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Penginderaan Jauh Oseangrafi

Discovering The Sea Ice From Space :


Artic Ice Extent
Astrini Nurul Sentanu

NIM 12910016

PROGRAM STUDI OSEANOGRAFI


FAKULTAS ILMU DAN TEKNOLOGI KEBUMIAN INSTITUT TEKNOLOGI BANDUNG - 2013

SEA ICE ?

SEA ICE

Frozen seawater that floats on the ocean surface Most significat feature of the polar ocean environment It forms, grows, and melts in the ocean. In contrast, icebergs, glaciers, and ice shelves float in the ocean but originate on land

http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/quickfacts/images/seaice_04.jpg

SEA ICE

Sea Ice ada di :

Kutub Utara - Artic Kutub Selatan Antartic

Efek dari sea ice untuk manusia

Massa air (T,S) di Greenland dan Norwegia

Overturning Global Thermohaline Ocean Circulation [ Rahmstorf, 2006]

Climate modelling Biological monitoring Resource access National defence Tourism & Navigation

SEA ICE ARTIC FROM SPACE

Dangerous !

Extreme Climate Hi-Cost

IDE UTAMA

Sea Ice memantulkan 80% cahaya matahari Whiter Laut menyerap 90% cahaya matahari Darker

Kondisi Artic :

70% - 90% ditutupi awan Saat malam kutub utara benar-benar gelap

Emisivitas Es Air Laut

PASSIVE MICROWAVE RADIOMETRY

Kelebihan :

Awan tidak mengemisikan radiasi microwave Tidak terpengaruh dengan matahari (day & night observ.) Es mengemisikan microwave energy lebih banyak dari liquid water in the ocean

The most complete, long-term obsrv. of sea ice : NSIDC


ESMR 1972 electrically scanning microwave radiometer SMMR 1978 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Rad SSM/I 1987 Special Sensor Microwave/Imager ASMR-E 2002 Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer E (Oct 2011)

AMSR-E
Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System

Aqua Satellite 4 Mei 2002

12 channel, 6 frekuensi, conically-scanning, passive microwave radiometer Horizontally & vertically polarized microwave radiation
89GHz - 4x6 km2 19GHz 16x27km2 (weather filters; mendeteksi es palsu)

Footprint size :

Spesifikasi AMSR-E

AMSR-E

Measure :

Terrestrial Oceanic Global water Energy cycles Precipitation rate Sea surface temperature Sea ice concetration Snow water equivalent Soil moisture Wind speed Water vapor

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:The_Aqua_Satellite.jpg

Sun synchronous, near-polar orbit Equatorial Crossing : 1:30 p.m., acsending node Inclination : 98 Altitude : 705 km Period : 99 minutes Semi-major Axis : 7085 km Eccentricity : 0.0015

Satellite Monitoring

Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (oct 1978) Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Microwave Imager (1987) Aqua (2002)

ARTIST Sea Ice (ASI) Algoritm

[1]

Artic Radiation and Tubulence Interaction Study Sea Ice Concentration Extent

ARTIST Sea Ice (ASI) Algoritm

[2]

Untuk mengetahui semua konsentrasi es dari 0% - 100% perlu dilakukan interpolasi dari solusi (eq.8) dan (eq.9)

AMSR-E : Weather Filters


89GHz channels : hasilnya dipengaruhi oleh awan (cloud liquid water) dan uap air Tahap Filter Cuaca :

a. GR 36.5/8.7 GHz Channels

Menghilangkan pengaruh awan menghilangkan uap air Koreksi es palsu

[Gloersen & Cavalieri, 1986]

b. GR 23.8/18.7GHz

[Cavalieri et al., 1995]

c. C(Bootstrap) = 0

AMSR-E Validation and Error Estimation

In-situ measurements

Field camp (UNISOVIET) Buoy (1979 2011)

Komposit data peta harian, bulanan selama 30 tahun

Contoh Peta

Artic Seasonal Cycle

Artic Extent Area

Artics Change VIDEO

Kesimpulan

ASMR-E memberikan resolusi spasial yg besar Dapat menghasilkan data siang dan malam Rata-rata extent

5.7 x 106 Km2 untuk musim dingin 7.0 x 106 Km2 di musim panas

Perubahan luas area es artic - siklus

Daftar Pustaka

Donlon, C. J., M. Martin, J. Stark, J. Roerts-Jones, and E. Fiedler (2010),The operational sea surface temperature and sea ice analysis (OSTIA). Remote Sens. Environ., submitted to AATSR Special Issue Meier,Walt ( ), The Way Forward for Calibrating Sea Ice Product. National Snow and Ice Data Center R.G. Barry, J. Maslanik, K. Steffen, R.L. Weaver,V. Troisi,D.J. Cavalieri, and S. Martin, Advances in Sea-Ice Research Based On Remotely Sensed Passive Microwave Data

Spreen G., L. Kaleschke, and G. Heygstre (2008), Sea Ice Remote Sensing Using AMSR-E 89GHz Channles, J. Geophys. Res, 113, C02S03, doi:10.1029/2005JC003384
http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/seaice/ 16 Oktober 2013 21:08 WIB https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/sea-ice-concentration-data-overviewcomparison-table-and-graphs 16 Oktober 2013 22:08 WIB

http://www.ifm.zmaw.de/en/research/remote-sensing-assimilation/sea-ice/amsr-e-sea-iceconcentration/ 17 Oktober 2013 7:41 WIB

Sea Ice Concentration Product


National Snow and Icea Data Center


http://nsidc.org/data/seaice http://arctic.atmos.uiuc.edu/cryosphere http://arctic-roos.org http://iup.uni-bremen.de:8084/amsr/amsre.html http://polynya.gsfc.nasa.gov.seaice_dataset.html http://ijis.iarc.uaf.edu/cgi-bin/seaice-monitor.cgi?lang=e http://seaice.dk

University of Illionis, Cryosphere Today Nansen Environmental and remote Sensing Center Arctic ROOS

University of Bremen

NASA Goddard JAXA Polarview