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PENGERTIAN BINARY/BINER

Sistem bilangan biner atau sistem bilangan basis dua adalah sebuah sistem penulisan angka dengan menggunakan dua simbol yaitu 0 dan 1. Sistem bilangan biner modern ditemukan olehGottfried Wilhelm Leibniz pada abad ke-17. Sistem bilangan ini merupakan dasar dari semua sistem bilangan berbasis digital. Dari sistem biner, kita dapat mengkonversinya ke sistem bilanganOktal atau Hexadesimal. Sistem ini juga dapat kita sebut dengan istilah bit, atau Binary Digit. Pengelompokan biner dalam komputer selalu berjumlah 8, dengan istilah 1 Byte/bita. Dalam istilah komputer, 1 Byte = 8 bit. Kode-kode rancang bangun komputer, seperti ASCII, American Standard Code for Information Interchange menggunakan sistem peng-kode-an 1 Byte.

2 =1 2 =2 2 =4 2 =8 2 =16 2 =32 2 =64 dst == Perhitungan ==


6 5 4 3 2 1

Desimal Biner (8 bit )

0000 0000

0000 0001

0000 0010

0000 0011

0000 0100

0000 0101

0000 0110

0000 0111

0000 1000

0000 1001

10

0000 1010

11

0000 1011

12

0000 1100

13

0000 1101

14

0000 1110

15

0000 1111

16

0001 0000

Perhitungan dalam biner mirip dengan menghitung dalam sistem bilangan lain. Dimulai dengan angka pertama, dan angka selanjutnya. Dalam sistem bilangan desimal, perhitungan mnggunakan angka 0 hingga 9, sedangkan dalam biner hanya menggunakan angka 0 dan 1. contoh: mengubah bilangan desimal menjadi biner desimal = 10. berdasarkan referensi diatas yang mendekati bilangan 10 adalah 8 (2 ), selanjutnya hasil 1 pengurangan 10-8 = 2 (2 ). sehingga dapat dijabarkan seperti berikut 10 = (1 x 2 ) + (0 x 2 ) + (1 x 2 ) + (0 x 2 ). dari perhitungan di atas bilangan biner dari 10 adalah 1010 dapat juga dengan cara lain yaitu 10 : 2 = 5 sisa 0 (0 akan menjadi angka terakhir dalam bilangan biner), 5(hasil pembagian pertama) : 2 = 2 sisa 1 (1 akan menjadi angka kedua terakhir dalam bilangan biner), 2(hasil pembagian kedua): 2 = 1 sisa 0(0 akan menjadi angka ketiga terakhir dalam
3 2 1 0 3

bilangan biner), 1 (hasil pembagian ketiga): 2 = 0 sisa 1 (1 akan menjadi angka pertama dalam bilangan biner) karena hasil bagi sudah 0 atau habis, sehingga bilangan biner dari 10 = 1010 atau dengan cara yang singkat 10:2=5(0), 5:2=2(1), 2:2=1(0), 1:2=0(1) sisa hasil bagi dibaca dari belakang menjadi 1010

PENGERTIAN ASCII
Kode Standar Amerika untuk Pertukaran Informasi atau ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) merupakan suatu standar internasional dalam kode huruf dan simbolseperti Hex dan Unicode tetapi ASCII lebih bersifat universal, contohnya 124 adalah untuk karakter "|". Ia selalu digunakan oleh komputer dan alat komunikasi lain untuk menunjukkan teks. Kode ASCII sebenarnya memiliki komposisi bilangan biner sebanyak 7 bit. Namun, ASCII disimpan sebagai sandi 8 bit dengan menambakan satu angka 0 sebagai bit significant paling tinggi. Bit tambahan ini sering digunakan untuk uji prioritas. Karakter control pada ASCII dibedakan menjadi 5 kelompok sesuai dengan penggunaan yaitu berturut-turut meliputi logical communication, Device control, Information separator, Code extention, dan physical communication. Code ASCII ini banyak dijumpai pada papan ketik (keyboard) computer atau instrument-instrument digital. Jumlah kode ASCII adalah 255 kode. Kode ASCII 0..127 merupakan kode ASCII untuk manipulasi teks; sedangkan kode ASCII 128..255 merupakan kode ASCII untuk manipulasi grafik. Kode ASCII sendiri dapat dikelompokkan lagi kedalam beberapa bagian: Kode yang tidak terlihat simbolnya seperti Kode 10(Line Feed), 13(Carriage Return), 8(Tab), 32(Space) Kode yang terlihat simbolnya seperti abjad (A..Z), numerik (0..9), karakter khusus (~!@#$%^&*()_+?:{}) Kode yang tidak ada di keyboard namun dapat ditampilkan. Kode ini umumnya untuk kode-kode grafik.

Dalam pengkodean kode ASCII memanfaatkan 8 bit. Pada saat ini kode ASCII telah tergantikan oleh kode UNICODE (Universal Code). UNICODE dalam pengkodeannya memanfaatkan 16 bit sehingga memungkinkan untuk menyimpan kode-kode lainnya seperti kode bahasa Jepang, Cina, Thailand dan sebagainya. Pada papan keyboard, aktifkan numlock (tidak terdapat pada laptop), tekan tombol ALT secara bersamaan dengan kode karakter maka akan dihasilkan karakter tertentu. Misalnya: ALT + 44 maka akan muncul karakter koma (,). Mengetahui kode-kode ASCII sangat bermanfaat misalnya untuk membuat karakter-karakter tertentu yang tidak ada di keyboard.

