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Measurement determination of the magnitude of a quantity by comparison with a standard for that quantity. Quantities frequently measured include time, length, area, volume, pressure, mass, force, and energy. To express a measurement, there must be a basic unit of the quantity involved, e.g., the inch or second, and a standard of measurement (instrument) calibrated in such units, e.g., a ruler or clock. Physical Quantity (or "physical magnitude") is a physical property of a phenomenon, body, or substance, that can be quantified by measurement. Significant Figure each of the digits of a number that are used to express it to the required degree of accuracy, starting from the first non-zero digit. Percent of Error A measure of how innaccurate a measurement is, standardized to how large the measurement is. Found by the formula (measured value-actual value)/actual value*100% The difference between two values divided by the average of the two values. Shown as a percentage.

Political Condition of the 19th century Philippines The Philippines was governed by Spain through a viceroy from Mexico. The highest office was that of the Governor-General, the chief executive of the Spanish colonial government, appointed by the Spanish king. The town is managed by a gobernadorcillo. The barangay is the smallest political unit under a cabeza de barangay.

The social hierarchy was in this order: at the top were the peninsulares or the Spaniards from Spain, next were the insulares, Spaniards born in the Philippines and also called Filipinos, the mestizos, born of Spanish and Chinese descent, at the bottom were the indios, the local inhabitants. A total of 300 insurections and rebellions by the Filipinos all over the achipelago were recorded in the more than 3000 years of Spanish colonialization. 19th century was defined by liberal thinking for the following reasons: 1) Mexico rebelled against Spain and this brought revolutionary thinking to Manila; 2) the opening of the Suez Canal made the trip to Manila from Europe faster thereby bringing liberal ideas to the Philippines; and 3) rise of the middle class Liberalism is a set of political beliefs which puts primary consideration on the freedom and rights of the individual which includes the freedom of speck, of expression and of the press. In 1869, Carlos Maria de la Torre became the first liberal governor-general of the Philippines. For two year, until 1871, he instituted liberal reforms that benefited the Filipino middle class. Padre Jose Burgos campaigned for the Filipinization of the parochial churches in the Philippines and asked for the expulsion of friars back to Spain. The Cavite Mutiny of 1872 was used to condemn Frs. Burgos, Zamora, and Gomez to death by garrote or musketry. The martyrdom of Gomburza was winessed by Paciano Rizal, Joses brother. Rizals first novel Noli Me Tangere was dedicated to the martyred priests. Unification of the Philippines under the Spanish Rule

Spain ruled the Philippines for more than 300 years. Prior to the Spanish colonization, thecountry was consisted of independent and well-organized villages calledbarangays. Each barangay was headed by a tribal leader, who later formed part of the elite ruling class called thePrincipalia. Under the Spanish rule, the independence of thebarangays was gradually lost as Spains political system was introduced into the country. During the Spanish regime, the people became highly centralized under the influence of the Catholic Church. However, despite the unification of the region, people started to build resentment against the Spanish rule (Garcia & Cruz, 2005). Resistance to Spanish Rule

The government restrictions and control made the lives of the native Filipinos extremely hard and difficult. People started harboring grievances and began clamoring for independence from the control of Spanish rule. However, the early revolts have failed because Filipinos were not united in their struggle against the Spanish colonial rule (Garcia & Cruz, 2005). Struggle between the Masses and the Elites During the time of Spanish regime, the Filipinos were divided into two social class groups: the masses and the elites. Filipinos weremade to fight one another by their Spanish colonial masters. In fact, in trying to free themselves from the Spaniards, they failed to realize that they had a common enemy, and that together they could better stand against the Spanish colonial rule. Masses under Spanish Rule Masses were struggling for true justice, true equality and true freedom of the country.They organized the separatist movement the Katipunan in order to make known their nationalist sentiments. Masses were largely

composed of petty clerks, laborers, peasants and uneducated Filipinos who possessed primitive ideas which were often fanatical and influenced by traditions and religious beliefs. Elites under Spanish Rule The elites were composed of educated Filipinos who were influenced by western ideas. Like the masses they also struggled for radical changes but not because they wanted to redeem the country's mortgaged sovereignty and a final break up from social slavery but because they wanted to be treated equal with the Spaniards. In effect, they used the masses for their own interest and gave rise to a nationalist sentiments that would focus on the abuses of the Spaniards particularly the friars. Unlike the masses, they wanted a rather peaceful rebellion against the Spaniards, that they used pen and paper to agitate nationalist sentiments among the masses. Revolution waged by Masses and the Elites

