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- tmp49D6
- Identification of Power Quality Disturbances Using the MATLAB Wavelet Transform Toolbox
- wavelet based DVR FOR POWER QUALITY IMPROVEMENT
- Power Quality Event
- An Overview of the Research on Plant Leaves Disease detection using Image Processing Techniques
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- pq
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- chapter_3
- Simulation of Fir Filter Banks Using Daubechies Wavelet With Orthonormal Basis Functions
- Power Quality Solutions for Industry
- [203] Fabric Defect Detection Using Multi-level Tuned-matched Gabor Filters
- Ref 6. Detección de tapa suelta y anillo de seguridad para botellas de vidrio farmacéutico.
- SAGEEP10gf
- Wavelet Paper
- E-66

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Power Quality Problem Classification Based on Wavelet Transform and a Rule-Based method

Chuah Heng keow*, Perumal Nallagownden**, K.S. Rama Rao***.

Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, University Technology PETRONAS. *hkchuah@yahoo.com,**perumal@petronas.com.my, ***ksramarao@petronas.com.my

Abstract This paper describes a Wavelet Transform and Rule-Based method for detection and classification of various events of power quality disturbances. In this model, wavelet Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) technique was used to decompose the signal into its various details and approximation signals, and unique features from the 1st , 4th , 7th and 8th level detail are obtained as criteria for classifying the type of disturbance occurred. These features and together with the duration of disturbance of occurrence obtained from 1st level of detail, they form the criteria for a Rule-Based software algorithm for detecting different kinds of power quality disturbances effectively. It is presented in this paper that the choice of sampling frequency is important since it affects the average energy profile of the details and eventually may cause error in detection of power quality disturbances. The model is tested by using MATLAB toolbox. The simulation produces satisfactory result in identifying the disturbance and proof that it is possible to use this model for power disturbance classification. Since the method can reduce the number of parameters needed in classification, less memory space and computing time are required for its implementation. Thus it stands up to be a suitable model to be used in real time implementation through a dsPIC- based embedded system. Index Termspower quality, multi resolution analysis, wavelet, Rule- Based algorithm.

OTH Electric utilities supplier and end user are increasingly aware of the effects of power quality of the power supply on the load equipments. The concern is growing because equipments are now more sensitive to power quality variation than in the past. The equipments used are mostly digital or processor-based or contained power electronic components which are sensitive to power disturbances. A poor quality supply may cause the equipment to malfunction or shorten their life span. Malfunctioned equipment may in turn add more disturbances into the power system, and these effects can be critical and can have serious consequences if these equipments are life saving equipments installed and used in the hospitals and medical centres. Power quality events such as voltage transients may cause a microprocessor to read voltage levels incorrectly, resulting in incorrect data processing (ones being read like zeros) or altered stored data/settings [1]. Therefore, mitigation of power quality disturbances becomes essential in order to safeguard these critical and sensitive load equipments, as well as to improve their efficiency. But before mitigation measures can be deployed, it is imperative to monitor and detect the type of disturbances that have occurred in the power line

I. INTRODUCTION

so that the sources of the trouble can be pinpointed and corrective measures can be applied to mitigate them. Power disturbance signals are mostly non-stationary waves, the disturbances occur just for a short duration of time and are non repetitive except a few other such as harmonics, flicker and etc. To analyze the signals, a method that can provide both time and frequency information is needed. A normal Fourier Transform is not a suitable tool to be used to analyze the signal because it only provides spectral information of the signal without the time localization information which is necessary to determine the time and the duration of occurrence of the disturbance [2]. Time frequency analysis technique is more appropriate for analyzing non-stationary signal because it provides both time and spectral information of the signal. Among them Short Time Fourier Transform (SFT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) have been frequently used by many researcher to analyze this type of signal. However, SFT uses a fixed window to shift in time to analyze the signal is inadequate for the practical power disturbances which usually involve a wide range of frequencies. DWT is preferred because it employs a flexible window to detect time-frequency variations which results in a better time-frequency resolution as compares to SFT [3]. T. Jayasree, at al. [4] proposed a wavelet based Radial Basis Neural Network method to classify type of transient disturbance. In this paper, disturbance signal is decomposed into its details and approximation by using Wavelet Multi Resolution Analysis technique (MRA) and features are extracted from these signals by applying Shanon entropy. This feature vector representing a specific disturbance signal is then fed into a Radial Basis Neural Network for classification. Zwe-Lee Gaing [5] also used wavelet MRA technique to decompose the signal into its approximation and details and features of the signal are obtained by computing the average energy for each detailed level of the signal. This paper proposes a Probabilistic Neural Network for classification based on the features extracted from the details. Both proposed method need a large amount of training sample for the network to learn and both facing the same difficulty in selecting the appropriate sample for each set of disturbance in order to obtain optimized performance for classification. Zhang Ming et al. [6] proposed a method that simultaneously adapts RMS and FFT technique for