Tabel Karakter ASCII[sunting | sunting sumber]


Tabel berikut berisi karakter-karakter ASCII . Dalam sistem operasi Windows dan MS-DOS, pengguna dapat menggunakan karakter ASCII dengan menekan tombol Alt+[nomor nilai ANSI (desimal)]. Sebagai contoh, tekan kombinasi tombol Alt+87 untuk karakter huruf latin "W" kapital.

Nilai Unicode Karakter (heksadesimal)

Nilai ANSI ASCII (desimal)

Keterangan

NUL

0000

Null (tidak tampak)

SOH

0001

Start of heading (tidak tampak)

STX

0002

Start of text (tidak tampak)

ETX

0003

End of text (tidak tampak)

EOT

0004

End of transmission (tidak tampak)

ENQ

0005

Enquiry (tidak tampak)

ACK

0006

Acknowledge (tidak tampak)

BEL

0007

Bell (tidak tampak)

BS

0008

Menghapus satu karakter di belakang kursor (Backspace)

HT

0009

Horizontal tabulation

LF

000A

10

Pergantian baris (Line feed)

VT

000B

11

Tabulasi vertikal

FF

000C

12

Pergantian baris (Form feed)

CR

000D

13

Pergantian baris (carriage return)

SO

000E

14

Shift out (tidak tampak)

SI

000F

15

Shift in (tidak tampak)

DLE

0010

16

Data link escape (tidak tampak)

DC1

0011

17

Device control 1 (tidak tampak)

DC2

0012

18

Device control 2 (tidak tampak)

DC3

0013

19

Device control 3 (tidak tampak)

DC4

0014

20

Device control 4 (tidak tampak)

NAK

0015

21

Negative acknowledge (tidak tampak)

SYN

0016

22

Synchronous idle (tidak tampak)

ETB

0017

23

End of transmission block (tidak tampak)

CAN

0018

24

Cancel (tidak tampak)

EM

0019

25

End of medium (tidak tampak)

SUB

001A

26

Substitute (tidak tampak)

ESC

001B

27

Escape (tidak tampak)

FS

001C

28

File separator

GS

001D

29

Group separator

RS

001E

30

Record separator

US

001F

31

Unit separator

SP

0020

32

Spasi

0021

33

Tanda seru (exclamation)

"

0022

34

Tanda kutip dua

0023

35

Tanda pagar (kres)

0024

36

Tanda mata uang dolar

0025

37

Tanda persen

&

0026

38

Karakter ampersand (&)

0027

39

Karakter Apostrof

0028

40

Tanda kurung buka

0029

41

Tanda kurung tutup

002A

42

Karakter asterisk (bintang)

002B

43

Tanda tambah (plus)

002C

44

Karakter koma

002D

45

Karakter hyphen (strip)

002E

46

Tanda titik

002F

47

Garis miring (slash)

0030

48

Angka nol

0031

49

Angka satu

0032

50

Angka dua

0033

51

Angka tiga

0034

52

Angka empat

0035

53

Angka lima

0036

54

Angka enam

0037

55

Angka tujuh

0038

56

Angka delapan

0039

57

Angka sembilan

003A

58

Tanda titik dua

003B

59

Tanda titik koma

<

003C

60

Tanda lebih kecil

003D

61

Tanda sama dengan

>

003E

62

Tanda lebih besar

003F

63

Tanda tanya

0040

64

A keong (@)

0041

65

Huruf latin A kapital

0042

66

Huruf latin B kapital

0043

67

Huruf latin C kapital

0044

68

Huruf latin D kapital

0045

69

Huruf latin E kapital

0046

70

Huruf latin F kapital

0047

71

Huruf latin G kapital

0048

72

Huruf latin H kapital

0049

73

Huruf latin I kapital

004A

74

Huruf latin J kapital

004B

75

Huruf latin K kapital

004C

76

Huruf latin L kapital

004D

77

Huruf latin M kapital

004E

78

Huruf latin N kapital

004F

79

Huruf latin O kapital

0050

80

Huruf latin P kapital

0051

81

Huruf latin Q kapital

0052

82

Huruf latin R kapital

0053

83

Huruf latin S kapital

0054

84

Huruf latin T kapital

0055

85

Huruf latin U kapital

0056

86

Huruf latin V kapital

0057

87

Huruf latin W kapital

0058

88

Huruf latin X kapital

0059

89

Huruf latin Y kapital

005A

90

Huruf latin Z kapital

005B

91

Kurung siku kiri

005C

92

Garis miring terbalik (backslash)

005D

93

Kurung sikur kanan

005E

94

Tanda pangkat

005F

95

Garis bawah (underscore)

