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119 tayangan6 halaman[Paper] P-CPICH Power and Antenna Tilt Optimization in UMTS Networks

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[Paper] P-CPICH Power and Antenna Tilt Optimization in UMTS Networks

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119 tayangan

[Paper] P-CPICH Power and Antenna Tilt Optimization in UMTS Networks

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Iana Siomina

Link oping University

Department of Science and Technology

SE-601 74 Norrk oping, Sweden

iansi@itn.liu.se

Abstract

Pilot power optimization in UMTS networks is a crucial

engineering issue which has received an increasing inter-

est during the last several years. In previous works, it has

been shown that the optimization approach to assigning the

P-CPICH power levels facilitates coverage control and im-

proves signicantly radio resource utilization in UMTS net-

works. Combined with optimization of radio base station

antenna tilts, this becomes a powerful tool that allows us

to signicantly reduce the total interference level in the net-

work and to improve the network capacity in a very ef-

cient way. The paper addresses the pilot power and an-

tenna tilt optimization problem and presents an efcient al-

gorithm that optimizes the antenna downtilt setting in the

network such that the total P-CPICH power is minimized.

A case study has been done for a network scenario based

on real data for the city of Lisbon. The numerical results

demonstrate that the optimized antenna tilting can give a

reduction of up to 50 % in the optimal pilot power levels.

1 Introduction

The Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) is a xed rate

downlink physical channel that carries a pre-dened

bit/symbol sequence. The function of the CPICH is to

aid the channel estimation at the terminal for the dedi-

cated channel and to provide the channel estimation refer-

ence for common channels. Normally, each cell has only

one CPICH, Primary CPICH (P-CPICH), and it is used

for broadcasting the pilot signal over the entire cell. In

some cases, a cell may have also one or several Secondary

CPICHs (S-CPICHs), for example, for serving dedicated

hot-spot areas.

The measurements of P-CPICH are used in the cell

search and handover procedures. The mobile terminals scan

for the CPICH signals continuosly and measure the Carrier-

to-Interference Ratio (CIR) of all pilot signals they can de-

tect. In order to keep a mobile referenced to a cell, the CIR

at the mobile terminal must exceed a minimum threshold at

all times. If a mobile terminal is unable to clearly receive

one dominant CPICH signal, due to interference or cover-

age problems, the result is likely to be dropped calls, failed

initiations, poor voice quality and/or poor data throughput.

Pilot power control in UMTS networks is a crucial en-

gineering issue which has received an increasing interest

during the last several years. In UMTS networks, adjust-

ing the P-CPICH power levels allows us to control the cell

sizes and the number of connected users to a cell, and to bal-

ance the trafc among the neighboring cells, which in turn

makes it possible to regulate the network load. The more

power is spent for pilot signalling, the less power is left to

serve the user trafc. Excessive pilot power can easily take

too large proportion of the total available transmit power,

so that not enough power is left for trafc channels. Due to

the interference-limited nature of UMTS networks, the pi-

lot power control becomes an even more challenging task.

The pilot power control has been previously studied in, for

example, [7, 9, 10, 11].

Radio base station antenna height, azimuth, and tilt are

the important conguration parameters that have a strong

impact on network coverage and system capacity and thus,

must be carefully planned in the topology planning phase.

The antenna conguration can be also changed in the net-

work operation and optimization phase, but these changes

require additional site visits which is expansive and there-

fore least desirable. Moreover, their effects on signal prop-

agation are difcult to model and it is very expansive to

obtain them from real measurements. From this perspec-

tive, antenna tilting is the easiest and the most practical way

of changing the antenna conguration in order to improve

network performance.

Antenna tilt is used to denote the angle of the main beam

of an antenna below the horizontal plane. The primary goal

of antenna downtilting in an UMTS network is to reduce

the other-cell interference in a cell in order to increase the

relative strength of signals from the home cell. The inter-

ference reduction increases network capacity and improves

the network performance. However, if antennas are down-

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tilted too excessively, the coverage may suffer. Moreover,

the way the antenna downtilted, i.e., in a mechanical way or

in an electrical manner, has different effects on interference

and network performance [2, 5, 6].