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feature extraction from the disturbance signal. A Rule Based Decision Tree (RBDT) algorithm is then used to classify the power signal. This method reduces the computational burden as it does not employ a Neural Network for classification. This paper proposes an alternative wavelet based method and a Rule based Algorithm using features extracted from decomposed signal by MRA technique for signal disturbance classification. As it does not employ Neural Network for classification, it has less computational burden and is suitable for real time application using DSP chip. II. WAVELET TRANSFORM AND MULTI RESOLUTION ANALYSIS (MRA) The discrete wavelet transform resolves sampled signal into its approximation and details by using the scaling function and wavelet function respectively. The MRA technique of the wavelet transform decomposes the original signal into several other details and approximation with different levels of resolution. From these decomposed signals, the original signal in time domain can be recovered without losing any information by applying inverse wavelet transform. The recursive mathematical representation of MRA [5] is presented as in (1).

W [ j , n] = W [ j 1, m]h[ 2n m ]

m =0

N 1

(2) (3)

Wh [ j, n] =

W [ j 1, m ]g [ 2 n m ]

m=0

N 1

Where, W[j,n] is the output of the low pass-filter representing the scaling coefficient at level j. Wh[j,n]is the output of the high-pass filter representing the detailed coefficient at level j. n is the number of sample of the input signal to filter. Fig. 1 illustrates the decomposition of the signal using the filter bank concept. The output from the filter is down sampling so that the number of output samples is half of the number of input signal samples. Down sampling is done by eliminating every alternative value of the output sample. Fig. 2 illustrates the MRA technique using filter bank concept. It generates 3 details and one approximation.

LPF h[k] 2 W[1,m]

x[n ]

g[k] HPF Fig. 1. Implementation of wavelet transform using filter bank concept. g[k] 2 Wh[1,m] 2 Wh[1,m]

(1)

Where Vj+1 is the approximated component of the sampled signal at level j+1. Wj+1 is the detailed component of the sampled signal at level j+1. denotes the summation of two decomposed signals n is the decomposition level. For example, to get the original signal V0 (the original signal is equal to finding the approximated component at j = 0) with decomposition level of n = 3, the original signal can be reconstructed by substituting j = 0 and n = 3 into (1). The result will be as follows:

V0 = W1 W2 W3 V3

x[n]

h[k] 2 g[k] h[k] 2 g[k] h[k] 2 W[3,m] 2 2

Wh[2,m]

The original signal is equal to the sum of all retails and the approximation of the last level. In another word, the signal can be decomposed into 3 details and one approximation at level 3 decomposition. Actually, the wavelet function h acts like a digital high- pass filter to generate the detailed component of the original signal while the scaling function g acts as lowpass filter to produce the approximated component of the original signal. In general both functions can be defined as in (2) and (3).

Wh[3,m]

III. FEATURE EXTRACTION From the above analysis, it is observed that different disturbances have the signal average energy distributed among the decomposed details in a different pattern. By using Daubechies 4 wavelet function, these signals are

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decomposed into 13 levels and the energy of each detail is calculated to obtain the feature profile. The energy for each detailed level is as in (4).

The transient distortion causes the distributed average energy to be more in level 8 (for 12.8 KHz sampling frequency) than in level 7.

TABLE I

FREQUENCY BANK DISTRIBUTION FOR 12.8KHZ SAMPLING RATE

(4)

Frequency range Approximation (a) 0 to 3.2KHz 0 to 1.6KHz 0 to 800Hz 0 to 400Hz 0 to 200Hz 0 to 100Hz 0 to 50Hz 0 to 25Hz TABLE 2 Detailed (d) 3.2K to 6.4kHz 1.6K to 3.2KHz 800Hz to 1.6KHz 400Hz to 800Hz 200Hz to 400Hz 100Hz to 200Hz 50H to 100Hz 25Hz to 50Hz

Fig. 3 shows example of the energy profile plotted for 5 types of disturbances; transient, harmonic interrupt, pure sine and sag. By observing the average energy distribution profile of each disturbance, all signals have a decomposition energy peak at the 7th level except for transient disturbance which has a peak at the 8th level. This feature can be used as one of the criteria for identifying one transient signal from the other.

Transient peaks at level 8.