0060

96

Tanda petik satu

0061

97

Huruf latin a kecil

0062

98

Huruf latin b kecil

0063

99

Huruf latin c kecil

0064

100

Huruf latin d kecil

0065

101

Huruf latin e kecil

0066

102

Huruf latin f kecil

0067

103

Huruf latin g kecil

0068

104

Huruf latin h kecil

0069

105

Huruf latin i kecil

006A

106

Huruf latin j kecil

006B

107

Huruf latin k kecil

006C

108

Huruf latin l kecil

006D

109

Huruf latin m kecil

006E

110

Huruf latin n kecil

006F

111

Huruf latin o kecil

0070

112

Huruf latin p kecil

0071

113

Huruf latin q kecil

0072

114

Huruf latin r kecil

0073

115

Huruf latin s kecil

0074

116

Huruf latin t kecil

0075

117

Huruf latin u kecil

0076

118

Huruf latin v kecil

0077

119

Huruf latin w kecil

0078

120

Huruf latin x kecil

0079

121

Huruf latin y kecil

007A

122

Huruf latin z kecil

007B

123

Kurung kurawal buka

007C

124

Garis vertikal (pipa)

007D

125

Kurung kurawal tutup

007E

126

Karakter gelombang (tilde)

DEL

007F

127

Delete

0080

128

Dicadangkan

0081

129

Dicadangkan

0082

130

Dicadangkan

0083

131

Dicadangkan

IND

0084

132

Index

NEL

0085

133

Next line

SSA

0086

134

Start of selected area

ESA

0087

135

End of selected area

0088

136

Character tabulation set

0089

137

Character tabulation with justification

008A

138

Line tabulation set

PLD

008B

139

Partial line down

PLU

008C

140

Partial line up

008D

141

Reverse line feed

SS2

008E

142

Single shift two

SS3

008F

143

Single shift three

DCS

0090

144

Device control string

PU1

0091

145

Private use one

PU2

0092

146

Private use two

STS

0093

147

Set transmit state

CCH

0094

148

Cancel character

MW

0095

149

Message waiting

0096

150

Start of guarded area

0097

151

End of guarded area

0098

152

Start of string

0099

153

Dicadangkan

009A

154

Single character introducer

CSI

009B

155

Control sequence introducer

ST

009C

156

String terminator

OSC

009D

157

Operating system command

PM

009E

158

Privacy message

APC

009F

158

Application program command

00A0

160

Spasi yang bukan pemisah kata

00A1

161

Tanda seru terbalik

00A2

162

Tanda sen (Cent)

00A3

163

Tanda Poundsterling

00A4

164

Tanda mata uang (Currency)

00A5

165

Tanda Yen

00A6

166

Garis tegak putus-putus (broken bar)

00A7

167

Section sign

00A8

168

Diaeresis

00A9

169

Tanda hak cipta (Copyright)

00AA

170

Feminine ordinal indicator

00AB

171

Left-pointing double angle quotation mark

00AC

172

Not sign

00AD

173

Tanda strip (hyphen)

00AE

174

Tanda merk terdaftar

00AF

175

Macron

00B0

176

Tanda derajat

00B1

177

Tanda kurang lebih (plus-minus)

00B2

178

Tanda kuadrat (pangkat dua)

00B3

179

Tanda kubik (pangkat tiga)

00B4

180

Acute accent

00B5

181

Micro sign

00B6

182

Pilcrow sign

00B7

183

Middle dot

HEXADECIMAL

In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal (also base 16, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 09 to represent values zero to nine, and A,B,C,D,E,F (or alternatively af) to represent values ten to fifteen. For example, the hexadecimal number 2AF3 is equal, in decimal, to (2163) + (10162) + (15161) + (3160), or 10995. Each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits (bits), and the primary use of hexadecimal notation is a human-friendly representation of binary-coded values in computing and digital electronics. One hexadecimal digit represents a nibble, which is half of an octet or byte (8 bits). For example,byte values can range from 0 to 255 (decimal), but may be more conveniently represented as two hexadecimal digits in the range 00 to FF. Hexadecimal is also commonly used to represent computer memory addresses. Contents [hide]

1 Representation
o

1.1 Written representation

1.1.1 Using 09 and AF

o o

1.2 Early written representations 1.3 Verbal and digital representations

o o

1.4 Signs 1.5 Hexadecimal exponential notation

2 Conversion
o o o o

2.1 Binary conversion 2.2 Division-remainder in source base 2.3 Addition and multiplication 2.4 Tools for conversion

3 Real numbers
o

3.1 Powers

4 Cultural
o o o

4.1 Etymology 4.2 Use in Chinese culture 4.3 Primary numeral system

5 Key to number base notation 6 See also 7 References

Representation[edit] Written representation[edit] Using 09 and AF[edit] 0hex 1hex 2hex 3hex 4hex 5hex 6hex 7hex 8hex = 0dec = 1dec = 2dec = 3dec = 4dec = 5dec = 6dec = 7dec = 8dec = 0oct = 1oct = 2oct = 3oct = 4oct = 5oct = 6oct = 7oct = 10oct 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0

