Anda di halaman 1dari 6

ISSN: 2277 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 3, May 2012

Comparative analysis of self phase modulation (SPM) and cross phase modulation (CPM)

Ruby Verma, Pankaj Garg B.Tech ECE, Lovely Professional University, Punjab

Abstract---- Use of optical fiber communication is widely use due to its better bit rate and bandwidth and high carrier frequency with low power consumption. So, in this paper, we have analyzed non linear modulation techniques that are self phase modulation (SPM) and cross phase modulation (CPM) in an optical fiber system and discussed how these cause dispersion in input signal. These effects are simulated using OPTISYSTEM tool at a bit rate of 10Gbps and analyzed by eye pattern method with respect to bit error rate and Q factor. Simulation results of self phase modulation and cross phase modulation obtained in OPTISYSTEM tool which is made by OPTIWAVE INC. are compared with each other. Formula for bit error rate (BER) is implemented in MATLAB and its value is obtained by taking the value of Q factor from the design implemented in OPTISYSTEM and further variations in the value of BER are studied for both types of non linear effects and see that which type of modulation is better for long transmission in single mode optical fiber.

Keywords--- Self phase modulation, Cross phase modulation, Fiber nonlinearities, Optisystem tool.

I .INTRODUCTION

The developments of low loss optical fiber, optical transmitter, optical detector and optical amplifier with compact size and high efficiency have dominated the field of telecommunication. When optical signal is transmitted at distances typically longer than 100 km, they suffer from attenuation,

temporal broadening and even interact with each other through non linear effects in the optical fiber. Transmitter capacity and performance of the system are greatly affected by the non linear effects. The main requirement of the optical system is to increase the spacing between optical repeaters in the link, which in turn requires higher optical power to achieve the desired signal to noise ratio (SNR). With the increase in optical power, bit rate, and number of Wavelength channels, the total optical power propagating through the optical fiber increases and hence, results in non linear effects. These non linear effects include self phase modulation (SPM), cross phase modulation (XPM), four wave mixing (FWM), stimulated brillounin, stimulated raman scattering (SRS). Although, these effects have several disadvantages but there are certain advantages also, such as, formation of dispersionless pulses (solitons) with the help of SPM; realization of low noise optical amplifier using SRS; in signal processing using XPM; or in the realization of wavelength converter using FWM.

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.1 types of non linearity effects

This paper deals with the analysis of reducing non linear dispersion, induced distortion in single mode,

97

All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE

ISSN: 2277 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 3, May 2012

non linear fiber and erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA). Also, analysis of various fiber non linear designs are done and compared with each other over long haul distance of 100 km.

  • A. Self phase modulation

Non linear phase modulation of beam, caused by its own intensity by the kerr effect. Due to kerr effect high optical intensity in medium causes a non linear phase delay which has same temporal shape as optical intensity. This can be described as a non linear change in refractive index [1]. phase modulation of an optical signal by itself is known as SPM. SPM generally occurs in single wavelength system. it occurs through interaction of rapidly varying and time dependent laser pulse with non linear intensity dependent change in refractive index of an optical material. At high bit rate SPM tends to cancel dispersion , but it increases with signal power level. Phase shift by field over fiber length is given by:

2nL

[5]

Where, n= refractive index of the medium; L= length of the fiber; = Wavelength of the optical pulse

B Cross phase modulation

CPM is the change in optical phase of light beam caused by interaction with other beam in non linear medium, especially kerr medium. CPM results from different carrier frequencies of independent channels, including the phase shift of one another. The induced phase shift is due to the walkover effect, where two pulses at different bit rate or with different group velocities walk across each other. CPM converts power fluctuation in particular wavelength channel to phase fluctuation in other co-propagating channel. Expression for phase shift caused by non linear effect is given as:

i

nl

k

nl

L

eff

P i
P
i

N

2

P

n

n

i

[5]

N= N-channel transmission system, n= 1, 2, 3… N, ...

L

eff

= Effective length of link

k

nl

= Propagation

constant

The designs of CPM and SPM are stimulated using Optisystem tool. Coding of non linear schrodinger equation is done in Matlab and analysis of Eye diagram, bit error rate (BER), and Q factor is done.