When using mechanical tilt, the antenna is mounted with

adjustable brackets in a way that the tilt can be adjusted on

site. Electrical tilt means an in-built tilt that lowers the ver-

tical beam in all horizontal directions. Electrical tilt can be

combined with additional mechanical tilt. The procedure of

electrical downtilting has been signicantly simplied by

introducing remote electrical tilt controllers that allow also

to avoid additional costly site visits by technical personnel.

Therefore, optimization of antenna downtilt has become a

relatively easy and inexpensive way of optimizing the net-

work performance. Combined with P-CPICH optimization,

it can give signicant capacity enhancement in UMTS net-

works and allow efcient coverage control. Thus, CPICH

power and antenna downtilt optimization can be used as a

powerful tool in network performance optimization.

In the current paper, the author presents an efcient algo-

rithm based on local search that nds an antenna tilt setting

in the network that minimizes the uniform P-CPICH power

level. The work is an extension of the research presented

in [9, 10]. The optimization of pilot power and antenna

conguration are also the important parts of the network

optimization problem in [1]. Two algorithms for adjusting

CPICH power and antenna tilts for maximizing network ca-

pacity were presented in [3, 4].

The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In

Section 2, the system model is presented. A brief descrip-

tion of the algorithm is given Section 3. In Section 4, we

present a simple lower bound estimation approach. A nu-

merical study is presented in Section 5. Finally, the conclu-

sions are drawn in Section 6.

2 System Model

Consider a UMTS network with :cells, and let I denote

the set of cells, i.e., I = {1, . . . , :}. The service area is

represented by a grid of bins with a certain resolution, and

the same signal propagation conditions across every bin are

assumed. The total number of bins is denoted by :, and the

set of all bins is denoted by J = {1, . . . , :}.

For each antenna, we dene a set of all possible an-

tenna tilt congurations. We denote this set by K =

{1, . . . , 1} and assume that the range of possible down

tilts is the same for all antennas. To describe the current

network conguration, we use a set of binary variables,

\ = {

(|)

I

, i I, / K}, dened as follows,

(|)

I

=

0 otherwise.

(1)

Note that for each cell, there can be chosen only one antenna

tilt conguration, i.e.,

P

|K

(|)

I

= 1, i I.

We use q

(|)

I

(0 q

(|)

I

1) to denote the

power gain between base station i that uses the /-th an-

tenna tilt conguration and bin ,. For simplicity, we

group the power gain values by antenna tilt and dene

a set of 1 matrices, one for each antenna tilt value,

G

(|)

= {q

(|)

I

, i I, , J}, / K.

Let 1

To|

I

be the total transmission power in cell i and

let 1

c11c1

I

denote the amount of power allocated to the

P-CPICH signal in this cell. Thus, 1

c11c1

I

q

(|)

I

is the

power of the received pilot signal from cell i in bin , if an-

tenna in cell i uses conguration /. Using binary variables

dened by (1), the received pilot signal from cell i in bin ,

is thus

X

|K

1

c11c1

I

q

(|)

I

(|)

I

. (2)

The strength of a pilot signal is measured by its CIR

dened as the received chip energy relative to the total re-

ceived power spectral density. We assume that a pilot signal

can be detected if and only if the CIR is not less than a given

threshold

0

. For cell i and bin ,, the CIR requirement is

therefore

X

|K

1

c11c1

I

q

(|)

I

(|)

I

X

lI

X

|K

1

To|

l

q

(|)

l

(|)

l

+ i

0

, (3)

where i

located in bin ,.

Given a tilt setting for all antennas in the network, i.e.,

network conguration \ is known, it can be derived from

(3), that, if cell i covers bin ,, then the pilot power 1

c11c1

I

must be at least 1

I

(\ ) dened as follows,

1

I

(\ ) =

0

X

lI

X

|K

1

To|

l

q

(|)

l

(|)

l

+ i

X

|K

q

(|)

I

(|)

I

(4)

In this paper, we assume the worst-case interference sce-

nario when all base stations transmit at their maximum

transmit power level, i.e., 1

To|

I

= 1

nor

, i I. With this

assumption, (4) reads

1

I

(\ ) =

0

1

nor

1 +

X

lI

l6=I

X

|K

q

(|)

l

(|)

l

X

|K

q

(|)

I

(|)

I

+

+

0

i

X

|K

q

(|)

I

(|)

I

. (5)

To provide a service in some bin ,, the bin needs to be

covered by at least one cell. Thus, for a given congura-

tion \ , the minimum P-CPICH power needed to provide

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the service coverage in bin , is

min

II

1

I

(\ ) . (6)

Uniform pilot power is the most popular strategy used

by operators in assigning the P-CPICH transmit power lev-

els. By this strategy, all cells use the same P-CPICH power.