9hex Ahex Bhex Chex Dhex Ehex Fhex

= 9dec = 10dec = 11dec = 12dec = 13dec = 14dec = 15dec

= 11oct = 12oct = 13oct = 14oct = 15oct = 16oct = 17oct

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0 0 0 1 1 1 1

0 1 1 0 0 1 1

1 0 1 0 1 0 1

In situations where there is no context, hexadecimal numbers can be ambiguous and confused with numbers expressed in other bases. There are several conventions for expressing values unambiguously. A numerical subscript (itself written in decimal) can give the base explicitly: 15910 is decimal 159; 15916 is hexadecimal 159, which is equal to 34510. Other authors prefer a text subscript, such as 159decimal and 159hex, or 159d and 159h. In linear text systems, such as those used in most computer programming environments, a variety of methods have arisen:

In URIs (including URLs), character codes are written as hexadecimal pairs prefixed with %:http://www.example.com/name%20with%20spaces where %20 is the space (blank) character (code value 20 in hex, 32 in decimal). In XML and XHTML, characters can be expressed as hexadecimal numeric character references using the notation &#xcode;, where code is the 1- to 6-digit hex number assigned to the character in the Unicode standard. Thus &#x2019; represents the curled right single quote (Unicode value 2019 in hex, 8217 in decimal). Color references in HTML and CSS and X Window can be expressed with six hexadecimal digits (two each for the red, green, and blue components, in that order) prefixed with #: white, for example, is represented #FFFFFF .[1] CSS allows 3-hexdigit abbreviations with one hexdigit per component: #FA3 abbreviates #FFAA33 (a golden orange: ). *nix (Unix and related) shells, AT&T assembly language, and likewise the C programming language, which was designed for Unix (and the syntactic descendants of C including C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, Python and Windows PowerShell) use the prefix 0x for numeric constants represented in hex: 0x5A3. Character and string constants may express character codes in hexadecimal with the prefix \x followed by two hex digits: '\x1B' represents the Esc control character; "\x1B[0m\x1B[25;1H" is a string containing 11 characters (plus a trailing NUL to mark the end of the string) with two embedded Esc characters.[2] To output an integer as hexadecimal with the printf function family, the format conversion code %X or %x is used. In the Unicode standard, a character value is represented with U+ followed by the hex value: U+20AC is the Euro sign ().

In MIME (e-mail extensions) quoted-printable encoding, characters that cannot be represented as literal ASCII characters are represented by their codes as two hexadecimal digits (in ASCII) prefixed by an equal to sign =, as in Espa=F1a to send "Espaa" (Spain). (Hexadecimal F1, equal to decimal 241, is the code number for the lower case n with tilde in the ISO/IEC 8859-1 character set.) In Intel-derived assembly languages, hexadecimal is denoted with a suffixed H or h: FFh or 05A3H. Some implementations require a leading zero when the first hexadecimal digit character is not a decimal digit, so one would write 0FFh instead of FFh Other assembly languages (6502, Motorola), Pascal, Delphi, some versions of BASIC (Commodore), GML and Forth use $ as a prefix: $5A3. Some assembly languages (Microchip) use the notation H'ABCD' (for ABCD16). Ada and VHDL enclose hexadecimal numerals in based "numeric quotes": 16#5A3#. For bit vector constants VHDL uses the notation x"5A3".[3] Verilog represents hexadecimal constants in the form 8'hFF, where 8 is the number of bits in the value and FF is the hexadecimal constant. Modula-2 and some other languages use # as a prefix: #05A3 The Smalltalk language uses the prefix 16r: 16r5A3 PostScript and the Bourne shell and its derivatives denote hex with prefix 16#: 16#5A3. For PostScript, binary data (such as image pixels) can be expressed as unprefixed consecutive hexadecimal pairs: AA213FD51B3801043FBC... In early systems when a Macintosh crashed, one or two lines of hexadecimal code would be displayed under the Sad Mac to tell the user what went wrong. Common Lisp uses the prefixes #x and #16r. MSX BASIC,[4] QuickBASIC, FreeBASIC and Visual Basic prefix hexadecimal numbers with &H: &H5A3 BBC BASIC and Locomotive BASIC use & for hex.[5] TI-89 and 92 series uses a 0h prefix: 0h5A3 The most common format for hexadecimal on IBM mainframes (zSeries) and midrange computers (IBM System i) running the traditional OS's (zOS, zVSE, zVM, TPF, IBM i) is X'5A3', and is used in Assembler, PL/I, COBOL, JCL, scripts, commands and other places. This format was common on other (and now obsolete) IBM systems as well. Occasionally quotation marks were used instead of apostrophes. Donald Knuth introduced the use of a particular typeface to represent a particular radix in his book The TeXbook.[6] Hexadecimal representations are written there in a typewriter typeface: 5A3 Any IPv6 address can be written as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits, where each group is separated by a colon (:). This, for example, is a valid IPv6 address: 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334

ALGOL 68 uses the prefix 16r to denote hexadecimal numbers: 16r5a3. Binary, quaternary (base-4) and octal numbers can be specified similarly.

There is no universal convention to use lowercase or uppercase for the letter digits, and each is prevalent or preferred in particular environments by community standards or convention. Early written representations[edit]

Bruce Alan Martin's hexadecimal notation proposal The choice of the letters A through F to represent the digits above nine was not universal in the early history of computers.

