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STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF SOME SELECTED HEAVY METALS ON THE PRIMARY PRODUCTION IN FRESH WATER POND AT TIRUVANNAMALAI, TAMIL

NADU.
2

SAMPATH KUMAR. S., 2HARIPRASAD. P and 1RAMAKRISHNAN. N

1. Reader in Botany and Head, 2 Lecturers in Botany Department of Natural Science, Govt. Arts College, Tiruvannamalai- 3, Tamil Nadu
SYNAOPSIS In various pesticide formulations and in fertilizers composition heavy metals used as ingredients. These heavy metals have had various side effects during course of its usage. In the present investigation we examined the effect of some important frequently used heavy metals on phytoplankton productivity in natural pond ecosystem. The experimental ponds selected for this study are situated inTiruvannamalai (12o 15 NL and 79o 07 EL). Both the ponds are eutrophic in nature with a dominance of Cyanophyceae during the study period. Water sample was analyzed for the concentration of various Physico-chemical parameters (APHA, 1985) along with primary productivity in natural ecosystem by light and dark bottle method . The heavy metals used for study as Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn). The zinc and lead are showed more or less same trend of effect and showed less effect than cadmium. The effect of copper on GPP is more or less the same trend on GPP was observed for zinc and lead. Of the four heavy metals taken for the study, cadmium is more effect on phytoplankton net production than other three heavy metals in both the ponds. In all the cases except in the pond II for zinc, above 75ppm concentration no NPP was detected. Nevertheless, except cadmium all other three metals the maximum NPP reduction (above 90%) was noticed at 50ppm concentration. Simple correlation analysis was carried out between the effects of the four heavy metals against GPP in the two experimental ponds. The results showed that most of the r-values are marked for their significant at p<0.05 level. It is also interesting to note that the Lead and Copper combinations showed significant positive values INTRODUCTION The heavy metal pollution of the natural environment has been consistently increasing due to release of various metal ions by domestic use, industrial wastes, agricultural use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, sedimentation of rocks and mining activities The heavy metals like Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) are toxic to many microorganisms including algae, which form a ubiquitous component of the biosphere. Several heavy metals have no known biochemical role and are toxic even at low concentrations. The introduction of heavy metals into aquatic habitats creates potential threat to aquatic food webs through carbon fixation and respiration of the Phytoplankton population in a freshwater ecosystem. Toxic effect of the heavy metals was studied in the synthetic microcosm comprising of algae and grazers and it was found that the grazers did not have any effect on toxicity and moreover, carbon fixation was found to be the most sensitive parameters than others. Many exhaustive reviews on heavy

metal toxicity in algae have appeared [Davies (1978), Whitton (1982)]. The process of bioaccumulation of different heavy metals by Phytoplankton was studied both under field and laboratory conditions by earlier workers like. Toxicity of heavy metals of Phytoplankton productivity in natural ecosystem has been carried out by. Nevertheless, in India, particularly in Tamil Nadu, not much work has been carried out in this aspect. So the present study was undertaken at Tiruvannamalai on a fresh water pond to understand the effect of four heavy metals (Copper, Cadmium, Lead and Zinc) on the primary production and community respiration. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Area: The experimental ponds selected for this study are situated one at the Girivalam path around Tiruvannamalai Hill, Tiruvannamalai (12o 15 NL and 79o 07 EL). And the other pond is a form pond situated near Samudram Lake 4km away from the town, which surrounded by paddy fields. Both the ponds are eutrophic in nature with a dominance of Cyanophyceae during the study period. Water sample was analyzed for the concentration of various Physico-chemical parameters as described in APHA (1985). Phytoplankton sample was taken as described elsewhere (Ramakrishnan, 1981).

