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MYOFASCIAL MUSCLE CHAINS

PETER D.M. JONCKHEERE, Physical therapy, Principal Teacher Myofascial Therapy, Belgium.

E-mail: Pejo@glo.be.
JAN A.J. PATTYN, Physical therapy, Teacher Myofascia I Therapy, Belgium.

Objectives: To present a handy survey of the myofascial classification of the muscles according to their pain region in

function of their focus and radiation. With this survey the myofascial muscle chains can be consulted instantly.

Methods:

In function of the myofascial pain regions, per muscle, painfocus and radiation pain have been visually presented on the computer, based upon data out of the international myofascial literature. Out of these findings, for each myofascial region, primary (muscles that give focal pain) and secondary (muscles that give radiation pain) myofascial muscle chains were determined and charted.

Results:
1. Classification of the muscles divided into

61 pain regions according to focality and radiation.

2. Classification of the associated chains in dysfunction according to pain region. 3. Classification of the development of myofascial muscle chains departing from a well-defined muscle. 4. Classification of the myofascial muscle chains where a well-defined muscle occurs in the muscle chain
of another muscle.

Conclusions:

The examiner or therapist can easily trace the myofascial dysfunctions with the help of a compact reference book (practical workbook). The progress of pain can be explained by the development of the myofascial - muscle chains and so there is a point of application to dissolve myofascial dysfunctions efficiently by means of these causal muscle chains.

ISBN: 90-804265-1-2

FRONT

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P. Face - Upper Cheek & Jaw ...... . . . .. .. .... . 12


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. . . 13 14 Ear - TMJ . . ... . .. . . . . .. . . . 15 Teeth . . .... . .. .. . . ... 16 Throat . ..... .. .. ... . . .. . . .... ... 17 Head - Frontal . .. . 18 Head - Temporal . . . . 21 Head - Vertex . . . . . 23 Shoulder Anterior ..........................................40 Shoulder Lateral. ...........................................46 Upperarm Anterior . ..... ... . . . . ........ 49 Upperarm Lateral ..........................................53 Elbow - Epicondylus Lateralis .......................54 Elbow - Epicondylus Medialis .......................56 Elbow - Antecubital .......................................58 Forearm - Volar .............................................59 Forearm - Radial .. . ....... . . ... ......61 Forearm - Ulnar . .. . . 62 Hand - Wrist - Radial . . .. . ..... .. 66 Hand - Volar side & Wrist ............................. 69 Hand - Wrist - Ulnar ......................................71 Fingers Volar . . . . ..... 75 Chest - Front .. .. . . .. .. ... ....... .. .. .. .. 76 Chest Side . .. .. . .. .. ... ..... .. 78 Abdomen .......................................................79 Groin .............................................................83 Hip - Anterior .................................................85 Thigh - Medial ...............................................89 Thigh - Anterior ................................... : .........90 Thigh - Lateral. ..............................................94 Knee - Anterior ..............................................97 Knee - Medial. . . . .. ... . ............. ..... . . ..99 Knee - Lateral ............................................. 100 Leg - Anterior (shank) ................................. 101 Leg - Lateral. ............................................... 104 Leg - Medial ................................................ 105 Ankle - Malleolus Externus ......................... 106 Ankle - Malleolus Internus .. . .. 107 Foot - Dorsal ............................................... 110
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Face - Lower Cheek & Jaw . Eye

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BACK

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P. Ear - TMJ
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Head - Occipital Head - Vertex Neck - Posterior

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Back - Upper-Thoracic Back - Mid-Thoracic Back - Low-Thoracic Back - Lumbar Back - Sacral Back - SIJ

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Back - Coccyx

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Shoulder Posterior Shoulder Lateral

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Upperarm Posterior Upperarm Lateral

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Elbow - Epicondylus Lateralis Elbow - Epicondylus Medialis Elbow - Olecranon Forearm - Dorsal Forearm - Radial Forearm - Ulnar

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Hand - Dorsal side & Wrist Hand - Wrist - Radial Hand - Wrist - Ulnar Fingers Dorsal Chest - Side Buttock Hip - Lateral

