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A Paper presented by Jos Tirado at the 2007 All & Everything Conference in Loutraki, Greece. REV. JOS T!

RA"O Jos #. Tirado is a poet, $uddhist priest and po%itica% acti&ist. 'is artic%es and poetry ha&e been pub%ished in (ounterPunch, The End%ess Search, Gurd)ie** !nternet Guide, "issident Voice and Op+Ed ,e-s a.on/ others. 'e is a $uddhist .editation teacher and is current%y *inishin/ a second #asters "e/ree 0his *irst in $uddhist Studies1 in Psycho%o/y. 'e intends on pursuin/ a Ph" in the sa.e *ie%d, e2p%orin/ the ne2us bet-een The 3ourth 4ay and $uddhis. and he has de&e%oped a $uddhist .editation+based counse%in/ pro/ra. -hich he has conducted in !ce%and -here he current%y %i&es. Other .ateria% by Jos can be *ound on Gurdjieff Internet Guide...

$EEL5E$6$7S $6""'AS8 The !n*%uence O* $uddhis. and it7s Tibetan Variants !n Gurd)ie** 7s 3ourth 4ay !,TRO"6(T!O, Good morning everyone. Today we it near the !irth"lace of #e tern "hilo o"hical thought to ruminate on the "otential Eastern influence on one of the Wests mo t enigmatic figure . $"ecifically% whether Ti!etan &uddhi m% influenced Gurdjieff' idea and y tem. Gurdjieff' influence in #e tern ociety today i not all that well (nown nor ac(nowledged. )owever% I !elieve that hi influence u"on what the e teemed hi torian of " ychology% Eugene Taylor call *fol( " ychology+ i con idera!le and that a a re ult% Gurdjieff' sub rosa influence on modern " ychology in general i ignificant and a theme that will in "ire a worthy ,h- di ertation or !oo(. .ine "refera!ly/ #hile a num!er of cholar have attem"ted to document and e0"lain hi y tem and it variou com"onent % few have made a careful e0amination of the imilaritie !etween a "ect of hi idea and Ti!etan &uddhi m. Thi eemed odd for me ince the imilaritie lea"t out from every thing I1d tudied a!out the 2ourth #ay indicating uch. 2or our "ur"o e today thi concentrate on the !arely di gui ed "re ence of Padmasambhava% the 3th century tantric yogi who ucce fully reintroduced &uddhi m into Ti!et% and of cour e% a truncated and oddly di torted "icture of $iddhartha Gautama% the hi torical &uddha who e date are a""ro0imately 435 &CE to 675&CE. The inclu ion of the e figure indicate for me% not only an homage to idea Gurdjieff con idered valua!le% !ut "oint more dee"ly to their influence on hi y tem% further di "layed el ewhere throughout hi teaching . The "a"er I "re ent today i an e0"an ion of ome "reliminary wor( I did for an article entitled% *Gurdjieffs Possible Buddhist Influences%+ fir t "u!li hed on Gurdjieff Internet Guide a few year ago. 8ver the year % a I have tudied Gurdjieff' writing more thoroughly% the conclu ion I reached then% that Buddhism has exerted an influence on Gurdjieffs system wider and more deep than typically ac nowled!ed% remain . At the ame time% thi influence wa not exclusively a positive one and that%

while Gurdjieff retained an o!viou admiration for much of &uddhi m1 teaching % he definitely "re ented an inaccurate "icture of &uddhi m. Thi i "articularly true in the te0t we tudy today and the cha"ter in that te0t we are focu ing on. 9a tly% thi effort i !y no mean com"lete and remain it elf a "reliminary one u!ject to further e0"an ion and revi ion a I "er onally continue my own journey and tudie . There are three main a""roache to &eel:e!u!1 Tale . The academic" which attem"t to e0tract from name % "lace or idea % an origin to the 6 th #ay or omething that might hel" e0"lain it. The mythical% which ee( a imilar goal of under tanding% while a! or!ing the E ence of thi a! or!ing tale a a "otential ma" to greater .eaning. And the Wor tas % which ;at !e t< com!ine the methodology of cience% the e0traction of .eaning in the mythical a""roach% and return again and again to thi great !oo( to add new and original cha"ter to our own great !oo( of 9ife. All the e a""roache are valua!le and to !e honored. =one are mutually e0clu ive. Each ha a "lace. 2or this "a"er% however% I have cho en the fir t method% the academic% a I refer to it% to e0tract ome !ac(ground information a!out one a "ect of the Tale that might !e hel"ful a we endeavor to u e the other 2 method . The focu will therefore !e on everal conce"t and "a age ta(en from &eel:e!u!1 Tale and econdarily from the cor"u of 2ourth #ay teaching that ha followed. #e need to di ect everal element in the e narrative in order to give thi to"ic the attention I !elieve it de erve . 2ir t% i Gurdjieff' "re entation of $aint &uddha and $aint 9ama% their teaching and influence in &eel:e!u!1 Tale . $econd% we need to revi it the very "ecific rea on Gurdjieff give for the ultimate failure of the e two figure . Thi will include the role monasticism% sufferin! and undalini "layed in their doctrine . Third% we hould e0amine in !rief ome of the 2ourth #ay teaching im"arted !y Gurdjieff to hi tudent and thi will include idea a!out the attainment of a higher con ciou ne . 9a tly% we need to loo( carefully at the core !elief and tructure of Ti!etan &uddhi m% in "articular the >agyu ect% and ee for our elve whether there are imilaritie !etween Gurdjieff' doctrine and thi very "owerful till influential lineage. !. T4O $6""'!S#S8 A((OR"!,G TO $EEL5E$6$9 A," A((OR"!,G TO T'E $6""'A In &eel:e!u!1 Tale % &uddhi m i "re ented a one of the five remaining religion from which all teaching nowaday are de cended% and the one which get ?ea on attri!uted to it a a central