During the 1950s, some installations favored using the digits 0 through 5 with a macron character ("") to denote the values 1015. Bendix G-15 computers used the letters U through Z. The Librascope LGP-30 used the letters F, G, J, K, Q and W.[7] Bruce Alan Martin of Brookhaven National Laboratory considered the choice of AF "ridiculous" and in a 1968 letter to the editor of the CACMproposed an entirely new set of symbols based on the bit locations, which did not gain much acceptance.[8] Soviet programmable calculators 3-34 and similar used the symbols "", "L", "C", "", "E", " " (space) on their displays.

Verbal and digital representations[edit] There are no traditional numerals to represent the quantities from ten to fifteen letters are used as a substitute and most European languages lack non-decimal names for the numerals above ten. Even though English has names for several non-decimal powers (pair for the first binary power, score for the first vigesimal power, dozen, gross, and great gross for the first three duodecimal powers), no English name describes the hexadecimal powers (decimal 16, 256, 4096, 65536, ... ). Some people read hexadecimal numbers digit by digit like a phone number: 4DA is "four-dee-ay". However, the letter A sounds like "eight", C sounds like "three", and D can easily be mistaken for the "-ty" suffix: Is it 4D or forty? Other people avoid confusion by using the NATO phonetic alphabet: 4DA is "four-delta-alfa", the Joint Army/Navy Phonetic Alphabet ("four-dogable"), or a similar ad hoc system.

Hexadecimal finger-counting scheme. Systems of counting on digits have been devised for both binary and hexadecimal. Arthur C. Clarke suggested using each finger as an on/off bit, allowing finger counting from zero to 102310 on ten fingers. Another system for counting up to FF16 (25510) is illustrated on the right; it seems to be an extension of an existing system for counting in twelves (dozens and grosses), that is common in South Asia and elsewhere.[citation needed] Signs[edit] The hexadecimal system can express negative numbers the same way as in decimal: 2A to represent 4210 and so on. However, some[who?] prefer instead to use the hexadecimal notation to express the exact bit patterns used in the processor, so a sequence of hexadecimal digits may represent a signed or even a floating point value. This way, the negative number 4210 can be written as FFFF FFD6 in a 32-bitCPU register (in two's-complement), as C228 0000 in a 32-bit FPU register or C045 0000 0000 0000 in a 64-bit FPU register (in the IEEE floating-point standard). Hexadecimal exponential notation[edit] Just as decimal numbers can be represented in exponential notation so too can hexadecimal. By convention, the letter p represents times two raised to the power of, whereas e serves a similar purpose in decimal. The number after the p is decimal and represents the binary exponent. Usually the number is normalised: that is, the leading hexadecimal digit is 1 (unless the value is exactly 0). Example: 1.3DEp42 represents 1.3DE16242. Hexadecimal exponential notation is required by the IEEE 754 binary floating-point standard. This notation can be produced by some versions of the printf family of functions by using the %aconversion. Conversion[edit] Binary conversion[edit] Most computers manipulate binary data, but it is difficult for humans to work with the large number of digits for even a relatively small binary number. Although most humans are familiar with the base 10 system, it is much easier to map binary to hexadecimal than to decimal because each hexadecimal digit maps to a whole number of bits (410). This example converts 11112 to base ten.

Since each position in a binary numeral can contain either a 1 or a 0, its value may be easily determined by its position from the right:

00012 = 110 00102 = 210 01002 = 410 10002 = 810

Therefore: 11112 = 810 + 410 + 210 + 110 = 1510 With little practice, mapping 11112 to F16 in one step becomes easy: see table in Written representation. The advantage of using hexadecimal rather than decimal increases rapidly with the size of the number. When the number becomes large, conversion to decimal is very tedious. However, when mapping to hexadecimal, it is trivial to regard the binary string as 4-digit groups and map each to a single hexadecimal digit. This example shows the conversion of a binary number to decimal, mapping each digit to the decimal value, and adding the results. 010111101011010100102 = 26214410 + 6553610 + 3276810 + 1638410 + 819210 + 204810 + 51210 + 25610 + 6410 + 1610 + 210 = 38792210 Compare this to the conversion to hexadecimal, where each group of four digits can be considered independently, and converted directly: 010111101011010100102 = 0101 1110 1011 0101 00102 =5 E B 5 216

= 5EB5216 The conversion from hexadecimal to binary is equally direct. The octal system can also be useful as a tool for people who need to deal directly with binary computer data. Octal represents data as three bits per character, rather than four. Division-remainder in source base[edit] As with all bases there is a simple algorithm for converting a representation of a number to hexadecimal by doing integer division and remainder operations in the source base. In theory, this is possible from any base, but for most humans only decimal and for most computers only binary (which can be converted by far more efficient methods) can be easily handled with this method. Let d be the number to represent in hexadecimal, and the series hihi1...h2h1 be the hexadecimal digits representing the number.