The masses staged a revolution challenging the establishments, disordering society and believing in taking arms rather than relying on divine providence. In contrast, the revolution of the elites was rather peaceful because they used pen and paper in their revolution against the Spaniards instead of holding arms in the battlefield to fight for freedom Hispanic influence on Filipino culture (Spanish: Influencia hispnica en la cultura filipina) are customs and [1] traditions of the Philippines which originated from three centuries of Spanish colonisation. Filipinos today speak a variety of different languages including Cebuano, Tagalog,Ilocano, Ilonggo, English and Chavacano. There are thousands of Spanish loanwords in most Filipino languages. A Spanish-Based creole language called Chavacano is also spoken in communities in Mindanao (notably Zamboanga where it is the official language, as well asDavao and Cotabato), and Luzon (Cavite). The Philippines, having been one of the most distantSpanish colonies, received less migration of people from Spain, compared to the colonies in the Americas, Latin America. Most of the influence during the colonial period came through Mexico, rather than directly from Spain, as the Philippines was governed as a territory of New Spain. Mexican and Spanish influence is evident in many aspects of Philippine culture including religion, architecture, language, music, fashion, cooking, and traditions.

n the business community, the Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry (PCCI) plays an integral role in the economic, political and social development of the nation. Historically, the chamber can be traced back as early as the 1890s with the inauguration of theCmara de Comercio de Filipinas. This organisation was composed mainly of Spanish companies such as the Compaia General de Tabacos de Filipinas, Fbrica de Cerveza San Miguel, and Elizalde y Ca, among other Spanish, and Philippine companies. During the first half of the 20th century commerce, and industrial trades with other Hispanic countries declined due to the United States administration of the Philippines. However, the resurgence of trade between Spain and Latin American nations had risen toward the closing of the century. 1998 marked the centennial celebration of Philippine independence, and opened a new opportunity for both Hispanic and Filipino businesses to reconnect their historic ties as trade partners.

Political System[edit]
The Spanish quickly organized their new colony according to their model. The first task was the reduction, or relocation of native inhabitants into settlements. The earliest political system used during the conquista period was the encomienda system, which resembled the feudal system in medieval

Europe. The conquistadores, friars and native nobles were granted estates, in exchange for their services to the King, and was given the privilege to collect tribute from its inhabitants. In return, the person granted the encomienda, known as an encomendero, was tasked to provide military protection to the inhabitants, justice and governance. In times of war, the encomendero was duty bound to provide soldiers for the King, in particular, for the complete defense of the colony from invaders such as the Dutch, British and Chinese. The encomiendasystem was abused by encomenderos and by 1700 was largely replaced by [12] administrative provinces, each headed by an alcalde mayor (provincial governor) The most prominent feature of Spanish cities was the plaza, a central area for town activities such as the fiesta, and where government buildings, the church, a market area and other infrastructures were located. Residential areas lay around the plaza. During the conquista, the first task of colonization was the reduction, or relocation of the indigenous population into settlements surrounding the plaza. As in Europe, the church always had control over the state affairs of the colony. The friars controlled the sentiments of the native population and was more powerful than the governor-general himself. Among the issues that resulted to the Philippine revolution of 1898 that ended Spanish rule was the abuse of power [citation needed] by the religious orders.

National Government[edit]
On the national level, the King of Spain, through his Council of the Indies ( Consejo de las Indias), governed through his sole representative in the Philippines: the Governor-General (Gobernador y Capitn General). With the seat of power in Intramuros, Manila, the Governor-General was given several duties: he headed the Supreme Court (Royal Audiencia), was Commander-in-chief of the army and navy, and was the economic planner of the country. All known executive power of the local government stemmed from him and as vice-regal patron, he had the right to supervise mission work and oversee ecclesiastical appointments. His yearly salary was P40,000. For obvious reasons, the Governor-General was usually a Peninsular (Spaniard born in Spain) to ensure loyalty of the colony to the crown.