characteri tic of it teacher1 tyle and me age. In fact% there are two &uddhi m "re ented in that li t of five religion @ the *&uddhi tic+ and what he call % the *9amai t.+ ;The u e of the latter term% com"letely di credited in academic circle % !etray either a "rofound ignorance of the u!ject% or a deli!erate mi characteri:ation for ome a of yet undi clo ed "ur"o e. I will have more to ay a!out that later.< Gurdjieff intere tingly "lace the e two religion into hi rec(oning demon trating% in my o"inion% either hi !elief a to their large num!er of adherent % or to the e religion ' "articular "ower which he found of great value yet ultimately wanting. 2or now% let u review the *&uddhi m+ a de cri!ed in Cha"ter 2A and 22% a well a el ewhere in &eel:e!u!1 Tale to get a en e of what Gurdjieff wa trying to ay. A Gurdjieff mentioned in Cha"ter 2A% the teaching of the &uddha% who e u e of ?ea on wa aid to !e hi hallmar(% did not la t. Thi wa "artly due to the inevita!le divi ion of the faith into ect % and the corru"tion of the idea of uffering. Thi eventually led% in Ti!etan &uddhi m% ;Cha"ter 22< to "ractice re"ugnant to &eel:e!u!% namely the i olation cell where elected mon( were aid to "end their live % receiving from the out ide only !read and water. The teaching them elve over time were aid to have degenerated o much that *from the Truth indicated !y $aint &uddha )im elf a! olutely nothing ha urvived.+ ;"age 26B< The incorrect and errant mani"ulation of the word (undalini wa al o aid to !e a factor. 9et u e0amine !riefly tho e three conce"t then% monasticism% undalini and sufferin!. #onasticis. The &uddha fir t develo"ed the in titution of mona tici m% that i % the organi:ed e"aration from the world of grou" of religiou "ractitioner who e connection to the "o"ulace at large wa one of !oth "atronage and u""ort. It "ur"o e wa to "rovide a u""ortive environment where!y individual might ee( full time the fruit of "iritual "rogre through e0"o ure to a di ci"lined life over een !y the &uddha or hi immediate di ci"le . )e made it one of the three #efu!es in which &uddhi t to thi day daily "ledge their live to@ The Buddha% a the e0em"lar of the teaching % the $harma or the collected teaching them elve % and the %an!ha% or community. In northern India and urrounding area % the lay communitie willingly "rovided for the need of the e mona tic in ocietie where "iritual mendicant were viewed favora!ly and hel"ing them out "rovided one with con idera!le "iritual merit. In &eel:e!u!1 Tale % however% Gurdjieff ee mona tici m a a di tortion of &uddhi t teaching % referring to mona tic a *the ect of $elfCTamer + engaged in what he di dainfully call * uffering in olitude.+ ;"age 247< #e may "re ume that immer ion in regular% daily life with other wa con idered more ideal for what "iritual "ractice Gurdjieff had in mind. Su**erin/ In &uddhi m% the ,ali word du ha ha a "rimary "lace for the y tem the &uddha de cri!ed. %ufferin!% a wholly inadeDuate tran lation of du ha% wa the &uddha1 characteri:ation of the inherent di C ati faction !uilt into all thing im"ermanent. 8ur general "redi "o ition he aid% wa to cling onto