Decomposition level (fs=6.4KHz) 1 2 Harmonic has higher energy value at level 4 than the other. 3 4 5 6 7 Fig. 3. Average energy distribution profile for the decomposed signal 8

Frequency range Approximation (a) 0 to 1.6KHz 0 to 800Hz 0 to 400Hz 0 to 200Hz 0 to 100Hz 0 to 50Hz 0 to 25Hz 0 to 12.5Hz Detailed (d) 1.6K to3.2KHz 800Hz to 1.6KHz 400Hz to 800Hz 200Hz to 400Hz 100Hz to 200Hz 50H to 100Hz 25Hz to 50Hz 12.5Hz to 25Hz

Nevertheless, the level where the peak appears for the signal is relied on the sampling rate. In MRA, since both the high pass filter and the low pass filter are half band, the decomposition in frequency domain for a signal sampled with a sampling frequency of fs can be demonstrated as in Fig. 4. Table 1 shows the frequency range for each approximated and detailed level by using a 12.8 KHz sampling rate. And Table 2 presents the results table using 6.4 KHz as sampling rate. From Table 1, it is clear that the fundamental frequency of the signal which

signal a1 a2 a3 fs/16 d3 fs/8 fs/4 fs/2 d1

is 50 Hz in this case lies between level 7 and 8 and thus level 7 contains the highest average energy distributed after decomposition. But with sampling rate of 6.4 KHz, the fundamental frequency is between level 6 and 7, therefore the peak appears at level 6 instead of level 7.

Fig. 5 shows the 1st level detail of transient disturbance. The waveform has almost zero value for most of the points except around the points where the transient occurred. The amplitude varies for a very short period of time and settles down quickly to zero. The duration of variation is usually less than half a cycle of the fundamental frequency. This duration together with the unique peak average energy which only occurs at level 8 (for fs equals to 12.8 KHz) can be taken as the criteria for identifying transient disturbance from other disturbances. Fig. 6 shows the 1st level detail of harmonic disturbance. Since it is a stationary wave, it shows the characteristic of repetition which is not found in the other 5 disturbances. Therefore this feature is used as one of the factor for identification of harmonic signal. The other feature is shown in Fig. 3. Its average energy at 4th level detailed sub-signal is higher than all the others. A minimum threshold value can be used so that the waveform which has an average energy at 4th level detailed higher than this threshold value, together with the characteristic of repetition, should be identified as having harmonic distortion. A pure sine wave contains no high frequency components. Therefore it shows no variation in its 1st

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Fig. 8. 1st level detailed sub-signal for sag disturbance. Fig. 5. 1st level detailed sub-signal for transient disturbance.

IV. SIMULATION AND RULE-BASED ALGORITHM MATLAB tool is used to test for the feasibility of the proposed method for power disturbances detection and classification. The input signal is generated by MATLAB programming language using formulas in [9]. Some of these signals are shown in Fig. 11. Six classes of discrete waveforms are generated; each consists of 40 test signals. These samples are pure sine wave (frequency = 50 Hz, amplitude = 1) with d.c. offset, sag, swell, interrupt, transient and harmonic. To create a variety of test signals the signals in the same class are generated so that they are different from each other by having different amplitude and duration of occurrence of the disturbance. All signals are generated with 256 points per cycle (fs = 12.8 KHz) for 50 cycles. By referring to the Rule-Based Algorithm shown in Fig. 13, the generated test signal is first decomposed by using the MATLABs wavelet commands; wavedec() and wrcoef(). This signal is decomposed into 13 levels by using Daubechies wavelet (db2) [10]. Fig. 12 illustrates these sub-signals of sag disturbance after decomposition. Table 3 summarized features that are unique for each disturbance. Based on these features, an algorithm as in Fig. 13 is constructed to classify the type of disturbance occurred in a signal. The energy of the detailed versions for 4th, 7th and 8th are then calculated using (4). The duration of disturbance, the starting time, ending time of disturbance and whether it is repetitive or not are obtained by referring to the 1st level detailed version of the signal. If the duration is zero, the signal may be a pure sine, a momentary swell/overvoltage or a momentary sag/undervoltage. Under this situation, the RMS value is calculated using (5). If the RMS value (Vrms) obtained is 1.1 higher than the pure sine Value, Vn then it is classified as momentary swell or may be overvoltage because the duration of disturbance last longer than 30 cycles [8].

level detail as shown in Fig. 7. A momentary swell/overvoltage or momentary sag/undervoltage supply problem will also show the same characteristic. To differentiate them from each other, RMS value for half a cycle of the signal is calculated and the value obtained is used to make the decision. The RMS value for half cycle is calculated as in (5).

V rms =

1 m

n+m n

X [n]

(5)

Where, m is the number of point in half cycle, n is the starting point of the half cycle. The 1st level detailed waveform of sag, swell and interrupt disturbances all show distinctive variation in amplitude during the start and the end of the disturbance as shown in Figs. 8, 9 and 10. The duration of occurrence can have a value between half a cycle to 30 cycles which is equivalent to 0.01 sec to 0.6 sec (fundamental frequency = 50 Hz) [8]. This feature can be used as one of the factor for detecting the occurrence of these signals. To differentiate them from each other, the RMS value for a half cycle after the start of the disturbance is calculated using (5). According to IEEE specification [8], the voltage magnitude ( RMS value ) for swell is 1.1 pu to 1.8 pu, if the RMS value calculated is 1.1 times higher than the normal signal (which is equal to 0.707 Vp) then we have a swell disturbance. If this value is in the range of 0.1 to 0.9 pu [8] of the normal value (Vn), then the disturbance is classified as sag. If it is below 0.1 part of normal value, it is classified as interrupt.