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Thigh - Medial Thigh - Lateral Knee - Medial Knee - Lateral Leg - Lateral Leg - Medial

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Thigh - Posterior Knee - Posterior

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Leg - Posterior (calf)

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Ankle - Malleolus Externus Foot - Plantar

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73

Peter Jonckheere Jan Pattyn

MYOFASCIAL MUSCLE CHAINS

Trigger

vzw

Title: "Myofascial Muscle Chains" Authors: Peter D.M. Jonckheere Jan A.J. Pattyn Cover: Ignace Pattyn Translation: Kathelijne Decloedt

Copyright

1998

Trigger vzw Weidestraat Belgium

234 8310 Brugge

All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, including photocopying, or utilized by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the copywright owner.

Printed in Belgium - All rights reserved. ISBN

90-804265-1-2

979287

MYOFASCIAL MUSCLE CHAINS

THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

Index

Introduction

Chapter 1 : Practical Working Method


Procedure chapter 4 : muscle chains according to their pain region Procedure chapter 5 : the muscle chains of each particular muscle

2
2 4

Chapter 2 : Definitions
Myofascial Muscle Chains Trigger Point

7
7 8

Chapter 3 : Algometrics
Myofascial Pain Index (MPI) Myofascial Dysfunctions Conclusions Purpose

9
9 9 10 10

Chapter 4 : Myofascial Chains in function of the pain region


Face - Upper Cheek & Jaw Face - Lower Cheek & Jaw Eye Ear - TMJ Teeth Throat Head - Frontal

11

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 23 24

Head - Occipital Head - Temporal Head - Vertex Neck - Posterior Back - Upper-Thoracic Back - Mid-Thoracic Back - Low-Thoracic Back - Lumbar Back - Sacral Back - SIJ

25 27

30 31 34 37

Shoulder - Anterior Shoulder - Lateral

Back - Coccyx

39 40 43 46 49 51 53 54 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 69 66

Shoulder - Posterior Upperarm - Anterior Upperarm - Posterior Upperarm - Lateral Elbow - Epicondylus Lateralis Elbow - Epicondylus Medialis Elbow - Olecranon Elbow - Antecubital Forearm - Volar Forearm - Dorsal Forearm - Radial Forearm - Ulnar Hand Dorsal Side & Wrist Hand Volar Side & Wrist Hand - Wrist - Radial Hand - Wrist - Ulnar Fingers - Dorsal Fingers - Volar Chest - Front Chest - Side Abdomen Buttock Groin Hip - Anterior Hip - Lateral Thigh - Anterior Thigh - Posterior Knee - Posterior Knee - Anterior Knee - Medial Knee - Lateral Leg - Anterior (shank) Leg - Posterior (calf) Leg - Lateral Ankle - Malleolus Externus Leg - Medial Thigh - Lateral Thigh - Medial

71 73 75 76 78 79 80 85 87 89 92 94 95 97 99 100 101 102 104 105 106 107 108 110 90

83

Ankle - Malleolus Internus Foot - Plantar Foot - Dorsal

Chapter 5 : Myofascial Muscle Chains per muscle


Abductor Digiti Minimi (fingers) Abductor Hallucis Adductor Brevis Adductor Hallucis

11 2
113 114 115 118

Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Adductor Pollicis Anconeus Biceps Brachii Biceps Femoris Brachioradialis Coccygeus Coracobrachialis Deltoideus Digastricus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Brachialis

119 122 124 125 128 132 130

126

134 135 137 140 141 143 146 147 151 152 155 157 158 160 161 162 165 166 167 168 170 175 178 179 181 183 185 188 190 191 194 195 172 154 149

Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Digitorum Brevis Extensor Hallucis Brevis Extensor Indicis

Extensor Hallucis Longus Flexor carpi Radialis Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus Flexor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Pollicis Longus Gastrocnemius Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus Gracilis Iliocostalis Lumborum Iliocostalis Thoracis Iliopsoas Infraspinatus Interosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2 (fingers) Interosseus Dorsalis 1 (toes) Levator Ani Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus (neck) Masseter Levator Scapulae Latissimus Dorsi Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