tho e thing we cheri hed while "u hing away tho e thing we find re"ugnant. Either way% we !ecome di ati fied through the inevita!le contact with the un"lea ant and the "ain of eeing the "lea ant di i"ate% a all thing eventually do. 2or the &uddha% the errant way we view 9ife and the thing around u inevita!ly lead to thi dis&ease% which% he felt% we could ucce fully and com"letely overcome through diligent "ractice of hi .iddle #ay% the =o!le Eightfold ,ath. The &uddha made "lain hi di gu t for e0treme a cetici m% which he had tried for i0 year and found inadeDuate and ina""ro"riate for "iritual awa(ening. A well% he rejected the materiali t hedoni m into which he had !een !orn. &oth were ummarily di mi ed and in tead% a .iddle #ay wa "ro"o ed% !etween the e two e0treme . :unda%ini 9aying out the !are fact of !oth (undalini and it relation hi"% or nonCrelation hi" to &uddhi m eem in order then for u now to di cern the truth of thi enigmatic a "ect of Gurdjieff' teaching . Gurdjieff in cha"ter 2A% "age 26BC24A gave a detailed e0"lanation of (undalini !a ed on word origin and it relation hi" to the word% undabuffer. Thi e0"lanation i com"letely fanciful. In addition% to u e the word *(undalini+ and a""ly it to &uddhi m in any conte0t i an automatic ti" off that omething i incorrect. 2or it i a word not u ed in normative &uddhi m. In the ca e where reference to the &uddhi t a""lication of heat generation% or the mani"ulation of inner heat through "ecial tantric e0erci e i needed% then the word chandali% or tummo ;*inner heat+< mu t !e more accurately em"loyed. ;Chandali mean *everC"re ent energy+< ;Trung"a% ABB2% 9ion' ?oar% "" . A50% A6A< Thi i a main "ractice of the >agyu ect% a one of the %ix 'o!as of (aropa. Thu % there are three "o i!ilitie here. 8ne% a total mi under tanding of the difference !etween )indu and &uddhi t idea a!out thi "ower% either !ecau e of !ad or incom"lete tran lation . Two% a deli!erate mi re"re entation of &uddhi t teaching !y Gurdjieff for a "ecific% if unrevealed "ur"o e. 8r three% a "artial (nowledge of and e0"o ure to Ti!etan tummo "ractice % !ut without adeDuate &uddhi t e0"lanation availa!le% and thu reliance on )indu te0t % which would ultimately di tort the Ti!etan view and teaching . I tend to !elieve thi latter e0"lanation. $o% what e0actly i (undalini and what i it ignificance hereE The word undalini i a feminine form of the word% undala which mean % *F he who i G coiled%+ traditionally im"lying *li(e a er"ent%+ !ut it al o can refer to hair that i coiled u"on the head% a the fore t yogi wear it. A I aid% it i a feminine word containing the ending C ini" which can !e een in other word uch a yo!ini ;a female yoga "ractitioner< and da ini ;from da a% originally a demon !ut later referred to a a *s y dancer"+ FTi!. hadromaG a female figure who *move on the highe t level of reality+<. >undalini then% refer to the dormant ;or *coiled+< energy aid to re ide at the !a e of the "ine in the lower energy center or cha ra. -uring "ecial "ractice % thi energy can unwind and ri e u"ward % through the other center in the !ody ;totaling 7 in the )indu y tem% 4 in the &uddhi t y tem< !ringing a!out a num!er of e0traordinary e0"erience and a!ilitie . The only "lace in &uddhi m where analogou to )indu (undalini "ractice are to !e found i in the

"ractice of tummo% the generation of inten e !odily heat. It i a "ractice mo t a ociated with the >agyu ect% which include it a one of the %ix 'o!as of (aropa ;the other are% e0"eriencing one1 own !ody a illu ory% !yuluH the dream tate% milamH "erce"tion of the *clear light+% )selH the teaching of the inC !etween tate % bardoH and the tran ference of con ciou ne % phowa*< .any account have !een told of mon( !eing reDuired to te t their a!ilitie in tummo !y drying out ucce ive num!er of wet heet "laced u"on their na(ed !odie while eated in the now. Thi in Ti!et% where the average elevation i A6%000 feet a!ove ea level. 9et u now leave the e conce"t and move into the realm of hi toricity de cri!ing &uddhi m a CitCi and the &uddha a he really wa . The idea of develo"ing a *higher con ciou ne + will al o !e touched on. The $uddha =ow% *&uddha%+ i not a name% !ut a title. It refer to a "er on who e !eing wa com"letely covered in a +uality we might call" awa e&ness* #e in the #e t have a very im"lified% and% I !elieve di torted "icture of the &uddha and hi teaching . .o t of what we hear a!out the &uddha and &uddhi m i the remar(a!le em"ha i meditation "layed in hi teaching . &ut while meditation form a very im"ortant "art of the &uddhi t "ath% it i only one te" in what he called the =o!le Eightfold ,ath. ,wareness% i the heart of &uddhi m. The &uddha "ent 60 year of hi life wandering throughout northern India teaching% mediating !etween conflict and hel"ing "eo"le out. If a meditative tradition giving "eace of mind were the only thing he taught% very few farmer or !u ine men would have !een intere ted in hi me age. And yet for a "eriod% &uddhi m wa the "reeminent religion of all India% $ri 9an(a% China% .ongolia% >orea% $outhea t A ia% much of what i now ?u ia and "art of the inde"endent countrie that !order it under!elly% all the way to Euro"ean >almy(ia. In hort% mo t of the ancient world at one time wa once &uddhi t. $o calming and Duiet meditation wa n1t the only thing that attracted the ma e . It wa that Duality again. A remar(a!le Duality he !rought to every ituation and every di cu ion% every face and every friend or foe. )e wa im"ly% completely awa e. And that1 the name they gave him% the &uddha% the ,wa ened -ne. .o t of you (now the !a ic of hi tory% !orn a "rince in what i now =e"al% he grew di ati fied with hi life of lu0ury and ea e and% after eeing fir thand old age% di ea e% death and a renunciant ;a sannyasin<% he decided to a!andon that life and ee( out a way !eyond all uffering. After i0 year of e0treme elf denial% trying variou y tem and teacher ;much li(e the later Gurdjieff< he decided to a!andon them and continue hi earch alone% relying on hi own 9ife and under tanding. 2inally% on the full moon of the fifth lunar month% he attained Enlightenment.

