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DIAL GAUGE Dial gauge adalah alat ukur yang mutlak ada saat kita melakukan proses overhaul,

tool ini sangat penting untuk mendapatkan data-data yang sangat kritikal, seperti: end play, backlash, bending, protrusion liner, valve sinking, dan sebagainya Dial gauge ini adalah tools yang tidak bisa berdiri sendiri, ia harus dipasangkan dengan suatu alat bantu yang dinamakan: !agnetic "ase, sebagai pemegang dial gauge dan ber#ungsi mengatur posisi dari dial gauge $tinggi-rendahnya, kemiringannya% pada tempat atau permukaan benda yang diukur

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Untuk dial gauge metric $mm%, skala utama ditun,ukan dengan ,arum pan,ang $long hand%, satu putaran ,arum pan,ang $dari nol ke nol - .// strip% menun,ukan skala . mm, dan akan ditun,ukan dengan pergerakan ,arum pendek $short hand% se,auh . strip yang berarti probe spidle bergerak se,auh . mm *atu putaran ,arum pendek $short hand% dari nol ke nol sebanyak ./ strip atau sama dengan ./ 0 . mm - ./ mm atau . cm *ehingga tingkat akurasi $. strip ,arum pan,ang% dial gauge metric adalah . mm dibagi .// strip sama dengan /,/. mm Untuk dial gauge English $inch%, skala utama ditun,ukan dengan ,arum pan,ang $long hand%, satu putaran ,arum pan,ang $dari nol ke nol - .// strip% menun,ukan skala /,. inch, dan akan ditun,ukan dengan pergerakan ,arum pendek $short hand% se,auh . strip yang berarti probe spindle bergerak se,auh /,. inch *atu putaran ,arum pendek $short hand% dari nol ke nol sebanyak ./ strip atau sama dengan ./ 0 /,. inch - . inch *ehingga tingkat akurasi $. strip ,arum pan,ang% dari dial gauge English $inch% adalah /,. inch dibagi .// strip sama dengan /,//. inch

+E1E'A)GA) Apabila probe spindle bergerak memendek2masuk, maka ,arum pan,ang maupun pendek akanberputar searah ,arum ,am $skala ,arum pan,ang bergerak ma,u dari angka / menu,u angka ./, 3/ 4 dst dan ,arum pendek bergerak dari angka / menu,u angka ., 3 dst% Apabila probe spindle bergerak meman,ang2keluar, maka ,arum pan,ang maupun pendek akan berputar berla5anan arah ,arum $skala ,arum pan,ang bergerak mundur dari angka / menu,u, 6/, 7/ 4dst dan ,arum pendek bergerak dari angka / menu,u angka 6, 7 dst%

When external forces are applied to a stationary object, stress and strain are the result. Stress is defined as the object's internal resisting forces, and strain is defined as the displacement and deformation that occur. For a uniform distribution of internal resisting forces, stress can be calculated (Figure 2-1 by di!iding the force (F applied by the unit area (" #

Strain is defined as the amount of deformation per unit length of an object $hen a load is applied. Strain is calculated by di!iding the total deformation of the original length by the original length (% #

&ypical !alues for strain are less than '.''( inch)inch and are often expressed in micro-strain units#

Strain may be compressi!e or tensile and is typically measured by strain gages. *t $as %ord +el!in $ho first reported in 1,(that metallic conductors subjected to mechanical strain exhibit a change in their electrical resistance. &his phenomenon $as first put to practical use in the 1./'s.

Figure 2-1# 0efinitions of Stress 1 Strain Fundamentally, all strain gages are designed to con!ert mechanical motion into an electronic signal. " change in capacitance, inductance, or resistance is proportional to the strain experienced by the sensor. *f a $ire is held under tension, it gets slightly longer and its cross-sectional area is reduced. &his changes its resistance (2 in proportion to the strain sensiti!ity (S of the $ire's resistance. 3hen a strain is introduced, the strain sensiti!ity, $hich is also called the gage factor (4F , is gi!en by#

&he ideal strain gage $ould change resistance only due to the deformations of the surface to $hich the sensor is attached. 5o$e!er, in real applications, temperature, material properties, the adhesi!e that bonds the gage to the surface, and the stability of the metal all affect the detected resistance. 6ecause most materials do not ha!e the same properties in all directions, a 7no$ledge of the axial strain alone is insufficient for a complete analysis. 8oisson, bending, and torsional strains also need to be measured. 9ach re:uires a different strain gage arrangement. Shearing strain considers the angular distortion of an object under stress. *magine that a hori;ontal force is acting on the top right corner of a thic7 boo7 on a table, forcing the boo7 to become some$hat trape;oidal (Figure 2-2 . &he shearing strain in this case can be expressed as the angular change in radians bet$een the !ertical y-axis and the ne$ position. &he shearing strain is the tangent of this angle.

