Anda di halaman 1dari 4

1

st

Asia Pacific Mathematical Olympiad


APMO 1989

1st Asia Pacific Mathematical Olympiad APMO 1989 Problems and Solutions

Problem 1
ai are positive reals. s = a1 + ... + an. Prove that for any integer n > 1 we have (1 + a1) ... (1 + an) < 1 + s + s2/2! + ... + sn/n! .

Solution
We use in u!tion on n. "or n = 2 the rhs is 1 + a1 + a2 + a1a2 + (a12 + a22)/2 > lhs. #ssu$e the result is true for n. We note that% &y the &ino$ial theore$% for s an t positive we have s$+1 + ($+1) t s$ < (s + t)$+1% an hen!e s$+1/($+1)! + t s$/$! < (s + t)$+1/($+1)! . 'u$$ing fro$ $ = 1 to n+1 we get (s + t) + (s2/2! + t s/1!) + (s(/(! + t s2/2!) + ... + (sn+1/(n+1)! + t sn/n!) < (s + t) + (s + t)2/2! + ... + (s + t)n+1/ (n+1)! . # ing 1 to ea!h si e gives that (1 + t)(1 + s + s2/2! + ... + sn/n!) < (1 + (s+t) + ... + (s+t)n+1/(n+1)! . "inally putting t = an+1 an using the the result for n gives the result for n+1.

Problem 2
Prove that )n2 = (*a2 + 1+&2 + *!2 has no integer solutions e,!ept a = & = ! = n = -.

Solution
.he rhs is ivisi&le &y (% so ( $ust ivi e n. 'o )n2 / (*a2 / 1+&2 is ivisi&le &y 0% so ( $ust ivi e !. We !an now ivi e out the fa!tor 0 to get1 )$2 = 2a2 + 2&2 + * 2. 3ow ta4e $% a% &% to &e the solution with the s$allest $% an !onsi er resi ues $o 1*. '5uares = -% 1% 2% or 0 $o 1*. 6learly $ is even so )$2 = - or 2 $o 1*. 'i$ilarly% 2a2 = - or 2 $o 1*. 7en!e 2&2 + * 2 = -% 2 or 12 $o 1*. 8ut 2&2 = -% 2 or + $o 1* an * 2 = -% * or + $o 1*. 7en!e 2&2 + * 2 = -% 2% *% +% 1- or 12 $o 1*. 'o it $ust &e -. 'o & an are &oth even. 'o a !annot &e even% otherwise $/2% a/2% &/2% /2 woul &e a solution with s$aller $/2 < $. 'o we !an ivi e out the fa!tor 2 an get1 )42 = a2 + 2e2 + *f2 with a o . 7en!e 4 is also o . 'o )42 / a2 = 2 or 12 $o 1*. 8ut we have 9ust seen that 2e2 + * f2 !annot &e 2 or 12 $o 1*. 'o there are no solutions.

Problem 3
.he rhs is ivisi&le &y (% so ( $ust ivi e n. 'o )n2 / (*a2 / 1+&2 is ivisi&le &y 0% so ( $ust ivi e !. We !an now ivi e out the fa!tor 0 to get1 )$2 = 2a2 + 2&2 + * 2. 3ow ta4e $% a% &% to &e the solution with the s$allest $% an !onsi er resi ues $o 1*. '5uares = -% 1% 2% or 0 $o 1*. 6learly $ is even so )$2 = - or 2 $o 1*. 'i$ilarly% 2a2 = - or 2 $o 1*. 7en!e 2&2 + * 2 = -% 2 or 12 $o 1*. 8ut 2&2 = -% 2 or + $o 1* an * 2 = -% * or + $o 1*. 7en!e 2&2 + * 2 = -% 2% *% +% 1- or 12 $o 1*. 'o it $ust &e -. 'o & an are &oth even. 'o a !annot &e even% otherwise $/2% a/2% &/2% /2 woul &e a solution with s$aller $/2 < $. 'o we !an ivi e out the fa!tor 2 an get1 )42 = a2 + 2e2 + *f2 with a o . 7en!e 4 is also o . 'o )42 / a2 = 2 or 12 $o 1*. 8ut we have 9ust seen that 2e2 + * f2 !annot &e 2 or 12 $o 1*. 'o there are no solutions.

Solution
#nswer1 2)/20. :et ; &e the $i point of #8. We use ve!tors !enter <. .a4e <# = A% <8 = B% <6 = C. .hen <; = A/2 + B/2 an <= = (/2 A + 1/2 C. 7en!e <#> = 2/) A (showing it lies on <#) = 2/) ((/2 A + 1/2 B) + 1/) C% sin!e A + B + C = - (whi!h shows it lies on 6=). 'i$ilarly% <8>> = 2/? (1/2 A + 1/2 C) (showing it lies on the $e ian through 8) = 2/? A + 2/? C = )/? (2/) A) + 2/? C (showing it lies on 6#> an hen!e on 6=). 7en!e <8>> = /2/? B. 'o we have shown that <8>> is parallel to <8> an )/? the length. .he sa$e applies to the istan!es fro$ the !entroi to the other verti!es. 7en!e triangle #>>8>>6>> is si$ilar to triangle #>8>6> an its area is 2)/20 ti$es the area of #>8>6>.

Problem
'how that a graph with n verti!es an 4 e ges has at least 4(24 / n2)/(n triangles.

Solution
:a&el the points 1% 2% ... % n an let point i have egree i (no. of e ges). .hen if i an 9 are 9oine they have at least i + 9 / 2 other e ges &etween the$% an these e ges 9oin the$ to n / 2 other points. 'o there $ust &e at least i + 9 / n triangles whi!h have i an 9 as two verti!es. 7en!e the total nu$&er of triangles $ust &e at least @e ges i9 ( i + 9 / n)/(. 8ut @e ges i9 ( i + 9) = @ i2% &e!ause ea!h point i o!!urs in 9ust i ter$s. .hus the total nu$&er of triangles is at least (@ i2)/( / n4/(. 8ut @ i2 A (@ i) 2/n (a spe!ial !ase of 6he&yshev>s ine5uality) = 242/n. 7en!e result.

Problem !
f is a stri!tly in!reasing real/value fun!tion on the reals. Bt has inverse f/ 1 . "in all possi&le f su!h that f(,) + f/1(,) = 2, for all ,.

Solution
#nswer1 f(,) = , + & for so$e fi,e real &. 'uppose for so$e a we have f(a) C a. .hen for so$e & C - we have f(a) = a + &. 7en!e f(a + &) = a + 2& (&e!ause f( f(a) ) + f/1( f(a) ) = 2 f(a)% so f(a + &) + a = 2a + 2& ) an &y two easy in u!tions% f(a + n&) = a + (n+1)& for all integers n (positive or negative). 3ow ta4e any , &etween a an a + &. 'uppose f(,) = , + !. .he sa$e argu$ent shows that f(, + n!) = , + (n+1)!. 'in!e f is stri!tly in!reasing , + ! $ust lie &etween f(a) = a + & an f(a+&) = a + 2&. 'o &y a si$ple in u!tion , + n! $ust lie &etween a + n& an a + (n+1)&. 'o ! lies &etween & + (,/a)/n an & + (a+&/,)/n or all n. 7en!e ! = &. 7en!e f(,) = , + & for all ,. Bf there is no a for whi!h f(a) C a% then we have f(,) = , for all ,.