2or the &uddha% develo"ment of a wide% "anoramic awarene % a dee"% clear attentivene to everything in and around u would ena!le u to% a he "ut it% ee thing a they truly are ; yatham bhutam<. It i thi a!ility that ma(e one *awa(ened+% a &uddha. * $eeing thing a they are+ i u ually treated a the re ult of what% in Engli h i called% mindfulness% !ut thi word i awful/ It i awful !ecau e it tic( u right where we "end way too much of our time Iin our head . The word the &uddha u ed i sati% which literally mean % *the bare attention to the actual fact+. That i % the Duality of bein! attentive. $tudent of the 2ourth #ay hould ma(e note of thi im"ortant conce"t. =ow thi word attention in Engli h i e0cellent !ecau e it !etter de cri!e what the &uddha wa referring to. In ,ali% the language of the &uddha% the word wa sati and sati% ha a Duality of the heart% !ut in the #e t% we ty"ically e"arate out head from heart. In many Ea tern language % thi i not the ca e. $o% thi word mindfulne ;mind&full&ness< i actually the exact opposite of what he meant. It i not to !e full of one1 mind% or the thought in thereH it I$% however% to !e attentive to thing !oth within and around u . And attend% in Engli h% ha a root% which i the word tend% which mean to care for or ta e care of* $o% at&tend refer to this +uality of ta in! care to notice the world around us as well as inside of us. Pad.asa.bha&a The econd figure we hould "ea( a!out i ,adma am!hava% who I !elieve i the model for Gurdjieff ' *$aint 9ama.+ ,adma am!hava "re ent u with a different et of fa cinating difficultie . The hi torical material i far cantier than that availa!le regarding the &uddha and much of it con i t of magical feat and remar(a!le di "lay of "iritual "rowe . &ut everal very intere ting thing are (nown a!out him. 2ir t% that he i widely (nown !y the e"ithet% Guru #inpoche which% a I have mentioned !efore% can !e tran lated a *$aint 9ama+. $econd% while hi date and origin are uncertain% ;the middle of the 3 th century CE i a!out a accurate a we can e ta!li h< they contain enormou ly intere ting eed of (nowledge for tho e curiou . )e wa aid to !e from 8ddiyana% a u""o edly magical (ingdom that ha !een variou ly located in what i now Iran% >a hmir% the $wat valley in ,a(i tan or "o i!ly even omewhere in Afghani tan. In hi tory% he wa miraculou ly !orn from a lotu in the middle of a la(e% already a child of ei!ht year old and "o e ed of enormou gift . ;The name Padmasambhava mean % *9otu &orn !eing.+< ?eared in a (ingly environment he determined to renounce life !ut wa "revented !y hi father. ;)ere the "arallel to the hi torical &uddha are o!viou .< $o in order to leave% he conjure a et of magical a""arition that turn out to !e deadly and accidentally (ill omeone. &ani hed% he retreat to the mountain and !ecome an enormou ly ucce ful tantric "ractitioner accom"li hing what it i aid no one el e could. )i magical "rowe !ecome legendary in the region and eventually he i invited to reintroduce &uddhi m into Ti!et where he meet with ty"ical corn from the &Jn "rie tly cla and anger from the local demon and "irit whom it i aid% "revented &uddhi m1 entry earlier. )e u!due all o""o ition and hi high religiou teaching and feat of "iritual magic are recorded in a wonderful !iogra"hy