II. SIMULATION MODEL

Simulation model of SPM and CPM is implemented in optisystem. It consists of a transmitter block, fiber channel and a receiver block.

A. Scenario 1: Model of SPM

Conceptual design of SPM consists of an optical transmitter, channel and receiver.

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.2 Conceptual model of SPM

1) Transmitter block:

It consists of a pseudo random generator, NRZ modulator, continuous wave laser, Mach-Zehnder amplitude modulator and EDFA amplifier. Each component block has its own parameters apart from the parameters of the design called as global parameters, which are helpful if we want to use the same parameter for two or more components in the model. Wavelength, frequency, power of the signal is

initialized and phase parameter of signal is set to random in CW laser block. We placed electrical and optical oscilloscope to observe waveforms. The transmission rate used is 10 Gbps, power of light

98

All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE

ISSN: 2277 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 3, May 2012

wave is 3.98mW, fiber length is 100 km, wavelength is 1550nm and frequency is 193.1THz.

2) Fiber channel:

It is shown as iterative loop component. The iterative loop component consists of an optical fiber, fiber compensating techniques and a pre-amplifier. Output of fiber is sent to fiber bragg grating which is used to compensate the distortion of signal by inducing dispersion after each stage. Dispersion coefficients used are 0ps/nm, -500ps/nm, -1000ps/nm, - 1500ps/nm, -2000ps/nm.

3) Receiver block:

It consists of EDFA, photodiode, low pass Bessel filter whose cut off frequency is 0.7 * bit rate, BER analyzer and an electrical oscilloscope.

B. Result analysis

Input signal is shown in figure 3 which is visualized as almost a sinusoidal waveform. the output of CW laser is sent to Mech-Zehnder modulator which is an electro-optical modulator, used to modulate the light wave with respect to transmitted electrical signal and generate an optical signal at output of modulator. The optical signal before and after the booster block with factor 10 is shown in fig. 5 and fig. 6 respectively. Fig. 7 shows the output of pin diode , Fig. 8 shows the output of low pass Bessel filter and finally the results are analysed using bit error rate and eye diagram in Fig. 9.

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.3 Electrical signal of NRZ modulator

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.4 Signal of CW laser block

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.5 Output of Mach-Zehnder modulator

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.6 Output signal after EDFA

99

All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE

ISSN: 2277 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 3, May 2012

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.7 Output of PIN diode

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.8 Output of Low Pass Bessel filter

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.9 BER waveform and EYE diagram

C. Scenario2: Cross Phase Modulation

In CPM all the parameters (pseudo random generator, NRZ modulator, continuous wave laser, Mach- Zehnder amplitude modulator and EDFA amplifier) are same except the usage of two transmitter WDM

system and after modulating signal through Mach- Zehnder modulator, signal is sent to the ideal MUX which combine the two different signals of two different frequencies of 193.1 THz and 192.4 THz. In CPM we use band pass filter whose bandwidth is 1.5*bit rate. Rest is same like the SPM.

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Figure10. Conceptual model of CPM

D. Result analysis

The output of Mach-Zehnder modulator is shown in Fig. 11, output signal after EDFA block and output of pin diode are shown in Fig. 12 and Fig. 13 respectively. Then the signal passes through band pass bessel filter and output obtained is shown in Fig. 14 and then results are analysed using eye diagram in Fig. 15.

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.11 Output of Mach-Zehnder modulator

100

All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE

ISSN: 2277 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 3, May 2012

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.12 Output signal after EDFA

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.13 Output of PIN diode

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.14 Output of Band Pass Bessel filter

ISSN: 2277 – 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume

Fig.15 BER waveform and EYE diagram

E. Comparison between SPM and CPM

We have compared two nonlinear effects and concluded which nonlinear effect is more advantageous and why. Comparisons are based on Q

factor. The nonlinear dispersion due to SPM is considered advantageous only when one WDM

channel is

used. .

