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ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS Objective: One of the major sources of drag for an aircraft in flight, results from the

wing tip vortices. Many efforts has been made to reduce this by employing devices such as tip fences, winglets, sails etc.. Ive taken tip sails as my area of project. So let us examine by AHP the order of priority of sail parameters. Criteria: Though sails are used for drag reduction, some other criteria are also expected from them. They are, Induced drag reduction (Di-R) Increased L/D ratio (L/D) Vortex strength reduction (VS-R) Less structural Problems (LSP) Less zero lift drag (Do-R)

Alternatives (factors affecting criteria) Not all criteria mentioned above can be achieved at one time. Factors such as sail geometry, no. of sails favour some criteria while hindering the other. Such factors are Sail Geometry (SG) No. of sails (No. S) Sail span (SS) Tip Tanks (TT) Sail arrangement (SA) Criteria Ranking: The relative importance of one criterion over the other is expressed in the following matrix. Here 1 represents equal importance whereas 9 represents extreme importance of one over the other. The rankings are given from 1 to 9.

The normalised eigen vector is

Priority of criteria (from most to least): 1. Induced drag reduction 2. Increment in L/D ratio 3. Reduction of vortex strength 4. Reduction of zero lift drag 5. Less structural problems Factors ranking: Now the effect of one factor over the other in terms of each criterion is analysed. In terms of induced drag reduction

Which is

[ which is

[ which is

Which is

[ which is,

The normalised eigen vector is [ The final solution, ]

= [ ]

Factors in order of priority, (most to least) 1. Sail Arrangement 2. No. of sails 3. Sails geometry 4. Tip tank 5. Sail Span Inferences: This qualitative analysis gives an approximate priority ranking of factors affecting sail performance. There is also some ambiguity between tip tank and sail span ranking, which may have arised due to some error in the quantitative preference of one over other. More accurate results (similar to the qualitative analysis) are expected when quantitative analysis is employed.