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CmpE 220 Fall 2012 PS #1 Fundamentals of Logic

October 10, 2012


1. (Rosen: Section 1.1, pp. 17 Question 10) Let p, q and r be the propositions p : You get an A on the nal exam. q : You do every exercise in this book. r : You get an A in this class. Write these propositions using p, q and r and logical connectives. (a) You get an A in this class, but you do not do every exercise in this book. (b) You get an A on the nal, you do every exercise in this book, and you get an A in this class. (c)To get an A in this class, it is necessary for you to get an A on the nal. (d) You get an A on the nal, but you do not do every exercise in this book; nevertheless you get an A in this class. (e) Getting an A on the nal and doing every exercise in this book is sucient for getting an A in this class. (f) You will get an A in this class if and only if you either do every exercise in this book or you get an A on the nal. Solution (a) r q (b) p q r (c) r p (d) p q r (e) (p q ) r (f) r (p q ) 2. (Grimaldi: Section 2.1, pp. 54 Question 5) Let p,q,r denote the following statements about a particular triangle ABC . p : Triangle ABC is isosceles. q : Triangle ABC is equilateral. r : Triangle ABC is equiangular.

Translate each of the following into an English sentence. (a) q p (b) p q (c) q r (d) p q (e) r p Solution (a) If triangle ABC is equilateral, then it is isosceles. (b) If triangle ABC is not isosceles, then it is not equilateral. (c) Triangle ABC is equilateral if and only if it is equiangular. (d) Triangle ABC is isosceles but it is not equilateral. (e) If triangle ABC is equiangular, then it is isosceles. 3. (Grimaldi: Section 2.1, pp. 54 Question 6) Determine the truth value of each of the following implications. (a) If 3 + 4 = 12 then 3 + 2 = 6 (b) If 3 + 3 = 6 then 3 + 4 = 9 Solution (a) F F T (b) T F F 4. (Rosen: Section 1.1, pp. 18 Question 18) Write each of these statements in the form if p, then q in English. (a) It is necessary to wash the bosss car to get promoted. (d) Willy gets caught whenever he cheats. (e) You can access the website only if you pay a subscription fee. Solution (a) p: You wash the bosss car. q : You get promoted. (q p) If you get promoted then you must have washed the bosss car. (d) p: Willy gets caught. q : Willy cheats. (q p) If Willy cheats, he gets caught. (e) p: You can access the website. q : You pay a subscription fee. (p q ) If you can access the website then you must have paid a subscription fee. 5. (Grimaldi: Section 2., pp. 67 Question 19c) Simplify the following compound statement by giving reasons at each step.

[(p q ) (p q r)] p q Solution [(p q ) (p q r)] (p q ) (p q r) s t s t (p q ) (p q r) DeMorgans Laws (p q ) (p q r) Law of Double Negation (p q ) Absorption Law

6. (Grimaldi: Section 2., pp. 67 Question 18b) Give the reasons for each step in the following simplications of compound statement. (p q ) [q (r q )] (p q ) q (p q ) q q (p q ) (q p) (q q ) (q p) F0 (q p) (q p)

Solution (p q ) [q (r q )] (p q ) q Absorption & Commutative Law (p q ) q s t s t q (p q ) Commutative Law over (q p) (q q ) Distributive Law of over . (q p) F0 Inverse law (q p) Identity law (q p) DeMorgans Laws

7. (Rosen: Section 1.3, pp. 47 Question 10) Let C (x) be the statement x has a cat, D(x) be the statement x has a dog,and F (x) be the statement x has a ferret. Express each of these statements in terms of C (x), D(x), and F (x) quantiers, and logical connectives. Let the universe of discourse consist of all the students in your course. (a) A student in your class has a cat, a dog, and a ferret. (b) All students in your class have a cat, a dog, or a ferret. (c) Some student in your class has a cat and a ferret, but not a dog. (d) No student in your class has a cat, a dog, and a ferret. (e) For each of the three animals, cats, dogs, and ferrets, there is a student in your

class who as one of these animals as a pet. Solution (a) x [C (x) D(x) F (x)] (b) x [C (x) D(x) F (x)] (c) x [C (x) D(x) F (x)] (d) x [C (x) D(x) F (x)] x [C (x) D(x) F (x)] (e) x C (x) y D(y ) z F (z ) 8. (Rosen: Section 1.4, pp. 59 Question 12) Let I (x) be the statement x has an Internet connectionand C (x, y ) be the statement x and y have chatted over the Internet , where the universe of discourse for the variables x and y consists of all the students in your class. Use quantiers to express each of these statements. (a) Jerry does not have an Internet connection. (b) Rachel has not chatted over the Internet with Chelsea. (c) Jan and Sharon have never chatted over the Internet. (d) No one in the class has chatted with Bob. (e) Sanjay has chatted with everyone except Joseph. (f ) Someone in your class does not have an Internet connection. (g) Not everyone in your class has an Internet connection. (h) Exactly one student in your class has an Internet connection. (i) Everyone except one student in your class has an Internet connection. (j) Everyone in your class with an Internet connection has chatted over the Internet with at least one other student in your class. (k) Someone in your class has an Internet connection but has not chatted with anyone else in your class. (l) There are two students in your class who have not chatted with each other over the Internet. (m) There is a student in your class who has chatted with everyone in your class over the Internet. (n) There are at least two students in your class who have not chatted with the same person in your class. (o) There are two students in your class who between them have chatted with everyone else in the class. Solution (a) I (Jerry ) (b) C (Rachel, Chelsea) (c) x [C (Jan, x) C (Sharon, x)] (d) x C (Bob, x) (e) x [C (Sanjay, x) (x = Sanjay x = Joseph)]