written !y hi con ort Ke he T ogyal. Third% )er!ert Guenther% the late Ti!etan &uddhi t cholar "oint out the odd fact that a ,adma am!hava wa "o i!ly from the IranL,a(i tanLAfghani tan region% he i what might !e con idered% a Westerner who !rought tantric Indian teaching into .ibet. Thi "o i!ility might have !een recogni:ed !y Gurdjieff% adding to ,adma am!hava' allure. And fourth% u""orting the a!ove% element in hi teaching % mainly the highe t -:ogchen teaching % ugge t "o i!le =e torian and Moroa trian influence . The e influence include a tri"artite co mo and creativity "rinci"le% the *little man of 9ight+ al o mentioned in $ethian Gno tici m% and ome "ro aic de cri"tion of the "roce of Awa(ening. The e fact ma(e hi inclu ion into Gurdjieff' "antheon even more intriguing than !efore% ugge ting a more com"licated origin for tho e 2ourth #ay teaching from Ti!et than thi "re ent wor( can delve into. 'i/her consciousness #e may ay that the !a ic "remi e of mo t *e oteric+ y tem i the creation of either a higher elf% or a higher elfCcon ciou ne . &ut creation of a *higher elf+ i "reci ely one of the (ind of yearning the &uddha coun eled a!ainst. That i % it i the con tant triving for identity% any identity% higher or otherwi e% that loc( u into the "roce of uffering ince% a the &uddha continually taught% gra "ing or thir t for !eing i the "rima facie cau e of all uffering. Therefore% to ay that a *)igher+ con ciou ne i a more ought after and worthwhile goal i to deny thi very !a ic a um"tion taught !y the &uddha. #hile sati con ciou ne eDuate awarene % one hould not mi ta(e thi for a different con ciou ne on the "art of the "ractitioner. 2rom the &uddha1 "er "ective% it i merely the proper method to view one and the " ychoC"hy iological "roce e one "artici"ate in. 2rom thi "oint% it !ecome "o i!le to di cern the inherent uffering within any gra "ing at all% for a higher con ciou ne or any at all for that matter. &ut thenN"arado0ically% later &uddhi m allow for teaching on develo"ment of uch a *higher+ !eing con ciou ne % however it i de cri!ed mainly within the conte0t of other &uddha in the develo"ment of .ahayana% or the *Greater+ Oehicle. &riefly% the teaching went li(e thi @ a &uddha li(e $iddhartha Gautama% i a hi torical figure% one who "o e e a !ody li(e our and live and die among t u . )owever% .ahayana &uddhi m develo"ed the notion of three bodies% the fir t% "hy ical one ju t mentioned i a (irmana aya or .ransformation Body &uddha. &ut within dream % the imaginal realm% or% u"on com"letion of e0traordinary deed % an em!odied &uddha could% after "hy ical death create a ,ure 9and% a realm defined to hi or her own "ecification and de igned to a i t in the furtherance of their own "articular way of !enefiting !eing . Afterward % they are then re!orn and conduct their mini try from thi *higher+ realm of e0i tence. Thi !eing i then (nown a the %ambho!a aya% the #eward Body &uddha. The mo t famou of the e i Amita!ha who e name mean *Infinite 9ight+ and hi ,ure 9and% %u havati" i (nown a the 9and of &li . )i name i aid to "o e the a!ility to grant devotee a wift re!irth there whereu"on they might "roceed toward tandard &uddhi t "ractice for Enlightenment.

And then there i the $harma aya% the $harma Body% aid to !e analogou to Em"tine % ultimate reality it elf% the inde cri!a!le $ource from which all thing and all &uddha emanate. Thu % &uddhi m evolved over time% em!racing the ideal of &uddhahood over the di "a ionately controlled olitary arhat and creating a mythic com"onent of e0traordinarily u!lime !eauty and nearly incom"rehen i!le dimen ion . Thi &uddhi m% va t and full of Infinite manife tation of #i dom and Com"a ion o"ened it elf u" to tho e who couldn1t retreat from the world in the dogged "ur uit of elfC "erfection. And !y o doing% it allowed for the possibility of extraordinary results on the spiritual path bein! achieved by even the most /ordinary0 of people* $o we have thi o ten i!ly irreconcila!le view of &uddhi m% one% that any effort to ma(e omething that will urvive death i "art of the "ro!lem% that it i % in hort% the very "ro!lem in thi life. And on the other hand% we have thi later develo"ment that "ea( to thi % under very limited circum tance . A well% we have two other &uddhi m to contend with% one hi torically rooted and documented% teaching a doctrine of awa(ening% utili:ing many different techniDue % and centered u"on the over coming of uffering and develo"ment of #i dom and Com"a ion. Then we have thi other% nonC hi torical &uddhi m with the &uddha there "ea(ing in a Gurdjieffan language and "art of hi "antheon of awa(ened oul % li ted% one may !elieve% a !eing a "art of Gurdjieff' own lineage. #hat hall we ma(e of thi a""arent di cre"ancyE I it all in good humor% a terri!le mi under tanding% and a mi0 u" due to "oor tran lation and erroneou inter"retation or i it omething el eE #hat i clear% i that the Buddha and the Buddhism presented in Beel1ebubs .ales exists only there" with little resemblance to the Buddhism as practiced in .ibet or by the historical founder of this now worldwide reli!ion. 9et u loo( at Ti!etan &uddhi m and it imilaritie and a ( what all thi may mean to the 2ourth #ay and it adherent . !!. $6""'!S# !, T!$ET The 3i&e Schoo%s Ti!etan &uddhi m i made u" of four &uddhi t ect and i com"lemented !y the earlier "iritual tradition of B)n. It i all a very di tinct "irituality% utili:ing much of the tantric tradition of India with it own uniDue element . It include mantra recitation% ela!orate hand ge ture (nown a mudras and di tinctive "ractice (nown a $1o!chen ;in !oth &Jn and =yingma< and 2ahamudra% each aiming to grant the "ractitioner direct acce to what i aid to !e the mind1 elementally clear nature% (nown a ri!pa. The entire !ody of Ti!etan tantric &uddhi m i al o (nown a *Oajrayana+ *The -iamondC+ or *Thunder!olt Oehicle.+ Thi wa o named !ecau e it "ractice are aid to accelerate "iritual develo"ment in order to achieve &uddhahood% in this very body. ;Com"ari on to 8u "en (y' de cri"tion in 3ra!ments% "age AB4CAB7 of "ractice de igned to * "eed u" the evolutionary "roce %+ hould !e noted.<