164

196 199 201 202 204 205 206 207 208

Multifidus (back) Obliquus Externus Abdominis Obturatorius Internus Occipitofrontalis Opponens Pollicis Orbicularis Oculi

Palmaris Longus Pectineus Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Longus Peroneus Tertius

209 210 212 215 217 218 220 221 223 224

Piriformis Plantaris Popliteus

Pronator Teres Pterygoideus Lateralis Pterygoideus Medialis Quadratus Lumborum Quadratus Plantae Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Intermedius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Rectus Abdominus Rhomboideus Minor Sartorius Semimembranosus Semispinalis Capitis Semispinalis Cervicis Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Inferior Serratus Posterior Superior Splenius Capitis Soleus Semitendinosus Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

225 226 227 228 231 232 234 237 240 242 243 244 249 246 235

251 252 253 255 256 258 257

Splenius Cervicis

260

Sternalis

261 263 264 267 268 270 272


.

Sternocleidomastoideus Suboccipitale Subscapularis Supinator Supraspinatus Temporalis Tensor Fasciae Latae Teres Major

275 277 278 280 283 284 287 282

Teres Minor Tibialis Anterior Tibialis Posterior Triceps Brachii Trapezius

Foreword

For the therapist who has to deal with a pain problem of the locomotor system there is an enormous amount of information available. Along with the "classical" orthopaedic approach, the manual, osteopathic or chiropractical vision, the electro magnetical therapies a.o. acupuncture etc., the Myofascial approach gains more and more importance. For a great number of therapists, Myofascial Therapy is the ideal completion of their This new book: "Myofascial Muscle Chains" is to be situated within the Myofascial Therapy. With impatience we have been looking forward to this book. It really fills up a gap in found anywhere at the moment. which the myofascial pain therapist will find practical information which cannot be other techniques.

How did this book come into existence? Why throw a book about Muscle Chains and more specifically Myofascial Muscle Chains on the market? The deeper roots of "Myofascial Muscle Chains" can naturally be found in the splendid basic work written by Travell and Simons: Myofascial Pain and Dysfunction: The Trigger Point Manual I and II. particular muscle has associated muscles. When active trigger points are found in permanent connections between this muscle and other muscles. In practice this means that, when dealing with a pain problem, one muscle is found to be prominent, the associated muscles have to be checked and treated as well. Peter Jonckheere is the principal teacher of the highly qualified course of one particular muscle, Travell discovered on a clinical basis that there In this systematic work, Travell and Simons make mention of the fact that each are

"Myofascial Therapy" at the Jing Ming School in Flanders, Belgium. On the basis of systems among these associated muscles and created the concept "Myofascial Muscle Chains" in the early 90ties. With the help of his own ingeniously built-up schedule of muscles and the year-long clinical testing and debating with his students, this basic concept was gradually turned into what is lying now in front of you: a very handy workbook about clinically relevant links between muscles and their pain patterns. The manual is divided into 2 chapters: In the first chapter the therapist can start from the PAIN REGION. their associative chains. (The definitions of these chains can be found in an muscles he is dealing with. For this region all prominent muscles are presented into a schedule, together with his clinical practice and his intrrest in computer programs he went in search of

introductory chapter). In this way the therapist immediately knows which main

In the second chapter the therapist can start from a MUSCLE. Which chains start from this muscle and which chains this muscle forms a part of? In that way surprising links between muscles of the same region occur. treatment spectacularly. Links can also be made with more distant muscles. This knowledge can help the

The neurological segment per muscle is also mentioned: in that way the link between the relevant muscle chains and potenially primary dysfunctions in the vertebral column can be put more easily. Both authors are teachers at the Jing Ming School for "Myofascial Therapy" in Belgium. Peter Jonckheere works as a physiotherapist in Bruges, is a pioneer of the Myofascial Therapy in Flanders, Belgium. He started the above training from scratch and is author of some basic works on MT.: 'Spieren en Dysfuncties, Trigger Punten, Basisprincipes van de Myofasciale Therapie', Publ. SATAS and 'Pijn, u kunt er iets aan doen', Publ. SAT AS. "Trigger Nieuws", the three-monthly magazine about MT. Peter is vice-president of the Myofascial Therapists' Association and editor of