Figure 2-2# Shearing Strain Poisson strain expresses both the thinning and elongation that occurs in a strained bar (Figure 2-/ . 8oisson strain is defined as the negati!e ratio of the strain in the tra!erse direction (caused by the contraction of the bar's diameter to the strain in the longitudinal direction. "s the length increases and the cross sectional area decreases, the electrical resistance of the $ire also rises.

Figure 2-/# 8oisson Strain Bending strain, or moment strain, is calculated by determining the relationship bet$een the force and the amount of bending $hich results from it. "lthough not as commonly detected as the other types of strain, torsional strain is measured $hen the strain produced by t$isting is of interest. &orsional strain is calculated by di!iding the torsional stress by the torsional modulus of elasticity. Sensor Designs &he deformation of an object can be measured by mechanical,

optical, acoustical, pneumatic, and electrical means. &he earliest strain gages $ere mechanical de!ices that measured strain by measuring the change in length and comparing it to the original length of the object. For example, the extension meter (extensiometer uses a series of le!ers to amplify strain to a readable !alue. *n general, ho$e!er, mechanical de!ices tend to pro!ide lo$ resolutions, and are bul7y and difficult to use.

Figure 2-<# Strain 4age 0esigns =ptical sensors are sensiti!e and accurate, but are delicate and not !ery popular in industrial applications. &hey use interference fringes produced by optical flats to measure strain. =ptical sensors operate best under laboratory conditions. &he most $idely used characteristic that !aries in proportion to strain is electrical resistance. "lthough capacitance and inductance-based strain gages ha!e been constructed, these de!ices' sensiti!ity to !ibration, their mounting re:uirements, and circuit complexity ha!e limited their application. &he photoelectric gage uses a light beam, t$o fine gratings, and a photocell detector to generate an electrical current that is proportional to strain. &he gage length of these de!ices can be as short as 1)1- inch, but they are costly and delicate. &he first bonded, metallic $ire-type strain gage $as de!eloped in 1./,. &he metallic foil-type strain gage consists of a grid of $ire filament (a resistor of approximately '.''1 in. ('.'2( mm thic7ness, bonded directly to the strained surface by a thin layer of epoxy resin (Figure 2-<" . 3hen a load is applied to the surface, the resulting change in surface length is communicated to the resistor and the corresponding strain is measured in terms of the electrical resistance of the foil $ire, $hich !aries linearly $ith strain. &he foil diaphragm and the adhesi!e bonding agent must $or7 together in transmitting the strain, $hile the adhesi!e must also ser!e as an electrical insulator bet$een the foil grid and the surface. 3hen selecting a strain gage, one must consider not only the strain characteristics of the sensor, but also its stability and temperature sensiti!ity. >nfortunately, the most desirable strain gage materials are also sensiti!e to temperature !ariations and tend to change resistance as they age. For tests of short duration, this may not be a serious concern, but for continuous industrial measurement, one must include temperature and drift compensation.