The four &uddhi t ect are the =yingma% >agyu% $a(ya% and Gelug. They range from the often nonC mona tic% yogic =yingma to mi0ed yogic and mona tic >agyu to the e0clu ively mona tic Gelug"a % the -alai 9ama1 ect ometime (nown a *yellow hat .+ #e hall confine our elve to a hort di cu ion of ju t two% the =yingma and >agyu. ,yin/.a 9iterally% -ld %chool% the =yingma were the fir t ucce ful in"ut of &uddhi m into Ti!et% through the great and my teriou % Padmasambhava. It too( with it the religioCmagical influence of the Indian siddha traditionIfore t yogi ;and yogini < who lived in i olated circum tance % "erfecting certain "ractice and attaining li!eration with often very nonCmona tic mean % e0% alcohol% e0ual imagery and "ractice % etc. #hile Padmasambhava wa in trumental to e ta!li hing the fir t &uddhi t mona tery% ;$amye< hi re"utation wa mainly a a magical tamer of demon % ma(ing them wor( for &uddhi m in Ti!et% and for hi "rofound teaching of $1o!chen. #hile "art of hi tory are certainly true% overall it may al o "oint to the idea that a trictly mona tic &uddhi m could not urvive in Ti!et and needed omeone who could live within the magical world of Ti!etan "irituality while till !eing *enlightened+ in the &uddhi t en e. The =yingma retain the tradition of the na pa% the lay "ractitioner who "iritually accom"li he what in other ect only highly trained and advanced mona tic could. It head in the "a t have !een great yogi who married and had children@ )) -ilgo >hyent e ?in"oche% )) -udjom ?in"oche% for e0. $1o!chen ;.he Great Perfection< i thi lineage ' highe t teaching. Al o Duaintly (nown a #ed hats. :a/yu >nown a the *practice lineage%+ thi wa the earlie t of the econd wave of &uddhi t tradition into Ti!et% everal hundred year after ,adma am!hava. They reformed the mona tic tradition while retaining the !e t of iddhaLyogi "ractice . It i the >agyu ect that utili:e formal training in a three year i olated retreat% u ually done in cave that certify the "er on com"leting thi training a a *lama.+ The four mo t famou Ti!etan &uddhi t have come from thi lineage. The fir t wa .ilopa% the cra:y wi dom guru who unified the different Indian tantric y tem and tran mitted the e to hi main tudent (aropa. (aropa wa already a great cholarCmon( at the height of hi fame when he had a vi ion that all he (new were the word and not the true meaning of &uddhi m% cau ing him to em!ar( on a A2Cyear Due t to find the elu ive .ilopa* =aro"a1 tudent 2arpa wa a married farmer who loved !eer% had an awful tem"er and made everal journey to India tran lating im"ortant tantric teaching and ecretly "racticing while living life a an ordinary man. And .ar"a' tudent% Ti!et1 greate t hermitLyogi 2ilarepa" who e feat of e0traordinary devotion !egan with hi chec(ered "a t a a murderer only to !e given * hoc( + !y hi teacher .ar"a to !urn off hi evil (arma and to !ring to fruition the "owerful teaching he received. 9ater% it wa .ilare"a1 tudent% Gampopa who com!ined the e oteric teaching of Oajrayana "racticed !y the fore t or mountain yogi % with the e ta!li hed mona tic life tyle received from India% thu formally creating the >agyu ect.