Jan Pattyn works as a physiotherapist in Torhout, attended the training as a student of Peter's and some years ago he was qualified as a fellow-teacher. His enthusiasm and dynamism formed the start of their co-operation which resulted in the publishing of this manual in less than 1 year. As president of 'Trigger", ex-student and fellow teacher of the training and dedicated user and defender of the MT., I am convinced this manual is indispensable in the consulted easily, between two palpations or function tests, which, sadly enough, can not be said of a lot of manuals. library of every pain therapist. Moreover, it deserves a place, within reach, to be

Kris Demanet, M.D.


Sports Medicine Private Practice Torhout, Belgium.

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THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

Introduction

Objectives
To present a handy survey of the myofascial classification of the muscles according to their pain region in function of their focus and radiation. With this survey the myofascial muscle chains can be consulted instantly.

Methods
In function of the myofascial pain regions, per muscle, painfocus and radiation pain have been visually presented on the computer, based upon data out of the international myofascial literature. Out of these findings, for each myofascial region, primary focal pain) muscle chains were determined and charted. (muscles that give myofascial and secondary (muscles that give radiation pain)

Results
1. Classification of the muscles
focality and radiation.
2. Classification of the associated chains in dysfunction according to pain

divided into 61 pain regions according to

region.

3. Classification of the development of myofascial muscle chains departing


from a well-defined muscle.

4. Classification of the myofascial muscle chains where a well-defined


muscle occurs in the muscle chain of another muscle.

Conclusions
The examiner or therapist can easily trace the myofascial dysfunctions with the help of a compact reference book (practical workbook). The progress of pain can be explained by the development of the myofascial muscle chains and so there is a point of application to dissolve myofascial dysfunctions efficiently by means of these causal muscle chains.

Chapter 1 Practical working-method

Myofascial therapy treats, by means of trigger points, pains that are caused by the malfunctioning of muscles. The purpose of this work is to present a handy survey of the myofascial classification of the muscles according to their pain region, in function of focus and radiation. This survey enables the user to consult the myofascial muscle chains instantly.

Procedure chapter 4 region

muscle chains according to their pain

PURPOSE: searching the main muscles starting from the pain region indicated by the patient. We argue horizontally. How do we determine which muscles are responsable for pain in a certain region? We start from a specific pain region, indicated by the patient Per pain region you get a survey of the primary and secondary muscle chains

primary m uscle chain

minimum 3 muscles that cause focal pain.


=

secondary m uscle chain

minimum 3 that cause referred pain.

e.g. patient complains of pain in the neck.

pain focus
Splenius Cervicis (UTP) Levator Scapulae Multifidus (neck) Trapezius (TP1 ,2,3)

referred pain
Infraspinatus (Upper 2TPs) Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Suboccipital

Out of this schedule we immediately read there are 4 muscles that cause focal pain in the neck. By means of algometries (see chapter 2) we can determine which of these muscles contain an active trigger point.
active TP
=

TP that provokes the recognizable pain when palpated.

An association m uscle chain can start from each muscle with an active TP out of the primary muscle chain.

association m uscle chain

a muscle chain that only consists of muscles that

from their muscle in dysfunction develop TPs in associated muscles.

Example 1

our patient with pain in the neck shows an active TP in the M. Multifidus

Multifidus

Levator Scapulae Semispinalis Capitis Semispinalis Cervicis Sternocleidomastoideus Splenius Cervi cis

This schedule shows that the M.Multifidus has 5 associative muscles.

Which of these 5 associative muscles also cause focal or referred pain? Multifidus(neck)

In our example the 2 above-mentioned muscles are the only ones that cause focal pain in the neck. We speak of a primary association chain. We neglect the M.Sternocieidomastoideus because this muscle only causes radiation pain for the neck and therefore cannot be fitted into the primary association chain. In this book we only sum up the sheer primary and secondary association chains in function of each pain region. Example 2
:

our patient with pain in the neck shows an active TP in the M. Splenius Cervicus.