1. i := 1 2. hi := d mod 16 3. d := (dhi) / 16 4. If d = 0 (return series hi) else increment i and go to step 2 "16" may be replaced with any other base that may be desired. The following is a JavaScript implementation of the above algorithm for converting any number to a hexadecimal in String representation. Its purpose is to illustrate the above algorithm. To work with data seriously, however, it is much more advisable to work with bitwise operators. function toHex(d) { var r = d % 16; var result; if (d-r == 0) result = toChar(r); else result = toHex( (d-r)/16 ) + toChar(r); return result; }

function toChar(n) { const alpha = "0123456789ABCDEF"; return alpha.charAt(n); } Addition and multiplication[edit]

A hexadecimal multiplication table It is also possible to make the conversion by assigning each place in the source base the hexadecimal representation of its place value and then performing multiplication and addition to get the final representation. That is, to convert the number B3AD to decimal one can split the hexadecimal number into its digits: B (1110), 3 (310), A (1010) and D (1310), and then get the final result by multiplying each decimal representation by 16p, where pis the corresponding hex digit position, counting from right to left, beginning with 0. In this case we haveB3AD = (11163) + (3162) + (10161) + (13160), which is 45997 base 10. Tools for conversion[edit] Most modern computer systems with graphical user interfaces provide a built-in calculator utility, capable of performing conversions between various radices, in general including hexadecimal. In Microsoft Windows, the Calculator utility can be set to Scientific mode (called Programmer mode in some versions), which allows conversions between radix 16 (hexadecimal), 10 (decimal), 8 (octal) and 2 (binary), the bases most commonly used by programmers. In Scientific Mode, the onscreen numeric keypad includes the hexadecimal digits A through F, which are active when "Hex" is selected. In hex mode, however, the Windows Calculator supports only integers. Real numbers[edit] As with other numeral systems, the hexadecimal system can be used to represent rational numbers, although recurring digits are common since sixteen (10hex) has only a single prime factor (two): 1/2 = 0.8 1/3 = 0.5 1/4 = 0.4 1/5 = 0.3 1/6 = 0.2A 1/7 = 0.249 1/8 = 0.2 1/9 = 0.1C7 1/A = 0.19 1/B = 0.1745D 1/C = 0.15 1/D = 0.13B 1/E 1/F = 0.1249 = 0.1

1/10 = 0.1 1/11 = 0.0F

where an overline denotes a recurring pattern. For any base, 0.1 (or "1/10") is always equivalent to one divided by the representation of that base value in its own number system: Counting in base 3 is 0, 1, 2, 10 (three). Thus, whether dividing one by two for binary or dividing one by sixteen for hexadecimal, both of these fractions are written as 0.1. Because the radix 16 is a perfect square (4), fractions expressed in hexadecimal have an odd period much more often than decimal ones, and there are no cyclic numbers (other than trivial single digits). Recurring digits are exhibited when the denominator in lowest terms has aprime factor not found in the radix; thus, when using hexadecimal notation, all fractions with denominators that are not a power of two result in an infinite string of recurring digits (such as thirds and fifths). This makes hexadecimal (and binary) less convenient than decimal for representing rational numbers since a larger proportion lie outside its range of finite representation. All rational numbers finitely representable in hexadecimal are also finitely representable in decimal, duodecimal, and sexagesimal: that is, any hexadecimal number with a finite number of digits has a finite number of digits when expressed in those other bases. Conversely, only a fraction of those finitely representable in the latter bases are finitely representable in hexadecimal. For

example, decimal 0.1 corresponds to the infinite recurring representation 0.199999999999... in hexadecimal. However, hexadecimal is more efficient than bases 12 and 60 for representing fractions with powers of two in the denominator (e.g., decimal one sixteenth is 0.1 in hexadecimal, 0.09 in duodecimal, 0:3:45 in sexagesimal and 0.0625 in decimal). In hexadecimal Prime factors of the base: 2 Prime factors of one below the base: 3, 5 Prime factors of one above the base: 11 Prime Positional factors Fraction representation of the denominator 0.8 0.5555... = 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2A 0.249 0.2 0.1C7 0.19 0.1745D 0.15 0.13B 0.1249 0.1 0.1 0.0F 2 3 2 5 2, 3 7 2 3 2, 5 B 2, 3 D 2, 7 3, 5 2 11 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/A 1/B 1/C 1/D 1/E 1/F 1/10 1/11

In decimal Prime factors of the base: 2, 5 Prime factors of one below the base: 3 Prime factors of one above the base: 11

Prime factors Fraction Positional representation of the denominator 1/2 1/3 1/4 1/5 1/6 1/7 1/8 1/9 1/10 1/11 1/12 1/13 1/14 1/15 1/16 1/17 2 3 2 5 2, 3 7 2 3 2, 5 11 2, 3 13 2, 7 3, 5 2 17 0.5 0.3333... = 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.16 0.142857 0.125 0.1 0.1 0.09 0.083 0.076923 0.0714285 0.06 0.0625 0.0588235294117647

1/18 1/19 1/20 1/21 1/22 1/23 1/24 1/25 1/26 1/27 1/28 1/29 1/30 1/31 1/32 1/33 1/34 1/35 1/36

2, 3 19 2, 5 3, 7 2, 11 23 2, 3 5 2, 13 3 2, 7 29 2, 3, 5 31 2 3, 11 2, 17 5, 7 2, 3

0.05 0.052631578947368421 0.05 0.047619 0.045 0.0434782608695652173913 0.0416 0.04 0.0384615 0.037 0.03571428