Considering that the total amount of pilot power in this case

is : 1

c11c1

, where 1

c11c1

is the P-CPICH power

level of each of the cells in the network, the pilot power op-

timization problem which aims to minimize the total pilot

power reduces to minimization of the uniform pilot power

level 1

c11c1

subject to a coverage constraint.

It has been shown in [9, 10] that for a given network con-

guration \ , the minimum uniform pilot power level that

guarantees full coverage of the service area can be found as

follows,

1

c11c1

= max

J

min

II

1

I

(\ ) . (7)

In [9], the authors presented also a simple algorithm that

nds the optimal uniform pilot power for a given minimum

required coverage degree.

In this paper, we address the problem of optimizing the

antenna tilt conguration in the network (\ ) in such a way

that the uniform pilot power level (1

c11c1

) is minimized

and a given service coverage degree is guaranteed. From

(5), we observe that minimizing the uniform pilot power

in the network implies minimizing the maximum other-to-

own-cell interference ratio in the network in the downlink

direction and isolating the cells.

3 A Heuristic Algorithm

To optimize the uniform pilot power level in the network

by adjusting the antenna tilts, there has been designed an

iterative heuristic algorithm based on local search. In each

iteration, the algorithmexamines the current antenna tilt set-

ting in the network and calculates the optimal uniform pilot

power level. (For a given conguration, the optimal uni-

form pilot power solution for full coverage can be found by

(7).) If the current setting gives a lower uniformpilot power

level as compared to the best among those found in previous

iterations, the result and the current conguration are saved

as the best solution. The algorithm iterates over the number

of all possible tilt congurations and changes the antenna

tilts in the network on a cell-by-cell basis.

This approach allows us to handle huge data sets in a

very efcient way. Instead of keeping in RAM all G

(|)

ma-

trices, we can calculate them in advance and then during

the optimization process we load only the one we need, i.e.,

for the current /. Thus, we have to keep in RAM only two

matrices, the one formed according the best current cong-

uration and the one with power gain values for the current

/. The described algorithm is presented below in pseudo

code.

algorithm Ti|tOjtini:otica;

// INPUT:

// n = number of cells

// a = number of bins

// 1 = number of possible tilt configurations

// G

(I)

= power gain matrix for the I-th

// configuration, I = {1, . . . , 1}

// OUTPUT:

// 1

CT1C1

= uniform pilot power level

// \ = antenna tilt setting in the network

begin

G

.

:= G

(1)

.

for all i = {1, . . . , n}, ) = {1, . . . , a};

1

CT1C1

= )iaJOjtlai)1i|ct1c&(

G);

(1)

.

:= 1 for all i = {1, . . . , n};

(r)

.

:= 0 for all i = {1, . . . , n}, v = {2, . . . , 1};

for I := 2 to 1

for i := 1 to n

begin

// Change antenna tilt in cell i

g

=

G

.

for all ) = {1, . . . , a};

G

.

= G

(I)

.

for all ) = {1, . . . , a};

// Find the optimal uniform pilot power

j = )iaJOjtlai)1i|ct1c&(

G);

if j < 1

CT1C1

then

begin

// Save the current configuration

1

CT1C1

= j;

(I)

.

:= 1;

(r)

.

:= 0 for all v = {1, . . . , 1}\I;

begin

else

// Reject the last change

G

.

= g

end;

end;

4 A Lower Bound Estimation

In this section, we present a very simple approach that

allows us to compute a lower bound on the optimal uniform

pilot power level within a few seconds even for very large

networks.