Provincial Government[edit]
Main article: Provinces of the Philippines On the provincial level, heading the pacified provinces (alcaldia), was the provincial governor (alcalde mayor). The unpacified military zones (corregimiento), such as Mariveles and Mindoro, were headed by the corregidores. City governments (ayuntamientos), were also headed by an alcalde mayor. Alcalde mayors and corregidores exercised multiple prerogatives as judge, inspector of encomiendas, chief of police, tribute collector, capitan-general of the province and even vice-regal patron. His annual salary ranged from P300 to P2000 before 1847 and P1500 to P1600 after it. But this can be augmented through the special privilege of "indulto de commercio" where all people were forced to do business with him. The alcalde mayor was usually an Insulares (Spaniard born in the Philippines). In the 19th century, the Peninsulares began to displace the Insulares which resulted in the political unrests of 1872, notably the execution ofGOMBURZA, Novales Revolt and mutiny of the Cavite fort under La Madrid.

Municipal Government[edit]
Main articles: Municipalities of the Philippines and Cities of the Philippines The pueblo or town is headed by the Gobernadorcillo or little governor. Among his administrative duties were the preparation of the tribute list (padron), recruitment and distribution of men for draft labor, communal public work and military conscription (quinto), postal clerk and judge in minor civil suits. He

intervened in all administrative cases pertaining to his town: lands, justice, finance and the municipal police. His annual salary, however, was only P24 but he was exempted from taxation. Any native or Chinese mestizo, 25 years old, literate in oral or written Spanish and has been a Cabeza de Barangay of 4 years can be a Gobernadorcillo. Among those prominent is Emilio Aguinaldo, a Chinese Mestizo and who was the Gobernadorcillo of Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit). The officials of the pueblo were taken from the Principala, the noble class of pre-colonial origin. Their names are survived by prominent families in contemporary Philippine society such as Lindo, Tupas, Gatmaitan, Liwanag, Pangilinan, Panganiban, Balderas, and Agbayani, Apalisok, Aguinaldo to name a few.

Barrio Government[edit]
Main article: Barangay Barrio government (village or district) rested on the barrio administrator (cabeza de barangay). He was responsible for peace and order and recruited men for communal public works. Cabezas should be literate in Spanish and have good moral character and property. Cabezas who served for 25 years were exempted from forced labor. In addition, this is where the sentiment heard as, "Mi Barrio", first came from.

The Residencia and The Visita[edit]

To check the abuse of power of royal officials, two ancient castilian institutions were brought to the Philippines. The Residencia, dating back to the 5th century and the Visita differed from the residencia in that it was conducted clandestinely by a visitador-general sent from Spain and might occur anytime within the officials term, without any previous notice. Visitas may be specific or general.

Maura Law[edit]
The legal foundation for municipal governments in the country was laid with the promulgation of the Maura Law on May 19, 1893. Named after its author, Don Antonio Maura, the Spanish Minister of Colonies at the time, the law reorganized town governments in the Philippines with the aim of making them more effective and autonomous. This law created the municipal organization that was later adopted, revised, and further strengthened by the American and Filipino governments that succeeded Spanish.

Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade[edit]
The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade was the main source of income for the colony during its early years. Service was inaugurated in 1565 and continued into the early 19th century. The Galleon trade brought silver from New Spain, which was used to purchase Asian goods such as silk from China, spices from the [13] Moluccas, lacquerware from Japan and Philippine cotton textiles. These goods were then exported to New Spain and ultimately Europe by way of Manila. Thus, the Philippines earned its income through the trade of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon. The trade was very prosperous and attracted many merchants to Manila, especially the Chinese. However, initially it neglected the development of the colony's local industries which affected the Indios since agriculture was their main source of income. In addition, the building and operation of galleons put too much burden on the colonists' annual polo y servicio. However, it resulted in cultural and commercial exchanges between Asia and the Americas that led to the introduction of new crops and animals to the Philippines such as corn, potato, tomato, cotton and tobacco among others, that gave the colony its first real income. The trade lasted for over two hundred years, and ceased in 1815 just before the secession of American colonies from Spain.

Royal Society of Friends of the Country[edit]

Jos de Basco y Vargas, following a royal order to form a society of intellectuals who can produce new, useful ideas, formally established the Real Sociedad Economica de Amigos del Pais. Composed of leading men in business, industry and profession, the society was tasked to explore and exploit the island's natural bounties. The society led to the creation of Plan General Economico of Basco which implemented the monopolies on the areca nut, tobacco, spirited liquors and explosives. It offered local and foreign scholarships and training grants in agriculture and established an academy of design. It was also credited to the carabao ban of 1782, the formation of the silversmiths and gold beaters guild and the construction of the first papermill in the Philippines in 1825. It was introduced on 1780, vanished temporarily on 1787-1819, 18201822 and 1875-1822 and ceased to exist in the middle of the 1890s.

