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Asia Pacific Mathematical Olympiad

APMO 1991

3rd Asia Pacific Mathematical Olympiad APMO 1991 Problems and Solutions

Problem 1
ABC is a triangle. G is the centroid. The line parallel to BC through G meets AB at B' and AC at C'. Let A'' be the midpoint of BC, C'' the intersection of B'C and BG, and B'' the intersection of C'B and CG. Pro e that A''B''C'' is similar to ABC.

Let ! be the midpoint of AB and " the midpoint of AC. Let A''! meet BG at #. Then # must be the midpoint of A''! $an e%pansion b& a factor ' center B ta(es A''! to CA and # to "). Also B#*B" + 1*' and BG*B" + '*3, so #G + B#*3. Let the ra& C# meet AB at ,. Then ,# + C#*3. $There must be a neat geometric argument for this, but if -e ta(e ectors origin B, then BX + BN*' + BA*. / BC*., so B + BA*3 and so X + 1*3 $BA*. 0 3BC*.) + CX*3.) 1o no- triangles B#C and ,#G are similar, so ,G is parallel to BC, so , is B' and # is C''. But A''# is parallel to AC and 1*. its length, so A''C'' is parallel to AC and 1*. its length. 1imilarl& A''B'' is parallel to AB and 1*. its length. 2ence A''B''C'' is similar to ABC.

Problem !
There are 334 points in the plane. 1ho- that the& ha e at least 1331 distinct midpoints. 5s it possible to ha e e%actl& 1331 midpoints6

Ans-er7 &es. Ta(e the 334 points collinear at coordinates % + 1, 3, ... , 1333. The midpoints are ', 3, ., ... , 133'. Ta(e t-o points A and B -hich are the ma%imum distance apart. "oconsider the follo-ing midpoints7 !, the midpoint of AB, the midpoint of each A# for an& other # in the set $not A or B), and the midpoint of each B#. 8e claim that all these are distinct. 1uppose # and 9 are t-o other points $apart from A and B). Clearl& the midpoints of A# and A9 must be distinct $other-ise # and 9 -ould coincide). 1imilarl& the midpoints of B# and B9 must be distinct. :;uall&, the midpoint of A# cannot be ! $or # -ould coincide -ith B), nor can the midpoint of B# be !. 1uppose, finall&, that " is the midpoint of A# and B9. Then A9#B is a parallelogram and either A# or B9 must e%ceed AB, contradicting the ma%imalit& of AB. 1o -e ha e found 1331 distinct midpoints. The e%ample abo e sho-s that there can be e%actl& 1331 midpoints.

Problem 3

%i and &i are positi e reals -ith <1n %i + <1n &i. 1ho- that <1n %i'*$%i / &i) = $<1n %i)*'.

8e use Cauch&01ch-art>7 < $%*?$%/&) )' < $?$%/&) )' = $< % )'. 1o < %'* $%/&) @+ $< %)'*$<$%/&) + 1*' < %.

Problem "
A se;uence of alues in the range A, 1, ', ... , (01 is defined as follo-s7 a1 + 1, an + an01 / n $mod (). Bor -hich ( does the se;uence assume all ( possible alues6

Let f$n) + n$n/1)*', so an + f$n) mod (. 5f ( is odd, then f$n/() + f$n) mod (, so the se;uence can onl& assume all possible alues if a1, ... , a( are all distinct. But f$(0n) + f$n) mod (, so there are at most $(/1)*' distinct alues. Thus ( odd does not -or(. 5f ( is e en, then f$n/'() + f$n) mod (, so -e need onl& loo( at the first '( alues. But f$$'(010n) + f$n) mod ( and f$'(01) + A mod (, so the se;uence assumes all alues iff a1, a', ... , a(01 assume all the alues 1, ', ... , (01. Chec(ing the first fe-, -e find ( + ', ., C, 1D -or( and ( + D, 1A, 1', 1. do not. 1o this suggests that ( must be a po-er of '. 1uppose ( is a po-er of '. 5f f$r) + f$s) mod ( for some A E r, s E (, then $r 0 s)$r / s / 1) + A mod (. But each factor is E (, so neither can be di isible b& (. 2ence both must be e en. But that is impossible $because their sum is 'r/1 -hich is odd), so each of f$1), f$'), ... , f$(01) must be distinct residues mod (. Fb iousl& none can be A mod ( $since '( cannot di ide r$r/1) for A E r E ( and so ( cannot di ide f$r) ). Thus the& must include all the residues 1, ', ... (01. 1o ( a po-er of ' does -or(. "o- suppose h di ides ( and ( -or(s. 5f f$n) + a mod (, then f$n) + a mod h, so h must also -or(. 1ince odd numbers do not -or(, that implies that ( cannot ha e an& odd factors. 1o if ( -or(s it must be a po-er of '.

Problem #

Circles C and C' both touch the line AB at B. 1ho- ho- to construct all possible circles -hich touch C and C' and pass through A.

Ta(e a common tangent touching C' at G' and C at G. Let the line from G to A meet C again at P. Let the line from G' to A meet C' again at P'. Let the C ha e center F and C' ha e center F'. Let the lines FP and F'P' meet at #. Ta(e # as the center of the re;uired circle. There are t-o common tangents, so this gi es t-o circles, one enclosing C and C' and one not. To see that this construction -or(s, in ert -rt the circle on center A through B. C and C' go to themsel es under the in ersion. The common tangent goes to a circle through A touching C and C'. 2ence the point at -hich it touches C must be P and the point at -hich it touches C' must be P'.