From (5), we observe that for each bin , we can always

nd the best conguration from the bin perspective. This

conguration minimizes the other-to-own-cell interference

ratio, i.e., the second component in brackets in (5), giving

the following equation for the minimum pilot power in cell

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i needed to cover bin ,,

1

I

=

0

1

nor

1 +

X

lI

l6=I

min

|K

q

(|)

l

+

i

1

nor

max

|K

q

(|)

I

. (8)

Thus, for a given system model, independently on the

chosen antenna tilt setting in the network, the optimum uni-

form pilot power needed to provide full coverage cannot be

lower than max

J

min

II

1

I

. For partial coverage, the

maximum shall be taken over a subset of bins, i.e., we can

exclude those bins that require the highest pilot power.

5 A Case Study

In this section, we investigate the impact of different an-

tenna tilt settings on the total amount of pilot power and

present computational results obtained for a test network

originating from a planning scenario for the city of Lisbon.

The planning scenario was provided by the MOMENTUM

project group [8]. Table 1 and Table 2 display some net-

work characteristics and the parameter setting used in our

computational experiments, respectively.

Table 1. Network statistics.

Number of sites 60

Number of cells () 164

Number of bins () 52000

Bin size 20 m 20 m

Area size 4200 m 5000 m

Table 2. Parameter setting.

Maximum downlink transmit power (

rai

) 20 W

Maximum P-CPICH power (

rai

) 3 W

Thermal noise power () 1.55e-14 W

Minimum P-CPICH CIR (0) 0.01

Electrical tilt range [0

]

Mechanical tilt range [0

]

Table 3. Antenna characteristics.

Frequency 2110 MHz

Antenna gain 18.5 dBi

Polarization +45

]

We assume that antennas installed at each site in the net-

work are of the same type (Kathrein antenna, type 742265).

Table 3 presents some antenna characteristics. For each an-

tenna in the network, the azimuth is assumed to be given.

Our goal is to adjust antenna tilts such that the total amount

of pilot power in the network is minimized.

Figure 1. Isotropic path loss prediction (best

server map), [dB].

Figure 2. Path loss prediction (best server

map) for the optimized electrical tilting solu-

tion for 99% coverage, [dB].

First, we study the effect of electrical tilting (assuming

mechanical antenna tilts xed at zero) as it is the cheap-

est, but more complicated tilting method from the computa-

tional stand point and therefore, is more interesting fromthe

practical point of view. However, the presented approach

can be also used for mechanical downtilting and the combi-

nation of mechanical and electrical downtilting.

To be able to obtain the attenuation values for specic

network congurations, the attenuation has been decom-

posed into three components [1], the antenna gain, the di-

rectional loss, and the master path loss predictions com-

puted for an isotropic antenna. The antenna gain value

is known from antenna characteristics (18.5 dBi). The

isotropic predictions are given. To calculate the directional

losses for some value of antenna tilt from the given range,

we use an interpolation technique applied to the correspond-

ing antenna vertical and horizontal diagrams (available from

the antenna producer) and the topological information over

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the entire service area [1]. The nal attenuation is calcu-

lated as a sum of three values (the antenna gain value is

taken with the minus sign).

Figure 1 demonstrates the best server map for isotropic

predictions. For every bin, the color represents the smallest

loss value, in dB, among all the cells. Figure 2 shows the

attenuation predictions for the network congured accord-

ing the found solution for 99 %coverage when the electrical

tilts can vary within a given range and the mechanical tilts

are xed at zero.

Table 4 presents the computational results obtained un-

der the full coverage requirement. In the rst scenario none

of antennas in the network is titled. In the next six scenar-

ios all antennas have the same electrical downtilt. In the last

scenario, we use the optimized antenna tilt setting obtained

by the algorithm presented in Section 3. For each scenario,

we present P-CPICH power level, the total amount of pi-

lot power in the network, the percentage of bins covered

by more than one cell, and the average number of covering

cells per bin. We observe that the last scenario yields a sub-

stantial improvement over all previous scenarios. Note also

that using the same electrical downtilt for all antennas in the

network may give a worse result than that for the non-tilted

network due to the increased attenuation along the cell bor-

ders. The lower bound on the optimal uniform pilot power

for full coverage computed by the approach presented in

Section 4 is 0.5251 W.

Table 4. Uniform pilot power solutions for full

coverage (zero mechanical tilts).