680

TABLE 3 Unique features for the disturbance signal Feature signal Pure sine From 1st level detailed duration repeat 0 no Level 4 detail energy Peak energy At Level 7th At Level 8th At Level 7th At Level 7th At Level 7th At Level 7th cycle Vrms after occurrence (a)

transcient

<1/2 cycle -

no

harmonic

yes

highest

(b)

interrupt

no

<0.1Vn

Sag

no

swell

no

If Vrms is lower than 0.9 of Vn , the signal will be identified as having momentary sag or undervoltage disturbance. Otherwise, it will be a pure sine wave without disturbances. A non-zero repetitive duration denotes that harmonic distortion is present in the signal. Next, level 4th average energy is compared to a threshold value (Vth), if it is lower, the harmonic distortion level is low, else it is quite substantial. If the duration obtained is non-zero but with a time value less than the time for half a cycle (0.01 s for 50Hz signal) of the signal, further tests on whether the peak average energy is on level 8th is needed to confirm that an impulsive transient disturbance has occurred in the signal. For duration of disturbance greater than half a cycle, the disturbance in the signal is either sag, swell or interrupt. To distinguish one from the other, the RMS value for half a cycle after the start of the disturbance is calculated. This value is used to compare with the Vn and if it is greater than 1.1 of Vn, the disturbance is identified as swell. If it is greater than 0.1 of Vn, it will be sag, otherwise it is interrupt. V. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION The results of the simulation in Table 3 shows that it is feasible to classify the type of power quality disturbance using MRA technique together with Rule Based Algorithm even though there is some difficulty

(c) Fig. 11. (a) sag signal (b) swell signal (c) harmonic

in detecting the sag with a shallow dip. The program is fast because it is not computational intensive. The effect of noise disturbance on this model is not covered in this paper. It will be reported in the future research work. A further research work also can include employing real distorted signals measured by the digital recorder as test signals instead of the simulated signals, and the real time implementation through a dsPIC based hardware.

TABLE 4

CLASSIFICATION RESULT

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Start MRA decomposition Calculate energy level at level 4th , 7th and 8th Determine Duration from 1st level sub signal Yes Calculate RMS value

Period=0? No Yes

Yes

Repetition ? No

No

No

harmonic

Pure sine

End Yes >1.1Vn? No No >0.1Vn? Yes sag End Peak at level 8th ? Yes transient Un-identified No

swell

interrupt

End Fig. 13. Rule Based Algorithm Flowchart Z. L Gaing, Wavelet based neural network for power disturbance recognition and classification, IEEE trans. Power Delivery, Vol.19, no.4,pp-1560-1568, Oct 2004. [6] Zhang Ming , Li Kaicheng, Hu Yisheng. DSP-FPGA Based Realtime Power Quality Disturbances Classifier, Metrol. Meas. Syst., Vol. XVII (2010), No. 2. [7] Michael Weeks, Digital Signal Processing Using MATLAB And Wavelet, Infinity Science Press LLC,2007,pp.275-338 [8] IEEE Recommanded Practice For Monitoring Electric Power , IEEE Standard 1159, 2009 [9] M. Karthikeyan, V. Malathi, Wavelet Support Vector Machine Approach for classification of Power Quality Disturbances, International Journal of Recent Trends in Engineering , Vol 1, No. 3, May 2009. [10] James S. Walker, A Primer On Wavelets And Their Scientific Applications, Chapman & Hall/CRC, 1999, pp.2-92 [5]

VI [1]

REFERENCES

Syed M. Islam, Tom Larsen, William . B. Lawrance, D. RamrezCastro , E. Neil-Carrillo J. Santiago-Prez, Power Quality Issues In hospital,available: http://www.itee.uq.edu.au/~aupec/aupec01/013_Islam_AUPEC'01 paper%20revised.pdf Quinquis, Digital Signal Processing using Matlab, ISTE WILEY, 2008,pp.279-305. Robi Polikar (07 March 1999), The Engineers Ultimate Guide to Wavelet Analysis, available: http://users.rowan.edu/~polikar/WAVELETS/WTtutorial.html T. Jayasree, D. Devaraj, R. Sukanesh. Classification of Transients using Wavelet Based Entropy Radial Basis Neural Networks, International Journal of Computer and Electrical Engineering ,Vol.1, No.5, December, 2009.

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