Anda di halaman 1dari 7

The Effects of FGM

o Direct effects (Health effects)

Short-term health effects Long-term health effects

o Examples from the physical effects of FGM o Indirect effects

Economic impacts

Direct effects (Health effects)

short-term health effects
immediate fatal bleeding or hemorrhaging : the cutting of the blood vessels in the vulva (clitoral artery) during the operation leads to bleeding. urine retention: FGM may cause continual urine shock from bleeding, pain and stress: these may result from cutting very sensitive and delicate area of the genitals with the use of anaesthetic. easily get injured to the very near tissues (cells) infection: unhygienic FGM may lead to other complications (extra medical problems) and even to death

Thus, bleeding and the risk of hemorrhage, pain, risk of infection and urine retention are much severe and serious.

Long-term health effects
Increased risk of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. an increased risk of childbirth complications and newborn deaths Infertility: may not be able to have a baby, and have problems during pregnancy. sexual dysfunction: may have difficulty in sexual intercourse The need for surgeries: the FGM procedure that seals or narrows a vaginal opening needs to be cut open later to allow for sexual intercourse and childbirth. Psychological and emotional stress: Toubia (1993) cites three psychological cases: anxiety state originating from lack of sleep and hallucinations; reaction depression from delayed healing, and psychotic excitement from childlessness and divorce.

Examples from the physical effects of FGM

A study (100 girls between the ages of 8-12) of the physical effects of FGM in western Sierra Leone shows that:
10 had vaginal bleeding, 8-10 pain, 8 acute urine retention, 5 tetanus [serious diseases caused bacteria] , 50 vaginal discharge and 15 dysuria [difficult urine discharge] (Statistical Record of Women World Wide)

Indirect effects
Economic impacts
FGM is a burden on the health service Ex. Women who are FGM victims usually need more health care to deal with complications, which is a burden on the health service system run by the state. FMG is an additional burden on a society's economy. Ex1. Women with FGM use a considerable share of the funds allocated for government hospitals in treating side effects caused by FGM. Ex2. Women and girls are also the backbone of the economy, especially when it comes to labor, yet many women who have FGM experience longterm side effects, chronic infections, and pain that prevents them from participating in the economy or workforce. Therefore, when women are not able to participate fully in the workforce due to debilitating FGM-related health problems, it hurts the economy as a whole.

Consequences of FGM. (2009). Retrieved 29.11.20113 Female genital mutilation. (February, 2013). Retrieved 29.11.2013 Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). (2013). Retrieved 29.11.2013 Hassan, O. F. (Producer). (29.11.2013). The Economic Impact of FGM. Retrieved from

Conversation Analysis and Second Language Pedagogy. A Guide for ESL/EFL Teachers