El. P-CPICH power, [W] Overlapping Covering

tilt Total Per cell [%] cells per bin

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Opt 158.53 0.9666 34.29 1.36

Table 5 demonstrates the uniform pilot power solutions

obtained under the 99 % coverage requirement for the same

seven scenarios. The lower bound computed for this cov-

erage requirement is 0.3764 W. (Note, the optimized tilt

setting in the last scenario is different from that presented

in Table 4.) The last scenario gives pilot power saving of

up to 37 % of the optimal level for non-tilted network. The

statistics on the other-to-own-cell interference ratios for all

seven scenarios for both types of solutions is presented in

Table 6. Figures 3 and 4 show histograms of the optimized

electrical tilts in the solutions with the full and the 99 %

coverage requirement, respectively.

Further, we studied the effect of optimizing the mechan-

ical antenna tilt on the optimal uniform pilot power as-

Table 5. Uniformpilot power solutions for 99%

coverage (zero mechanical tilts).

El. P-CPICH power, [W] Overlapping Covering

tilt Total Per cell [%] cells per bin

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Opt 103.50 0.63112 13.30 1.12

Table 6. Statistics for the other-to-own-cell in-

terference ratios for the full and 99%coverage

solutions (zero mechanical tilts).

El. 100% coverage 99% coverage

tilt Mean Max Std. dev. Mean Max Std. dev.

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Opt 0.59 3.83 0.62 0.55 2.15 0.49

suming the electrical tilts xed at zero. In this case, the

lower bounds for full and 99-percent coverage are 0.7310 W

and 0.4265 W, respectively. The results are summarized in

Table 7 which show the optimal uniform pilot power, the

overlapping percentage, and the average other-to-own-cell

interference ratio. The results show that in the studied test

network, changes in electrical antenna tilts have a stronger

effect on the total interference reduction in the network and

the optimal uniform pilot power than those in mechanical

antenna tilts. Nevertheless, the use of mechanical downtilt-

ing can give a further improvement if it used in addition to

electrical antenna tilt whose range, dened by antenna type,

is usually more limited.

Table 7. Uniform pilot power solutions for full

and 99% coverage (zero electrical tilts).

Mech. 100% coverage 99% coverage

tilt Pilot Overl. Mean Pilot Overl. Mean

[W] [%] [W] [%]

1

2

3

4

5

6

Opt 1.02 37.89 0.67 0.68 18.28 0.63

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0 1 2 3 4 5 6

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

ELECTRICAL TILT, [

o

]

N

U

M

B

E

R

O

F

C

E

L

L

S

Figure 3. A histogram of the optimized elec-

trical tilts in the full coverage solution.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

ELECTRICAL TILT, [

o

]

N

U

M

B

E

R

O

F

C

E

L

L

S

Figure 4. A histogram of the optimized elec-

trical tilts in the solution with 99% coverage.

6 Conclusions and Future Research

We have studied the problem of minimizing the

P-CPICH power in UMTS networks by adjusting antenna

downtilts subject to a coverage constraint. Our study shows

that solutions with optimized antenna tilts signicantly out-

perform those without tilting or the ones with uniform an-

tenna tilt setting. The reduction in the optimal uniform

CPICH power is also a sign that the downlink interference

is reduced, which means that the capacity is potentially in-

creased.

We observed that in the studied test network, the effect of

electrical tilt on interference reduction is greater than that of

mechanical tilt. Although in this paper we studied the elec-

trical and mechanical tilting separately, the results suggest

that mechanical tilt can be used in addition to electrical tilt-

ing, e.g., when a further increase of the electrical antenna

tilt is impossible.

We have considered the case when all cells use the same

amount of pilot power, but the work is planned to be ex-

tended to a more general case with adaptive pilot power,

i.e., when each cell can be assigned own pilot power level.

This topic is to be addressed in forthcoming research.

7 Acknowledgments

The author wishes to thank Di Yuan at the Department

of Science and Technology, Link oping University, Sweden,

and Fredrik Gunnarsson at Ericsson Research, Link oping,

Sweden, for the technical discussions. The group of the

MOMENTUM project is also acknowledged for providing

the test data for Lisbon [8]. This work is nanced by

CENIIT (Center for Industrial Information Technology),

Link oping Institute of Technology, Sweden.

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