Jamal Fathi Abu Hasna

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Jamal Fathi Abu Hasna

© All Rights Reserved

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Jamal Fathi Abu Hasna

Abstract-This paper presents an experimental system for the The recognition process starts with the search and the

recognition of North Cyprus-style car license plates. Images are extraction of the portion of the original image containing the

usually taken from a camera at a toll gate and preprocessed by a fast car plate, or even any part of the car. The characters

and robust 1-D DFT scheme to find the plate and character contained in the plate are localized by a robust processing

positions. We examine a new wavelet video method of processing

using a non-traditional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT),

signals for continuous-wave.

and subsequently isolated and classified by the neural

network.

Keywords- Feedforward, Denoising, WaveNet, and Discrete

Fourier Transform.

The scores are validated by a post-processor which takes into

account the syntax of Cyprus-style plates.

The processing of video data in real time is considered to be

I. INTRODUCTION somewhat impractical given the current state of technology.

C ar license recognition is important in several fields of

application:

The utility of such processing in real-world applications

would therefore seem to be limited. However, recent

traffic control in restricted areas; developments at Trident Systems, Incorporated have made

automatic payment of tolls on highways or bridges; available real-time wavelet processing of video, in the form of

general security systems wherever there is the need of the WaveNet technology [2]. Also, in the future a variety of

identifying vehicles. fast architectures for computing wavelet transforms will

Some approaches exist and have been described in literature. surely be developed. With respect to a recently published

They are mainly based on pattern matching and normalized work, our approach is able to reduce the complexity of the

correlation with a large database of stored templates. learning phase (no feature extraction and pattern matching

In this paper we describe an experimental system for the are required). The character recognition has been speeded up

recognition of Cyprus-style car license plates. The system is by the parallel architecture of the FNN. The algorithm has

based on the use of a feedforward neural network (FNN). This been tested on a workstation and the Matlab software.

learning approach has been shown to guarantee high rates of

convergence and properties of stability and robustness of the

solution. The data at hand consist of digitized images of cars,

acquired by a high-resolution x4 photo camera and collected

in a Photo CD. The processed images (see Fig.1) are 390 by

480 pixels wide. The distance and the angle of view simulate

a car passing through a toll gate.

Manuscript received June 26, 2006. This work was supported in part by the To improve performance for noisy Doppler signals, we apply

Near East University, Electrical & Electronics Engineering, North Cyprus, Donoho’s O (n) wavelet denoising algorithm [3]. The

Turkey via Mersin-10, KKTC.

Jamal Fathi Abu Hasna was born in Tulkarm on November 19, 1964. He came algorithm first does the discrete wavelet transform with

to the North Cyprus in 1997, and graduated with a Mallat’s pyramid algorithm [4].

Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical & Electronics

Engineering from Near East University in 1998-99. He The pyramid algorithm computes the transform for some J

continued to the graduate program at Near East dyadic levels of scale, resulting in vectors of detail and

University and completed the Master of Science in 2000- smooth wavelet coefficients d1, d2,…,dJ-1,sJ.

2001 and continued the Doctor of Philosophy degrees in

2001 and now in process.

The algorithm then shrinks the detail coefficients for scales

His current interests include neural computing, adaptive signal processing, j J 1 to obtain d1 , d2 ,..dJ 1 . Here the d j are

cellular communications, control systems, and wavelets,

Phone: 00905338658472, mail: jamalfathi2004@yahoo.com, d (d ) ,

j j j j

where ( x) is a nonlinear threshold shrinkage function III. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS FOR PATTERN

RECOGNITION

given by

The continuous wavelet transform correlates a Doppler signal

with time-localized wavelets at various scales and shifts. It

0 if | x | gives the change in local signal scale over time, which in this

( x )

case is the Doppler period or inverse frequency. When a

sign( x)(| x | ) if | x |

moving window is placed on the incoming Doppler signal

This threshold shrinkage function is shown in Fig 2.

and the windowed signal is wavelet transformed, the

δλσ(x) corresponding time-varying transform imagery constitutes

video. Samples of this wavelet-generated video over time

then form signal features for pattern recognition neural

networks. These networks are then trained to extract the

Doppler frequency shift over time. This frequency shift is

-λσ

critical information for proximity sensing.

x The continuous wavelet transform constitutes a frame rather

λσ than a basis. Such a redundant representation allows more

flexibility in the selection of signal features. In terms of the

most efficient signal representation, these features should be

orthogonal. However, such a representation in which the

features are completely independent is less robust with respect

to noise immunity and fault tolerance. The search for the best

Fig. 2 Nonlinear threshold shrinkage function for wavelet denoising representation is therefore a tradeoff between redundancy and

robustness [5].