Heavy metal: The following four heavy metals were selected Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu) Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) for the present investigation. The GR - grade of various metal salts used were lead nitrate, Copper Sulphate, Cadmium chloride and zinc chloride. The concentration of each metal was prepared in equal potency by preparing the concentration of parts per million of metal as available from the respective salts. Primary productivity was determined by light and dark bottle method. BOD bottles of 300ml capacity were used in the experiments and dissolved oxygen determinations were made by modified Winklers method. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The physico-chemical characteristics of the experimental ponds are given in Table 1. The

Physico-chemical values clearly indicated that the water was eutrophic in nature (Croome and Tyler, 1972). A total of 61 algal taxa were identified in the pond I and 71 taxa were identified from the pond II, which were distributed over four classes of algal divisions such as Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta and Cyanophyta. The species distribution over the four classes is given in the Fig.1.and 2. This result of the present investigation coincides with the earlier reports from these water bodies (Ramakrishnan 1991; Ramakrishnan et al., 2000, 2001;). Algal density was calculated for the two ponds and it is presented in Fig.3, clearly showed that pond II is comparatively more populated than the pond I (Ramakrishnan, 1981; Saha et al.1971).

Effect of heavy metals on community GPP The effect of four heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) on the community GPP is presented in the Figs., 4 to 7. The effect of zinc on gross primary production (GPP) is shown in the figure 4,clearly indicated the gradual reduction in pond I whereas in the pond II the reduction is in a steep manner (Peltier et al.,1985). In both the ponds 50 percent reduction was observed at 25ppm concentration and 90% reduction was noticed at 100ppm concentration. At 250ppm concentration no GPP was detected (Allen et al., 1980; Abd-ElMonem et al., 1988;). The effect cadmium on GPP of the two experimental ponds is presented in the figure 5. Cadmium showed comparatively more effect on GPP than other heavy metals. At 50ppm concentration more than 75% reduction of GPP was noticed in both ponds. No GPP was detected at 100ppm and 250ppm concentration of cadmium during the present study in both the ponds (Asada and Takahashi, 1987). The effect of lead on GPP is presented in the figure 6,showed more or less same trend as observed in zinc and showed less effect than cadmium. Nearly 50% reduction in GPP was noticed at 50ppm concentration (Lane and Morel, 2000). The effect of copper on GPP is given in the figure 7. More or less the same trend on GPP was observed for zinc and lead. 50% GPP reduction was noticed at 50ppm in lead. Nearly 90% reduction of GPP was observed in 100ppm (Nagalakshmi and Prasad, 2001). Effect of heavy metals on community NPP The effect of heavy metals on community Net Primary Production (NPP) of the two experimental ponds is presented in the figures 8 and 9. Of the four heavy metals taken for the present study cadmium is more effect on phytoplankton net production than other three heavy metals in both the ponds (Okamoto et al., 2001a). In all the cases except in the pond II for zinc, above 75ppm concentration no NPP was detected (Okamoto et al., 2001b). Nevertheless, except cadmium all other three metals the maximum NPP reduction (above 90%) was noticed at 50ppm concentration (Moore and Ramamoorthy, 1983;1984). STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Simple correlation analysis was carried out between the effects of the four heavy metals against GPP in the two experimental ponds. The results showed that most of the r-values are marked for their significant at p<0.05 level. It is also interesting to note that the Lead and Copper combinations showed significant positive values (Reed & Gada, 1990; Reynolds,1990). REFERENCES Abd-El-Monem, H. M., Corradi, M. G.& Gorbi, G. 1998. Toxicity of copper and zinc to two strains of Scenedesmus acutus having different sensitivity to chromium. Environ. Exp. Bot. 40:5966. Allen H.E, R.H. Hall and T.D. Brisbin (1980). Metal speciation, effects on aquatic toxicity. Environmental Science and Technology.14(4):441-442 APHA, 1985. Standard Methods for the examination of water and waste water, AWWA,WPCF, 17th edition, Washington