The %ix 'o!as of (aropa and the 2ahamudra ;the Great %eal< are the >agyu ect highe t teaching . The head of the ect i the fir t of Ti!et1 reincarnated teacher % the 4armapas. Al o (nown a *#ed or Blac 5ats*0 ;The former for $harma"a % latter for >arma"a .< 8ne of their main mona tery com"le0e i the %urman! mona tery. There are other uniDue characteri tic of Ti!etan &uddhi m which hould !e noted here and who e de cri"tion contain element that may ound familiar to 6th #ay ee(er @ *%acred outloo *+ ;ta!&nan!< Oajrayana ee the entire world a acred% even tho e o!ject taught in &uddhi m a o! tacle . The e might even include e0% alcohol or anger. In Oajrayana% the !oal is to transform or transmute tho e o!ject or energie into their "o itive counter"art . Thi i een a e0traordinarily difficult without a dee" !ond with a tantric guru andLor e0ten ive tantric teaching and "ractice. The univer e i al o "o"ulated with normally un een !eing uch a da(a and da(ini ;* s y dancers+< who can !e encountered in dream or vi ion to hel" "ractitioner along their "ath . *,uspicious coincidence+ or tendrel% refer to the notion that all a "ect of one1 life are a elfC revealing di "lay of the univer e and one1 role in it. A uch% there are no coincidence for the tantric "ractitioner. Emphasis on teacher. The !uru ;lama% in Ti!etan< cannot !e overe timated% e "ecially in the tantric teaching . Oi uali:ing one1 teacher a the &uddha him elf i aid to accrue the ame !enefit a if one1 teacher were the actual &uddha. 9i(ewi e% to ee one1 teacher a a im"le "er on% a flawed human !eing or even a drun(% would !e to acDuire the !le ing of uch individual . Importance of death and dyin!. ,adma am!hava i aid to have authored the oCcalled *Ti!etan &oo( of the -ead+ ;correct title i % .he Boo of 6iberation .hrou!h 5earin! in the In&between 7bardo8 <. The teaching em"ha i:e the im"ortance of u ing all tran itional tate % !aps or interval % to achieve the final deci ive jum" into awa(ening and the death e0"erience i een a the la t great o""ortunity for uch !efore one1 u!tle con ciou ne ta(e a new life form. $eity yo!a. Oi uali:ation "ractice include ela!orate in truction for creating in one1 mind the re"re entation of enlightened Dualitie " appearin! above ones head% which are then ta(en into one elf a! or!ing the energie . $ince the ultimate nature of one1 mind and it o!ject are em"ty% a are the nature of all a""earance % ;including &uddha and other deitie <% then no real o! tacle i encountered and one can gradually tran form one1 Dualitie into the deity one choo e . .erma or *mind trea ure + are hidden teaching aid to have fir t originated !y ,adma am!hava who !elieved certain teaching were un uita!le for hi time and therefore were de"o ited in roc( % cave and underground% ometime written on yellow "a"er in *da(ini cri"t.+ 8ther terma might !e de"o ited in the mind stream of a person not yet born who might omeday in a dream or vi ion% *remem!er+ the e teaching and write them down% later to !e recogni:ed a authentic. *9ra1y wisdom*+ The unorthodo0 manife tation of !ehavior which otherwi e might !e een a unC

&uddhi t and u ed to hoc( tudent into eeing their world differently. , tripartite cosmos and individuals& Oajrayana ee a tri"artite co mo % &uddha% -harma and $angha a reflecting a imilar tri"artite divi ion of the individual into body% speech and mind. A ocially we are to !e harmoniou ly conducted within the former et% within u % we are to create a fully !alanced and unified elf who e "hy ical com"onent ;body<% energetic emanation ;speech< and internal "roce e ;mind< are al o "ro"erly *in tune.+ In addition the .hree turnin!s doctrine% ugge ting three different and "rogre ively a cending teaching of the &uddha ;alluded to% I !elieve in Cha"ter 2A< and the .hree bodies teaching % all "oint to a crucial divi ion of view within Oajrayana with remar(a!le imilaritie to 2ourth #ay doctrine . .ul uC Tran lation of nirmana aya into Ti!etan it refer to incarnated lama who have traditionally cho en to return to human form in order to continue their lineage ; uch a the Trung"a tul(u < or to continue a greater commitment to all entient !eing ;)) the -alai 9ama i uch<. !!!. (ORRESPO,"E,(ES $ET4EE, T'E 3O6RT' 4A; A," T!$ETA, $6""'!S# #e may now ugge t that a num!er of corre "ondence e0i t !etween the 2ourth #ay and Ti!etan &uddhi m. A. Im"ortance of "racticing attentivene to one1 elf and environment imultaneou ly% *mindfulne + or *attentivene + in &uddhi m ;sati<% self&rememberin! and self&observation in Gurdjieff' y tem. 2. Im"ortance of u ing "ractice to *accelerate+ or * "eed u"+ normal "iritual develo"ment. 5. Im"ortance of "ractice reminder in form of aying ;cf. Ati ha% B32 CE% .he #oot .ext of .he %even Points of .rainin! .he 2ind" >adam"a logan card P "re erved and "racticed through the >agyu tradition.< 6. Im"ortance of u ing -eath a a ?eminder% "erha" the greate t reminder% for engaging in "ractice. Gurdjieff once aid% Q9onstant awareness of the inevitability of death is the only means to ac+uire the ur!ency to override the robot.Q The econd and third *?eminder + of the >agyu focu on contem"lating death% it1 inevita!ility and un"redicta!ility. 4. Im"ortance of ga" or interval !etween event to reveal o""ortunitie for awa(ening or change. 7. Im"ortance of dance to convey larger idea . ;the >agyu $R?.A=G mona terie em"ha i:e ritual dance and may !e com"ared to the .ovement of Gurdjieff.< #e hould al o note the remar(a!le imilarity in the name %urman! with Gurdjieff' %armun!. 7. Im"ortance of tran forming or tran muting negative energie into *food+ for "iritual develo"ment.