The threshold shrinkage function δλσ(x) is parameterized by a

threshold λand an estimate of the standard deviation of the

noise σ. We use a universal threshold j 2log( N ) ,

the median absolute deviation, which is a robust estimation of

standard deviation. Fig. 4 Noisy Image

Finally, the wavelet denoising algorithm computes the inverse

discrete wavelet transform using the new coefficients

d1 , d2 ,..dJ 1 , d J , s J

This results in a non-parametric estimate of the signal

without the noise. The entire wavelet denoising algorithm is

shown in Fig. 3. Coefficient Fig. 5 Denoised Image

Shrinkage

d1

We extract the Doppler shift with feedforward multilayer

neural networks, known as multilayer perceptrons [6]. After

computing the continuous wavelet transform of the denoised

Denoised Doppler signal, we sample the transform coefficients to

Noisy d2

Image provide inputs for the multilayer perceptrons. The networks

Image

are trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt [7][8] rule to

Inverse provide the Doppler shift at a given time. This rule is a

DWT d3 DWT powerful generalization of gradient descent that employs an

approximation of Newton’s method. It is much faster than

standard gradient descent algorithms such as

d4 backpropagation, although it does require more memory.

s4

In our scheme we place a window of fixed width over the

Wavelet incoming signal, so as to localize the processing near the

Coefficients present time. We then perform a continuous wavelet

Fig. 3 Wavelet denoising algorithm, where noisy Image and the transform on the signal within the window, resulting in an

denoised one are shown in fig 4, and fig 5. image of the transform. As the signal window then moves

forward in time, the corresponding sequence of transform

images forms a video. From this wavelet transform video, we less useful, smaller scale signal structures can therefore be

then extract features as input to pattern recognition disregarded. Neglecting unnecessary details allows a

algorithms such as artificial neural networks. This is shown reduction in the amount of data to be processed. This in turn

in fig 6. reduces the complexity of the processing, leading to

Our model has the generation of wavelet transform video improvements in processing time, system size, and system

from time varying camera proximity fuze signal. Temporary cost.

expansion of dimensionality allows us to extract salient This reduction of data through the explicit use of scale is a

features, leading to reduced computational complexity powerful form of data compression. While there are several

other strategies for data compression, this one has the

advantage of being based on the extraction of signal features.

One- Through wavelet transform time integration, a single

Dimensional coefficient provides the correlation between the signal and a

window wavelet at a particular scale and time shift. Wavelets are

Sensor Time known to provide good signal features for pattern recognition

signal algorithms such as artificial neural networks. Indeed, natural

Time-Varying Moving In Time

sensors such as eyes and ears carry out wavelet-type

Continuous wavelet signal in processing.

transform window The continuous wavelet transform effectively increases the

Two-Dimensional

Shift window dimensionality of the signal representation from one to two.

While this might cause some concern at first glance, it is

really not a problem. The reason is that the wavelet

Scale representation will be used to extract signal features only.

Thus the pattern recognition neural networks need not suffer

Wavelet Video from the “curse of dimensionality.” After all, the extracted

features Moving In Pattern features are of a single dimension only, so that the increase in

Time Recognition dimensionality is only temporary. Indeed, because of the high

Video From time- Neural Net quality of wavelet features, it is quite possible that fewer

varying Image in features will be needed, and that recognition performance will

window be improved.