9ach strain gage $ire material has its characteristic gage factor, resistance, temperature coefficient of gage factor, thermal coefficient of resisti!ity, and stability. &ypical materials include ?onstantan (copper-nic7el alloy , @ichrome A (nic7el-chrome alloy , platinum alloys (usually tungsten , *soelastic (nic7el-iron alloy , or +arma-type alloy $ires (nic7el-chrome alloy , foils, or semiconductor materials. &he most popular alloys used for strain gages are copper-nic7el alloys and nic7el-chromium alloys. *n the mid-1.('s, scientists at 6ell %aboratories disco!ered the pie;oresisti!e characteristics of germanium and silicon. "lthough the materials exhibited substantial nonlinearity and temperature sensiti!ity, they had gage factors more than fifty times, and sensiti!ity more than a 1'' times, that of metallic $ire or foil strain gages. Silicon $afers are also more elastic than metallic ones. "fter being strained, they return more readily to their original shapes. "round 1.B', the first semiconductor (silicon strain gages $ere de!eloped for the automoti!e industry. "s opposed to other types of strain gages, semiconductor strain gages depend on the pie;oresisti!e effects of silicon or germanium and measure the change in resistance $ith stress as opposed to strain. &he semiconductor bonded strain gage is a $afer $ith the resistance element diffused into a substrate of silicon. &he $afer element usually is not pro!ided $ith a bac7ing, and bonding it to the strained surface re:uires great care as only a thin layer of epoxy is used to attach it (Figure 2-<6 . &he si;e is much smaller and the cost much lo$er than for a metallic foil sensor. &he same epoxies that are used to attach foil gages also are used to bond semiconductor gages. 3hile the higher unit resistance and sensiti!ity of semiconductor $afer sensors are definite ad!antages, their greater sensiti!ity to temperature !ariations and tendency to drift are disad!antages in comparison to metallic foil sensors. "nother disad!antage of semiconductor strain gages is that the resistance-to-strain relationship is nonlinear, !arying 1'-2'C from a straight-line e:uation. 3ith computer-controlled instrumentation, these limitations can be o!ercome through soft$are compensation. " further impro!ement is the thin-film strain gage that eliminates the need for adhesi!e bonding (Figure 2-<? . &he gage is produced by first depositing an electrical insulation (typically a ceramic onto the stressed metal surface, and then depositing the strain gage onto this insulation layer. Aacuum deposition or sputtering techni:ues are used to bond the materials molecularly. 6ecause the thin-film gage is molecularly bonded to the specimen, the installation is much more stable and the resistance !alues experience less drift. "nother ad!antage is that the stressed force detector can be a metallic diaphragm or beam $ith a deposited layer of ceramic insulation. 0iffused semiconductor strain gages represent a further impro!ement in strain gage technology because they eliminate the need for bonding agents. 6y eliminating bonding agents, errors due to creep and hysteresis also are eliminated. &he diffused semiconductor strain gage uses photolithography mas7ing techni:ues and solid-state diffusion of boron to molecularly bond the resistance elements. 9lectrical leads are directly attached to the pattern (Figure 2-<0 . &he diffused gage is limited to moderate-temperature

applications and re:uires temperature compensation. 0iffused semiconductors often are used as sensing elements in pressure transducers. &hey are small, inexpensi!e, accurate and repeatable, pro!ide a $ide pressure range, and generate a strong output signal. &heir limitations include sensiti!ity to ambient temperature !ariations, $hich can be compensated for in intelligent transmitter designs. *n summary, the ideal strain gage is small in si;e and mass, lo$ in cost, easily attached, and highly sensiti!e to strain but insensiti!e to ambient or process temperature !ariations.

Figure 2-(# 6onded 2esistance Strain 4age ?onstruction Bonded Resistance Gages &he bonded semiconductor strain gage $as schematically described in Figures 2-<" and 2-<6. &hese de!ices represent a popular method of measuring strain. &he gage consists of a grid of !ery fine metallic $ire, foil, or semiconductor material bonded to the strained surface or carrier matrix by a thin insulated layer of epoxy (Figure 2-( . 3hen the carrier matrix is strained, the strain is transmitted to the grid material through the adhesi!e. &he !ariations in the electrical resistance of the grid are measured as an indication of strain. &he grid shape is designed to pro!ide maximum gage resistance $hile 7eeping both the length and $idth of the gage to a minimum. 6onded resistance strain gages ha!e a good reputation. &hey are relati!ely inexpensi!e, can achie!e o!erall accuracy of better than D)-'.1'C, are a!ailable in a short gage length, are only moderately affected by temperature changes, ha!e small physical si;e and lo$ mass, and are highly sensiti!e. 6onded resistance strain gages can be used to measure both static and dynamic strain.

&ypical metal-foil strain gages. *n bonding strain gage elements to a strained surface, it is important that the gage experience the same strain as the object. 3ith an adhesi!e material inserted bet$een the sensors and the strained surface, the installation is sensiti!e to creep due to degradation of the bond, temperature influences, and hysteresis caused by thermoelastic strain. 6ecause many glues and epoxy resins are prone to creep, it is important to use resins designed specifically for strain gages. &he bonded resistance strain gage is suitable for a $ide !ariety of en!ironmental conditions. *t can measure strain in jet engine turbines operating at !ery high temperatures and in cryogenic fluid applications at temperatures as lo$ as -<(2EF (-2-.E? . *t has lo$ mass and si;e, high sensiti!ity, and is suitable for static and dynamic applications. Foil elements are a!ailable $ith unit resistances from 12' to (,''' ohms. 4age lengths from '.'', in. to < in. are a!ailable commercially. &he three primary considerations in gage selection are# operating temperature, the nature of the strain to be detected, and stability re:uirements. *n addition, selecting the right carrier material, grid alloy, adhesi!e, and protecti!e coating $ill guarantee the success of the application.

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