Asada, K. & Takahashi, M. 1987. Production and scavenging of active oxygen in photosynthesis. In Kyle, D. J., Osmond, C. & Arntzen, C. J. [Eds.] Photoinhibition. Elsevier, New York, pp. 22797. Croome, R.L. and P.A. Tyler. 1972. Physical and chemical limnology of lake Leake and Tooms lake, Tasmania. Arch. Hydro. Biol. 34: 211 - 224 Davies, A. G. 1978. Pollution studies with marine plankton. Part II. Heavy metals. Adv. Mar. Biol. 15:381 508. Lane, T.W.&Morel, F. M. M. 2000. A biological function for cadmium in marine diatoms. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:462731. Moore & Ramamoorthy, 1984. Heavy metals in Natural Waters, applied monitoring and impact assessment, Springer New York. Moore J.W. & S.Ramamoorthy (1983). Heavy metals in natural waters. Springer Verlag New York 268p. Nagalakshmi, N. & Prasad, M. N. V. 2001. Responses of glutathione cycle enzymes and glutathione metabolism to copper stress in Scenedesmus bijugatus. Plant Sci. 160:2919. Okamoto, O. K., Pinto, E., Latorre, L. R., Bechara, E. J. H. & Colepicolo, P. 2001a. Antioxidant modulation in response to metal-induced oxidative stress in algal chloroplasts. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 40:1824. Okamoto, O. K., Robertson, D. L., Fagan, T. F., Hastings, J. W. & Colepicolo, P. 2001b. Different regulatory mechanisms modulate the expression of a dinoflagellate iron-superoxide dismutase. J. Biol. Chem. 276:1998993. Peltier, W.H. y C.I. Weber. 1985. Methods for measuring the acute toxicity of effluents to freshwater and marine organisms. 3rd Edition. US Environmental Ramakrishan, N., N.C. Ganesan and R. Thevanathan, 2000 Distribution of plank tonic algae in three different fresh water bodies of Tiruvannamalai, Tiruvannamalai District, Tamil Nadu, Nat. Symp. on phycology in the New Millennium org.in CAS, Univ. of Madras, Chennai (March 1-3) Abstract book page 45. Ramakrishnan, N. 1981 Phytosociology and Primary production The phytoplankton in Two Fresh Water Reservoirs at Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, M. Phil thesis, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608 002 Ramakrishnan, N. 1991 Primary production of two Man made fresh water reservoirs at Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, International Symp. on Land water Interaction (8-13 December) NIE, New Delhi. Abstract Page 61. Ramakrishnan, N., N.C. Ganesan and R. Thevanathan, 2001a. Determination of water quality in freshwater bodies by algal assay method. In state level seminar on Water pollution and public Health, on 14 & 15th Dec. 2001. Abstract book page 38. Reed, R. H. & Gada, G. M. 1990. Metal tolerance in eukariotic and prokariotic algae. In Shaw, A. J. [Ed.] Heavy Metal Tolerance in Plants: Evolutionary Aspects. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 10518. Reynolds C.S. (1990). The ecology of freshwater phytoplankton. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 384p.

Saha,-G.N.; Sehgal,-K.L.; Mitra,-E.; Nandy,-A.C.1971 Studies on the seasonal and diurnal variations in physico-chemical and biological conditions of a perennial fresh water pond. J-Inland-Fish-Soc-India,Barrackpore 1971 vol. 3, pp. 79-102 Whitton, B.A., Say, P.J., Jupp, B.P., 1982. Accumulation of zinc,cadmium and lead by the aquatic liverwort Scapania.Environ. Pollut. 3, 299-316. Correlation matrix between the heavy metal effect on GPP in the Pond I and II Variable ZN_PII CD_PII PB_PII CU_PII ZN_PI CD_PI ZN_PII CD_PII PB_PII CU_PII ZN_PI CD_PI PB_PI CU_PI 1.0000 .98630 .98750 .98271 .99646 .97538 .98526 .98727