3. Im"ortance of readin! ey teachin!s three times ;In >agyu &uddhi m thi i de cri!ed a related to a threeClevel way of learning@ hearin!% contemplatin! and practice*< B. Im"ortance of develo"ment ;for e0traordinary !eing < a econd !ody% the %ambho!a aya% or ?eward &ody% to !enefit !eing which con i t of% A0. Im"ortance of underta(ing enormou acrifice % in other word % *voluntary uffering%+ which the e !eing % ;and we to a much le er degree< a !odhi attva underta(e for aeon it i aid !efore they are a!le to create their own ,ure 9and. I !elieve the e item "oint to a corre "ondence !eyond coincidence and indicate an influential relation hi"% derivative from Ti!etan &uddhi m and incor"orated into Gurdjieff' y tem. Postscript@ 8ne of the main >agyu "ractice ;al o u ed !y the =yingma< i the vi uali:ation% a!ove one head of Oajrayogini% a female deity who i aid to then receive teaching of the highe t level into her elf% all of which i then vi uali:ed a !eing a! or!ed into one elf. I recall a "icture of .me. de $al:mann meeting with the late =yingma teacher% )) -udjom ?in"oche and hearing torie of her receiving teaching a!out openin! the top of head to receive guidance from a!ove. #e might a ume an influence. !V. (O,(L6S!O, Gurdjieff' ultimate motivation for almo t any of hi many activitie will forever remain hi and hi alone. Thu % why he cho e &uddhi m% and it Ti!etan ver ion to !e li ted a two e"arate religion out of only five remaining one in &eel:e!u!1 Tale % may never !e fully under tood. &ut I !elieve Gurdjieff wa ma(ing a erie of "oint that he thought nece ary for tho e he wa teaching% one of which wa to remain fully within a *#e tern+ fold and avoid the allure of authentic Ea tern !elief % "articularly &uddhi m and it Ti!etan form % de "ite hi own a""arent admiration for !oth. )e wanted to utili:e * uffering+ a it i conventionally under tood in the #e t% in order to trengthen the 2ourth #ay "ractitioner ' inner develo"ment% rather than% a in &uddhi m% wor( to eliminate it altogether% a feat Gurdjieff "erha" had great (e"tici m a!out. )e al o wanted% I !elieve% to teer hi follower away from the ela!orate and detailed tantric teaching around undalini% a teaching that ha only a minimal "lace in &uddhi m anyway. ;Thu % thi may have !een a "re cient warning to #e terner to al o avoid )indui m% which he may have thought would !e a""ealing to #e terner in later year .< A well% he im"arted a di torted "icture of !oth &uddhi m and tantric (undalini teaching % which may have had the initial effect of di uading hi tudent from "ur uing uch di ci"line . 9ater% hi follower % including .me. de $al:mann% a""ear to have ta(en a far le o""o itional "er "ective. 8ne may "eculate a!out the value or nature of the "a ive recei"t of "iritual influence from the to" of one1 head% !ut one cannot deny their crucial role in Ti!etan &uddhi t vi uali:ation "ractice and thu drawing the tentative conclu ion that the influence from Ti!etan &uddhi m a""ear olid. #hile we can with certainty "oint to Gurdjieff' influence from e oteric Chri tianity% $ufi m and

)ermetic thought we can a well almo t certainty direct the intere ted 2ourth #ay ee(er ;and veteran ee(er a well< to Ti!etan &uddhi m. I !elieve he had e0"o ure to the >agyu ect in "articular. )i mention of the meditation cell ugge t (nowledge of the e0tended 5Cyear retreat made a major "art of >agyu "ractice . )i utili:ation of logan % de cri"tion of accelerated "iritual develo"ment% "iritual "ractice while remaining immer ed in the world and other % ome mentioned a!ove and other to !e detailed later% all reveal a "ro!a!le e0"o ure to the >agyu ect. Thi influence howed it elf in hi y tem in !oth "o itive ;the incor"oration of a num!er of idea a demon trated a!ove< and negative way ;the di torted "icture of !oth &uddhi m and it two main "er onalitie % the &uddha and ,adma am!hava in &eel:e!u!1 Tale <. #hile &eel:e!u!1 Tale contain what in Gurdjieff' own word i the de"th of hi year of teaching% it al o hould !e noted that it contain a wealth of error in it "re entation of Ea tern thought. #hether deli!erate or a ca e of mi ta(en a um"tion i not for thi writer% or this "re entation to ay. #hat can now !e concluded however i that% while Gurdjieff' influence were wide% Ti!etan &uddhi m mo t "ro!a!ly "layed an im"ortant% unac(nowledged role. Than( you all very much. &ac(

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The Endle $earch S 2006 C 2004 Ian C. .ac2arlane