(f ) x I (x) (g) x I (x) x I (x) (h) x [I (x) y (I (y ) x = y )] (i) x [I (x) y (I (y ) x = y )] (j) x [I (x) y C (x, y )] (k) x [I (x) y (x = y C (x, y ))] (l) xy [x = y C (x, y )] (m) xy [x = y C (x, y )] (n) xy [x = y z (C (x, z ) C (y, z ))] (o) xy [x = y z (C (x, z ) C (y, z ))] 9. (Rosen: Section 1.5, pp. 73 Question 10) For each of these sets of premises, what relevant conclusions can be drawn. Explain the rules of inference used to obtain each conclusion from the premises. (a) If I play hockey, then I am sore the next day. I use the whirlpool if I am sore. I did not use the whirlpool. (c) All insects have six legs. Dragonies are insects Spiders do not have six legs. Spiders eat dragonies (e) All foods that are healthy to eat do not taste good. Tofu is healthy to eat You only eat what tastes good. cheeseburgers are not healthy to eat Solution (a) Let p: I play hockey. q: I am sore the next day. r: I use the whirlpool 1) p q 2) q r 3) r 4) q 5) p premise premise premise 2 and 3 modus tollens 1 and 4 modus tollens

Hence the conclusions are I am not sore the next day, and I did not play hockey (c) All insects have six legs. Dragonies are insects Spiders do not have six legs. Spiders eat dragonies Let I (x) : x are insects. S (x) : x have six legs. E (x, y ) : x eat y . The domain of discourse consists of animal classes. i.e. Domain={Dragonies, Spiders, Horses, ...}

1) x (I (x) S (x)) premise 2) I (Dragonies) premise 3) S (Spiders) premise 4) E (Spiders, Dragonies) premise 5) (I (Spiders) S (Spiders) 1 universal instantiation 6) I (Spiders) 3 and 5 modus tollens Hence, one possible conclusion is Spiders are not insects . 1) x (I (x) S (x)) 2) I (Dragonies) 3) S (Spiders) 4) E (Spiders, Dragonies) 5) I (Dragonies E (Spiders, Dragonies) 6) x [I (x) E (Spiders, x)] Another conclusion is Spiders eat some insects . premise premise premise premise 2 and 4 conjunction 5 existential generalization

1) x (I (x) S (x)) premise 2) I (Dragonies) premise 3) S (Spiders) premise 4) E (Spiders, Dragonies) premise 5) (I (Dragonies) S (Dragonies) 1 universal instantiation 6) S (Dragonies) 2 and 5 modus ponens Hence, another conclusion is Dragonies have six legs. (e) All foods that are healthy to eat do not taste good. Tofu is healthy to eat You only eat what tastes good. cheeseburgers are not healthy to eat Let H (x) : x is healthy to eat. T (x) : x tastes good. E (x) : You eat x. The domain of discourse consists of foods.

1) x [H (x) T (x)] premise 2) H (tofu) premise 3) x [E (x) T (x)] premise 4) H (cheeseburgers) premise 5) H (tofu) T (tofu) 1 universal instantiation 6) T (tofu) 2 and 5 modus ponens 7) E (tofu) T (tofu) 3 universal instantiation 8) E (tofu) 6 and 7 modus tollens

Tw of the possible conclusions are Tofu does not taste good, and You dont eat tofu 10. (Rosen: Section 1.5, pp. 73 Question 16) For each of these arguments determine whether the argument is correct or incorrect and explain why. (a) Everyone enrolled in the university has lived in a dormitory. Mia has never lived in a dormitory. Therefore, Mia is not enrolled in the university. Correct, Universal Instantiation and Modus Tollens (b) A convertible car is fun to drive. Isaacs car is not a convertible. Therefore, Isaacs car is not fun to drive. Incorrect, Fallacy of denying the hypothesis (c) Quincy likes all action movies. Quincy likes the movies Eight Men Out. Therefore, Eight Men Out is an action movie. Incorrect, Fallacy of arming the conclusion 11. (Grimaldi: Section 2.5, pp. 117 Question 18) Let m, n be two positive integers. Prove that if m, n are perfect squares, then m n is a perfect square. 12. (Grimaldi: Section 2.5, pp. 117 Question 20) Prove or disprove: There exists positive integers m, n where m, n and m + n are all perfect squares. 13. (Grimaldi: Section 2.5, pp. 117 Question 22) Prove that for every integer n, 4n + 7 is odd.