvious that no company can afford to try to prevent all failures The primary purpose of RCM is to identify the appropriate intervention Simply recognizing that components fail is not sufficient ffi i t
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Core Principles of RCM


Components Fail Operational Impact Reliability Engineering Solutions

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Operational Impact
Every component failure has some degree of operational impact Direct operational impact ranges from shutting down to none Indirect operational impact is to drain resources Every failure requires resources that could be more efficiently and effectively used to increase company value
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Operational Impact
Goal of RCM
evaluate categorize Prioritize understand the operational impact of failure

Identify the appropriate intervention. intervention

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But There is More


Components fail They impact operations That knowledge, by itself, is not sufficient to identify appropriate intervention Need a logical way of organizing and evaluating l i information i f i to make k sound d intervention decisions
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Core Principles of RCM


Components Fail Operational Impact Reliability Engineering Solutions

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Reliability Engineering Solutions


Reliability Engineers used analytical q for y years techniques
Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis ( (FMECA) ) Stochastic analyses

Only logical to apply these techniques to the issue of failure intervention.


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FMECA
FMECA provides logical method for identifying failures and evaluating operational impact Every component failure leads to loss of a function Loss oss of o function u ct o has as process p ocess effect e ect FMECA process identifies and documents
Functions Functional failures F il Failure modes d Effects of failure at various levels C i i li analysis Criticality l i categorizes/prioritizing i / i i i i failure f il modes d
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FMECA
Importance of FMECA to RCM process cannot be overstated Understanding operational impact of failure is crucial to developing appropriate intervention a good FMECA will not guarantee a good RCM analysis but a bad FMECA will guarantee a bad RCM analysis.
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Stochastic Analysis
FMECA is great existing Reliability Engineering tool for understanding operational impact of failures Not sufficient for developing intervention schemes FMECA C is s foundation ou dat o but not ot e end do of RCM C p process ocess Stochastic analysis is other Reliability Engineering tool that needs to be employed Most common stochastic analysis used in RCM is Weib l analysis Weibul anal sis Weibul analysis can identify failure characteristic curve applicable li bl to failure f il mode d
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Relating Failure to Intervention


Failure characteristic defines intervention Scheduled overhaul/replacement would not work for infant mortality characteristic A random a do failure a u e characteristic c a acte st c is s more o e appropriate app op ate for applying a predictive maintenance A wear out characteristic would benefit from either a predictive maintenance or overhaul/replacement intervention Stochastic techniques provide information to determine intervention interval
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Function Preservation

Classical RCM asks:

How do I keep fl id flowing fluid fl i out of tank?

Traditional analysis asks:

How do I keep the pump p p operating? p g

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Function Preservation

What are ways to keep fluid flowing out of Tank B other than keeping the pump running? i ?
Bypass valve Standby pump Keep tank B full enough to give time to change a failed pump With a functional approach many alternatives are available

How do I keep fl id flowing fluid fl i out of tank?

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7 Steps in the RCM Process


1. System Selection 2. Systems Boundary Definitions 3. System Description 4. Identify System Functions &Functional Failures 5. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) 6 Task 6. k Selection S l i 7. Program Implementation
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Source: William A. Keeter, MQS and Jack Nicholas

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SAE Standard
1. What are the functions, performance standards in the present operating context? (Function) 2. In what ways does it fail to fulfill its functions? (Functional failure) ) 3. What causes each functional failure? (Failure mode) 4. What happens when each failure occurs? (Failure effects) 5. Why does the failure matter (Failure consequences) 6 What can be done to predict or prevent each failure? 6. 7. What should be done if a suitable task cannot be found?
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Example Analysis Water Jet Machine


Nagging Failures Worn and failed tips Lots of down time Cause Dirty Water Source Versatile Reliability-Centered Reliability Centered Maintenance
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System and Boundaries

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Water Jet Reclamation System

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Water Jet RCM Analysis


7 Functions 14 F Functional ti l Failures F il 47 Failure Modes 8 Inspections 4 Overhaul/discard 1 Failure finding 25 R Run-to-failure t f il Estimated annual savings $334K
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Conclusion
All RCM processes apply CORE Principles of RCM Must be applied to identify appropriate failure intervention Component failure must be understood Operational impact assessed Reliability Engineering tools applied
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Conclusion
Each RCM process available today applies the CORE Principles of RCM to varying degree Degree applied is indicative of overall benefit If CORE Principles of RCM applied superficially - some but limited benefit More rigorous application of the CORE Principles of RCM - enhanced benefits Degree to which CORE Principles of RCM are applied affects ff cost of f analysis l i The more a company is willing to invest in RCM the more b fit they benefit th can expect t
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