PB_PI

CU_PI

1.0000 .98991 .97402 .98349 .97036 .98091 .98621

1.0000 .99351 .98607 .96968 .99592 .99719

1.0000 .98635 .95357 .99864 .99622

1.0000 .96209 .98812 .99030

1.0000 .95929 .96414

1.0000 .99904

1.0000

ZN_PII Effect of Zinc on GPP in Pond II; CD_PII Effect of Cadmium on GPP in Pond II PB_PII Effect of Lead on GPP in Pond II; CU_PII Effect of Cupper on GPP in Pond II ZN_PI Effect of Zinc on GPP in Pond I; CD_PI Effect of Cadmium on GPP in Pond I PB_PI Effect of Lead on GPP in Pond II; CU_PI Effect of Cupper on GPP in Pond I FIG.1 PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY IN MAJOR ALGAL DIVISIONS DURING THE EXPERIMENT IN POND I

30% 42%

5%

23%

CHLOROPHYTA EUGLENOPHYTA

BACILLARIOPHYTA CYANOPHYTA

FIG. 2.

PHYTOPLANKTON DIVERSITY IN MAJOR ALGAL DIVISIONS DURING THE EXPERIMENT IN POND II

31%

35%

4% 30%

CHLOROPHYTA

BACILLARIOPHYTA

EUGLENOPHYTA

CYANOPHYTA

FIG.3 PHYTOPLANKTON DENSITY DURING THE EXPERIMENT PERIOD

450

No.CELLS X 103/1-1

350

250

150

50
CHLOROPHYTA BAILLARIOPHYTA EUGLENOPHYTA CYANOPHYTA

POND I

POND II

FIG4

EFFECT OF ZINC ON GPP

500 450 400 GPP (mgC/m3/hr) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

FIG.5.
600

EFFECT OF CADMIUM ON GPP

GPP (mgC/m3/hr)

500 400 300 200 100 0


L pm pp m pp m NT R 5p pp m pp m pp m pp m 25 0 O

50

10

25

75

POND I

POND II

FIG.6.
600

EFFECT OF LEAD ON GPP

500

GPP (mgC/m3/hr)

400

300

200

100

10

N TR O

pp m

pp

pp

pp

pp

pp

10 0

C O

POND I

POND II

FIG.7 EFFECT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF COPPER ON GPP (mgC/m3/hr)

25 0

10

50

25

75

pp

500 450

GPP (mgC/m3/hr)

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0


CONTROL 5 ppm 10 ppm 25 ppm 50 ppm 75 ppm 100 ppm 250 ppm

POND I

POND II

FIG.8. EFFECT OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF HEAVY METALS ON COMMUNITY NPP IN POND I

450

400

350

300

NPP (mgC/m3/hr)

250

200

150

100

50

0 5 ppm 10 ppm 25 ppm 50 ppm 75 ppm 100 ppm 250 ppm

CONTROL

ZINC

CADMIUM

LEAD

COPPER

FIG. 9. EFFECT OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF HEAVY METALS ON COMMUNITY NPP IN POND II

400 350

NPP (mgC/m3/hr)

300 250 200 150 100 50 0


5 pp m 10 pp m 25 pp m 50 pp m 75 pp m 10 0 25 pp m 0 pp m

CONTROL

ZINC

CADMIUM

LEAD

COPPER

Table: 1. The physicochemical characters of the water bodies during the experimental period POND I SECOND EXP. RESULTS 28.65 8.21 21.25 20.6 96.2 132.6 16.5 22.65 5.8 4.8 POND II SECOND EXP. RESULTS 28.5 7.65 20.2 21.5 92.8 130.6 24.2 21.6 6.1 4.3

Parameters Water Temp. PH Transparency DO2 Total solids Total alkalinity Calcium Magnesium Silicate Phosphate

FIRST EXP. RESULTS 28.10 8.1 20.65 19.7 110.5 126.5 18.25 19.6 6.45 5.1

FIRST EXP. RESULTS 29.21 7.85 19.85 18.8 88.65 128.5 25.2 20.35 7.2 5.3