0.0E38 0.0D79435E5 0.0C 0.0C3 0.0BA2E8

2, 3 13 2, 5 3, 7 2, B

1/12 1/13 1/14 1/15 1/16 1/17 1/18 1/19 1/1A 1/1B 1/1C 1/1D 1/1E 1/1F 1/20 1/21 1/22 1/23 1/24

0.0B21642C859 17 0.0A 0.0A3D7 0.09D8 0.097B425ED 0.0924 2, 3 5 2, D 3 2, 7 1D 2, 3, 5 1F 2 3, B 2, 11 5, 7 2, 3

0.0344827586206896551724137931 0.08D3DCB 0.03 0.032258064516129 0.03125 0.03 0.02941176470588235 0.0285714 0.027 In decimal 1.41421356237309... 0.08 0.08421 0.08 0.07C1F 0.078 0.075 0.071C

Algebraic irrational number 2 (the length of the diagonal of a unit square) 3 (the length of the diagonal of a unit cube)

In hexadecimal 1.6A09E667F3BCD...

1.73205080756887...

1.BB67AE8584CAA...

5 (the length of 2.2360679774997... the diagonal of a 12 rectangle)

2.3C6EF372FE95...

(phi, the golden ratio = (1+5)/2 Transcendental irrational number (pi, the ratio of circumference to diameter) e (the base of the natural logarithm) (the ThueMorse constant) (the limiting difference between the harmonic series and the natural logarithm) Powers[edit]

1.6180339887498...

1.9E3779B97F4A...

3.1415926535897932384626433 3.243F6A8885A308D313198A2E0 8327950288419716939937510... 3707344A4093822299F31D008... 2.7182818284590452... 0.412454033640... 2.B7E151628AED2A6B... 0.6996 9669 9669 6996 ...

0.5772156649015328606...

0.93C467E37DB0C7A4D1B...

Possibly the most widely used powers, powers of two, are easier to show using base 16. The first sixteen powers of two are shown below. 2x 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 2A ( value 1 2 4 8 10hex 20hex 40hex 80hex 100hex 200hex ) 400hex

2B ( 2C ( 2D ( 2E ( 2F ( 210 (

) 800hex ) 1000hex ) 2000hex ) 4000hex ) 8000hex ) 10000hex

Since four squared is sixteen, powers of four have an even easier relation: 4x value 40 1 41 4 42 10hex 43 40hex 44 100hex 45 400hex 46 1000hex 47 4000hex 48 10000hex This also makes tetration easier when using two and four since: 3 2 = 24 = 10hex, 4 2 = 216 = 10000hex and 5 2 = 265536 = (1 followed by 16384 zeros)hex. Cultural[edit] Etymology[edit] The word hexadecimal is composed of hexa-, derived from the Greek (hex) for "six", and -decimal, derived from the Latin for "tenth". Webster's Third New International online derives "hexadecimal" as an alteration of the all-Latin "sexadecimal" (which appears in the earlier Bendix documentation). The earliest date attested for "hexadecimal" in Merriam-Webster Collegiate online is 1954, placing it safely in the category of international scientific vocabulary (ISV). It is common in ISV to mix Greek and Latin combining forms freely. The word "sexagesimal" (for base 60) retains the Latin

prefix. Donald Knuth has pointed out that the etymologically correct term is "senidenary" (or possibly "sedenary"), from the Latin term for "grouped by 16". (The terms "binary", "ternary" and "quaternary" are from the same Latin construction, and the etymologically correct terms for "decimal" and "octal" arithmetic are "denary" and "octonary", respectively.)[9] Alfred B. Taylor used "senidenary" in his mid-1800s work on alternative number bases, although he rejected base 16 because of its "incommodious number of digits".[10][11] Schwartzman notes that the expected form from usual Latin phrasing would be "sexadecimal", but computer hackers would be tempted to shorten that word to "sex".[12] The etymologically proper Greek term would behexadecadic (although in Modern Greek deca-hexadic () is more commonly used). Use in Chinese culture[edit] The traditional Chinese units of weight were base-16. For example, one jn () in the old system equals sixteen taels. The suanpan (Chinese abacus) could be used to perform hexadecimal calculations. Primary numeral system[edit] Similar to dozenal advocacy, there have been occasional attempts to promote hexadecimal as the preferred numeral system. These attempts usually propose pronunciation and/or symbology.[13]Sometimes the proposal unifies standard measures so that they are multiples of 16.[14][15][16] An example of unifying standard measures is hexadecimal time, which subdivides a day by 16 so that there are 16 "hexhours" in a day.[16] Key to number base notation[edit] Simple key for notations used in article: Full Text Notation Abbreviation Number Base binary octal decimal hexadecimal bin oct dec hex 2 8 10 16

Mengubah Binary Code menjadi ASCII (TEKS)


BILANGAN BINER ADALAH sistem bilangan yang menggunakan suatu bilangan dasar atau basis (Radix ) tertentu. Untuk bilangan biner menggunakan basis 2, menggunakan 2 macam simbol bilangan berbentuk 2 digit angka yaitu angka 0 & 1. Untuk mengkorversi Bilangan Biner kedalam bentuk teks maka yang harus kita lakukan adalah : 1. CARA MERUBAH BILANGAN BINER KE DESIMAL.