One has to compromise with the

transmission rate and number of channels in the design. More channels leads to reduction in the transmission rate for an optimized design. The Q factor for SPM design model is 5.849. Q factor is related to SNR and is inversely proportional to BER. To calculate BER value from Q factor generated from design, we wrote a software algorithm in Matlab to calculate BER with any value of Q factor. High Q factor shows that the signal is less immune to noise and received signal is similar to input signal with less noise. In today’s world, challenge is to have more than one channel and higher transmission rate to receive the signal without distortion when transmitted through fiber link. To achieve above, we will be considering CPM dispersion effects. As discussed earlier, CPM designs have two WDM channels in the design. The eye pattern for CPM has Q factor of 5.0109. We have the same power for both channels; can see the improvement in the Q factor. Some of the parameters observed using electrical scope and BER analyzer in Optisystem tool is given in Table.

101

All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE

ISSN: 2277 9043 International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Electronics Engineering Volume 1, Issue 3, May 2012

 

Parameters

SPM

CPM

 

Bit Rate

10Gbps

10Gbps

Channel

1

2

Q factor(linear)

5.849

5.0109

Q factor(in db)

7.6708

6.9992

EYE Opening

0.00101139

0.00488261

BER

2.41907*10 -9

2.70798*10 -7

Table I. Comparison of SPM and CPM

 

Parameters

 

SPM

CPM

Q factor(in db)

 

7.6708

6.9992

BER(in

 

2.41907*10 -9

2.70798*10 -7

Optisystem)

BER(in Matlab)

 

8.6870*10 -15

1.3124*10 -12

Table II. Comparison of BER in MATLAB

III. Conclusion

This project dealt with analysis of self phase and cross phase nonlinear effects in optical system. Non- linear effects have disadvantages in the form of limiting the transmission rate but have an advantage of improving performance of transmitted signal in the system. Q factor is known as digital SNR and it is defined as ratio of signal current to noise current. Optical communication system bit error rate less than 10 -12 is to be achieved which corresponds for obtaining Q > 7. If BER <10 -9 then Q>6. By theoretical implementation of SPM in Matlab bit error rate obtained is 8.6870*10 -15 , but by practical analysis of SPM in optisystem BER obtained is 2.41907 * 10 -9 . In CPM in Matlab bit error rate obtained is 1.3124*10 -12 , but in optisystem BER obtained is 2.70798 * 10 -7 . So from above result we can conclude that SPM is better than CPM for single mode fiber channel.

REFERENCES

[1]

Gerd Keiser,“Optical Fiber Communication”, McGraw- Hill Higher Education, 2000 pp. 8-12, 35-37, 282-285,

554-557

[2]

B.E.A. Saleh, M.C Tech, “Fundamentals of Photonics”, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1991 pp. 298-306, 698-700

[3]

Govind P Agarwal, “Fiber Optic communication systems”, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1992, pp. 39-56,

152

[4] Optiwave,“Optisystem user guide and application notes”, optiwave Design Group, Inc., 2008

[5]

S.P Singh and N. Singh, “Nonlinear effects in optical fibers: Origin, Management and applications”, progress

in electromagnetic research, PIER 73, 249-275, India,

2007

[6] Govind P Agarwal, “Nonlinear fiber optics.” Springer- Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2000 pp. 198-199 Available:

http://library.ukrweb.net/book/_svalka/vol2/Publishers/

Springer/LNP_542,_Nonlinear%20Science/05420195.p

df

[7]

E.H. LEE, K.H. KIM AND H.K. LEE, “Nonlinear

effects in optical fiber: Advantages and Disadvantages

for high capacity all-optical communication

application”, Optical and Quantum electronics, Kluwer

academic publishers, 2002 pp. 1167-1174

[8]

“Attenuation and fiber losses”, retrieved from the

worldwide web, April 2010 Available:

http://www.tpub.com/neets/tm/106-14.htm

[9] http://www.optiwave.com/products/system_overview.ht

ml

[10] Hadj Bourdoucen and Amer Alhabsi, Improvement of

Bit-Error-Rate in OpticalFiber Receivers”

102

All Rights Reserved © 2012 IJARCSEE