Royal Company of the Philippines[edit]

On March 10, 1785, Charles III created the Royal Philippine Company with a 25 year charter. It was granted exclusive monopoly of bringing to Manila, Philippines; Chinese and Indian goods and shipping them directly to Spain via the Cape of Good Hope. It was stiffly objected by the Dutch and English who saw it as a direct attack on their trade of Asian goods. It was also vehemently opposed by the traders of the Galleon trade who saw it as competition. This gradually resulted into the death of both institutions: [15] The Royal Philippine Company in 1814 and the Galleon trade in 1815.

To support the colony, several taxes and monopolies were established. The buwis (tribute), which could be paid in cash or kind, with tobacco, chickens, produce, gold, blankets, cotton, rice, or other products depending on the region of the country, was initially fixed at 8 reales, later increased to 15 reales, apportioned as follows: ten reales buwis, one real diezmos prediales (tithe), one real to the town [16] community chest, one real sanctorum tax, and three reales for church support. Also there was the bandal (from the Tagalog word mandal, a round stack of rice stalks to be threshed), an annual forced sale and requisitioning of goods such as rice. Custom duties and income tax were also collected. By 1884, the tribute was replaced by thecedula personal, wherein everyone over 18 were [17] required to pay for personal identification. The local gobernadorcilloswereresponsible for collection of the tribute. Under the cedula system taxpayers were individually responsible to Spanish authorities for [18] payment of the tax, and were subject to summary arrest for failure to show a cedula receipt. Aside from paying a tribute, all male Filipinos from 16 to 60 years old were obliged to render forced labor called polo. This labor lasted for 40 days a year, later it was reduced to 15 days. It took various forms such as the building and repairing of roads and bridges, construction of Public buildings and churches, cutting timber in the forest, working in shipyards and serving as soldiers in military expeditions. People who rendered the forced labor was called polistas. He could be exempted by paying the falla which is a sum of money. The polista were according to law, to be given a daily rice ration during their working [citation needed] days which they often did not receive.

Culture[change | edit source]

Before the Spanish arrived, the Filipinos did not think of themselves as one people. Most of the Philippines were Buddhist, Muslim and Hindu empires. The Spaniards came in 1565, and brought with them Spanish culture. They soon spread to the islands making forts and schools, preaching Christianity, and converting most of the native peoples to the Catholic religion. When the United States colonized the

islands in 1898, the Americans brought with them their culture, which has the strongest influence up to now. This makes the Philippines the most Westernized country in eastern Asia. The Spanish culture in the Philippines though, is not directly from Spain but from Mexico. Since the Philippines was ruled by Spain, through Mexico. It was governed from Mexico City which explains much of [8] theSpanish influence in the Philippines that one could only find in Mexico and not in Spain. Also, the Spanish that was spoken in the Philippines was Mexican Spanish, not European Spanish. A lot of the foods in the Philippines can also be found in Mexico. Filipinos, as a tradition usually eat with hands which [9] of Malay tradition. And most of Filipino cuisine is also, of Malay influence for the most part. Each year major festivities called barrio fiestas are held. They commemorate the Patron saints of the towns, villages and regional districts. The festivities includes church services, street parades, fireworks displays, feasts, dance/music contests, and cockfights.

In the early 19th century, Spain continued their colonization of thePhilippines (which began in the 16th century). Spanish domination of the Philippines (first from Mexico until about 1821, then direct from Madrid) accomplished unifying the islands (which had previously been organized into various kingdoms and communities. The Spanish rule had, among other things, the following effects: **pushed back Islamic advances in the south **Introduced Christianity **a code of laws **some of the oldest universities in Asia **the Gregorian calendar **A lot of investments in infrastructure (which serves to make an economy more dynamic and expands efficiency through internal trade) **build/established towns **introduced new crops and livestock As was the norm for the Spanish empire, they also imposed Spanish monopolies. The free public education (started in roughly 1863) for the Filipino subjects led to a more educated population. So, thru investments in education, infrastructure and social advances such as the laws, Spain influenced the Philippines economy greatly. They also introduced new crops and livestock, and enforced a Spanish economic system (believed to also include Spanish monopolies, which may have cost the Philippines a chance to develop more on their own with trade in Asia). By 1898, the Philippines became a property of the US (the Filipinos rejected this and declared war on the US, which ended in 1902)... but that is another question.