Kalian pasti sudah pernah melihat kode biner, seperti di bawah inikan. 01001010101010100110101 Pertama-tama yang kita lakukan adalah mengubah bilangan biner yang hanya terdi dari angka 0 dan 1 tersebut kedalam bilangan desiman, Kemudian baru kita terjemahkan bilangan decimal terseebut dalam bentuk teks agar dapat kita baca. SISTEM BINER: Di sini adalah satu contoh sederhana dari bilangan biner: 1010101 Untuk mengubah bilangna biner tersebut kedalam angka maka yang kita perlu lakukan adalah mengalikan setiap bilangan tersebut dengan bilangan 2 berpangka, jadinya seperti berikut : 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 = (1x26)+(0x25)+(1x24)+(0x23)+(1x22)+(0x21)+(1x20)

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 = (1x64)+(0x32)+(1x16)+(0x8)+(1x4)+(0x2)+(1x1)

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 = 64 + 0 + 16 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 1

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 = 85 Catatan : Untuk memberi pangkat pada Bilangan 2, lakukan dengan dengan cara berurutan dan diakhiri dengan pangkat 0 Sekarang sebagai latihan cobalah ubah beberapa bilangan biner yang kalian buat sendiri kedalam bilangan disimal.

2. CARA MERUBAH BILANGAN BINER KE CODE ASCII Untuk mempermudah mengubah bilangan biner yagn terlah kita ubah menjadi bilangan decimal tadi ke dalam bentuk teks, maka kita harus memperhatikan table KODE ASCIIberikut.

Setelah kita mempelajari table kode ASCII diatas sekarang kita coba untuk mengubah bilangan biner kedalam bentuk teks. Misalnya kita ambil contoh bilangan biner berikut : 0100100001100101011011000110110001101111 Untuk langkah pertama yang harus kita lakukan adalah kita pisahkan dulu bilangan biner di atas menjadi 8 digit seperti ini 01001000 01100101 01101100 01101100 01101111

sekarang kita ubah bilangan biner tersebut per 8 digit dengan cara menghitung nya seperti yang telah dijelaskan diatas Delapan Digit Pertama

01001000 = (0x27) + ( 1x26) + (0x25) + (0x24) + (1x23) + (0x22) + (0x21) + (0x20) 01001000 = (0x128) + ( 1x64) + (0x32) + (0x16) + (1x8) + (0x4) + (0x2) + (0x1)

01001000 = 0 + 64 + 0 + 0 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 0

01001000 = 72 Delapan Digit Kedua 01100101 = (0x27) + ( 1x26) + (1x25) + (0x24) + (0x23) + (1x22) + (0x21) + (1x20) 01100101 = (0x128) + ( 1x64) + (1x32) + (0x16) + (0x8) + (1x4) + (0x2) + (1x1)

01100101 = 0 + 64 + 32 + 0 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 1

01100101 = 101 Delapan Digit Ketiga 01101100 = (0x27) + ( 1x26) + (1x25) + (0x24) + (1x23) + (1x22) + (0x21) + (0x20) 01101100 = (0x128) + ( 1x64) + (1x32) + (0x16) + (1x8) + (1x4) + (0x2) + (0x1)

01101100 = 0 + 64 + 32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 0

01101100 = 108 Delapan Digit Keempat 01101100 = (0x27) + ( 1x26) + (1x25) + (0x24) + (1x23) + (1x22) + (0x21) + (0x20)

01101100 = (0x128) + ( 1x64) + (1x32) + (0x16) + (1x8) + (1x4) + (0x2) + (0x1) 01101100 = 0 + 64 + 32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 0

01101100 = 108 Delapan Digit Kelima 01101111 = (0x27) + ( 1x26) + (1x25) + (0x24) + (1x23) + (1x22) + (1x21) + (1x20)

01101111 = (0x128) + ( 1x64) + (1x32) + (0x16) + (1x8) + (1x4) + (1x2) + (1x1)

01101111 = 0 + 64 + 32 + 0 + 8 + 4 + 2 + 1

01101111 = 111 jadi, hasil nya adalah : 01001000 = 72 01100101 = 101 01101100 = 108 01101100 = 108 01101111 = 111 untuk mengetahui karakter apa yg di hasilkan dari bilangan biner diatas maka kita harus melihat table kode ASCII. 72 = H 101 = e 108 = l 108 = l 111 = o jadi hasil biner 0100100001100101011011000110110001101111 adalah sebuah kata yaitu Hello

Mengubah Hexadecimal/Hex Menjadi ASCII / TEKS


Banyak Orang yang belum mengerti apa itu Hex Code sehingga sebagian dari orang yang mengerti memaanfaatkan itu sebagai clue password dari sebuah file. Namun ternyata cara memecahkannya cukup muda. Caranya sebagai berikut :

Lihat gambar diatas, itulah hex code. cara membuat codenya angka dan huruf diatas ( horizontal ) merupakan karakter pertama sedangkan yang Vertikal merupakan karakter ke dua dan hasilnya merupakan titk pertemuan dari karakter tersebut

misalnya : 57 41 48 59 55 57 = W ( 5 bagian horizontal, dan 7 bagian vertikal ) 41 = A 48 = H 59 = Y 55 = U jadi passwordnya adalah WAHYU