Mallat’s multiresolution analysis [9] leads to discrete

Fig. 6 Proposed Model orthogonal wavelets at dyadic scales and shifts, implemented

via the efficient pyramid algorithm. These discrete wavelets

Proximity sensing is widely applied in manufacturing have been successful in many applications, particularly data

automation and robotics. More recently, there has also been a compression. However, discrete wavelets have limited utility

strong interest in proximity sensing for automobile collision for pattern recognition problems. This is because interesting

avoidance. Our proposed method is also applicable to signal structures are not constrained to follow such power-of-

processing signals in sonar sensors. two patterns. In particular, discrete wavelet transform

coefficients are shift-variant, which in general causes

V. ADVANTAGES OF OUR APPROACH problems for pattern recognition.

Besides, in our proposed scheme, wavelet video processing is In contrast, the continuous wavelet transform has coefficients

not a particular computational hindrance, but rather allows at all scales and shifts, not just dyadic ones. The continuous

salient features to be extracted via the wavelet coefficients. transform therefore has the desirable property of shift

Because of the quality of the wavelet video features, it is invariance. Another advantage of continuous wavelets is that

likely that fewer numbers of inputs will be needed for pattern they have less stringent requirements for admissibility, which

recognition. In this sense our scheme could be considered to allows a wider choice of basis functions. They also have the

be a form a data compression. possibility of being basis functions for adaptive wavelet

In particular, it seems to be a form of data compression that is networks.

ideal for pattern recognition. Through the inclusion of all scales and shifts, the continuous

The multiresolution nature of wavelets also allows us to wavelet transform effectively increases the dimensionality of

explore the tolerance of imprecision in the processing of the signal representation. That is, the representation is made

signals. This provides the freedom to tailor the design of the to be a function of two variables rather than one. We note

sensor to the resolution requirements of the signals being that the discrete wavelet transform introduces no such

processed. This tolerance of imprecision is in the spirit of increase in dimensionality, since the number of transform

fuzzy logic, but in this case the imprecision is in the scale of coefficients is the same as the number of signal sample

the signal structures rather than in the membership of sets. points. This is because the discrete wavelet transform

The important idea is that useful information in signals is employs an orthonormal basis rather than an over complete

generally found at the larger scales (lower frequencies). The frame.

However, the fact that we are using the continuous wavelet

transform coefficients merely for feature extraction means

that we need not be plagued by the curse of increased

dimensionality. In particular, the goal is to use only the

relatively few coefficients that provide the best features. In

fact, the use of such high quality features may well mean that (e)

fewer numbers of inputs will be needed for the pattern

recognition neural networks. Of course, these high quality

features are also likely to improve the performance of the

neural networks.

Our scheme could therefore be considered a form a data

compression. The temporary increase in dimensionality

could then improve compression quality, at least when

measured with respect to pattern recognition performance.

If we disregard the issue of dimensionality, it might still be

argued that computation of the discrete wavelet transform is

faster, which has complexity O (n) . However, a continuous

wavelet transform implemented via the fast Fourier transform (f)

has complexity O (n log n) , which is still quite acceptable for

many applications. Also, a continuous wavelet transform has

the potential for massive parallelism, and allows the

possibility of adaptive wavelet bases [10]

These practical experiments taken using the proposed model

for not only the plates, also for the body of the car, and these Fig. 7 (a), (b), and (c) Samples of wavelet-generated video for

experiments are as shown in fig 7 below. training and testing inputs to pattern recognition neural networks,

while (d), (e) and (f) are the outputs of the proposed model.

VII. CONCLUSION

(a) We have just demonstrated the effectiveness of features

extracted from wavelet-generated video, and We tested the

pattern recognition performance of such features in the

estimation of time varying Doppler shift from noisy sensor

signals. In particular, we sampled the wavelet video; we saw

that the frequency estimation performance of the neural

(b) networks is overall good.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

My deepest thanks are to Prof. Dr. Senol Bektas, and to Prof.

Dr. Fakhraddin Mamedov. I would like to express my

gratitude to my collegues in the department. Also I would like

to express my gratitude to my family.

(c)

REFERENCES

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Networks, vol.7, no.6, November 1996.

[2]. P. Comelli, P. Ferragina, M. Notturno Granieri, and F.

Stabile, “Optical recognition of motor vehicle license

(d)

plates,” IEEE Trans. On Vehicular Technology, Vol.

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[3]. S.Haykin, Neural Networks-A Comprehensive

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[4] A. Papoulis, Probability Random Variables and

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mathématique, Pour la Science, (1995).

[9]. Chui, C.K. (1992a), Wavelets: a tutorial in theory and

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[10]. Cohen, A. (1995), Wavelets and multiscale signal

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[11]. Cohen, A.; I. Daubechies, B. Jawerth, P. Vial (1993),

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