Splenius Cervicis

Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius Splenius Capitis Suboccipital

This schedule shows the M. Splenius Cervicus contains 4 associative muscles. Which of these 4 associative muscles also cause focal or radiation pain?

Splenius Cervicis

Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus (Sternal)

In our example only the 2 above-mentioned muscles. Since both cause merely radiation pain, we can speak of a secondary association chain. For the same reason the M. Trapezius does not belong here. In this chapter we have determined which muscles are myofascially involved in a certain pain region . When we want to go further into this matter, we consult chapter 5 : the muscle chains of each particular muscle. In that way we can put the links to other pain regions.

procedure Chapter 5 muscle

the muscle chains of each particular

PURPOSE: Finding the links (possibly to other pain regions) starting from the muscle that is already defined.

The working-method is vertical. We start from a muscle in dysfunction , as defined in chapter 3. e.g. a dysfunction of the M. Trapezius.
Chains starting from the Trapezius

We give a catalogue of the muscles associated with the M. Trapezius. associated muscles (according to Travell & Simons) Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral) Supraspinatus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Pectoralis Major Scalenus Temporalis Occipitofrontalis

We now give a catalogue of the primary and secondary asociative chains starting from the M. Trapezius in function of the different pain regions.
Primary associated chains

head - lateral

neck - posterior

Temporalis Trapezius (contralateral, TP1 ) Occipitofrontalis Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral, TP 1 ,2,3)

etc.

Secundary associated chains

head - occipital

shoulder - posterior

Trapezius (contralateral) Temporalis Occipitofrontalis Levator Scapulae Scalenus

Chains in which Trapezius is involved

Dealing with a chronological complaint in which different pain regions are involved, you don't always find the solution to the problem, because already several muscle chains have developed and succeeded one another. To go back to the initial muscle chain we have to proceed in a reversed order . We can do this by looking in which chain of another muscle the Trapezius occurs. The scheme below shows the muscle of which the Trapezius is an associative muscle. Supraspinatus associated muscles (according to Travell & Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Simons) Pectoralis Major Scalenus Temporalis Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus Splenius Cervicis Splenius Capitis Biceps Brachii We schedule all the different associative chains which the M. Trapezius occurs in.We make three columns. Firstly, the muscle out of which the associative chain starts. In the second column, the likely involved pain region and in the third column the actual associative chain which the M. Trapezius occurs in.

Primary associated chains


... Trapezius neck posterior

Trapezius

Levator Scapulae

Suboccipital

head-lateral

(contralateral, TP1,2,3) Semispinalis Capitis Sternocleidomastoideus (Sternal) Trapezius (TP1)

..

Secundary associated chains ...


Rhomboideus Minor Sternocleidom astoideus back mid - thoracic

Trapezius
Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervicis Temporalis

...

head occipital

Trapezius (TP 1 ,2,3)

Chapter 2 Definitions

Myofascia/ Muscle Chains


Conditions:

the presence of at least 3 muscles the presence of at least 1 TP per muscle involved the presence of at least 1 active TP in the chain

Kinds:

Direct myofasciaJ muscle chain


Collection of muscles that, in dysfunction,can cause pain, for a well-defined region.
Primary direct myofascia/ muscle chain

Collection only of muscles that , in dysfunction, for a well-defined region, can cause FOCAL PAIN.

Secondary direct myofascia/ muscle chain

Collection of muscles that, in dysfunction, can cause not merely focal but referred pain as well.

MyofasciaJ Associative muscle chain


Collection of muscles that starting from their muscle in dysfunction develop associative TPs in other muscles.

Primary myofascia/ associative muscle chain

Collection

of

muscles

that,

starting

from

their

muscle

in

dysfunction, develop associative TPs that cause FOCAL pain for a well-defined region.
Secondary myofascia/ associative muscle chain

Collection

of

muscles

that,

starting

from

their

muscle

in

dysfunction, develop associative TPs

that not necessarily cause

merely focal pain for a well-defined region.

Trigger Point
A self-maintaining hyper-irritable spot in a skeleton muscle or its associated fascia.

Active Trigger Point


A very sensitive spot that , when palpated, causes an identifiable pain that totally or partly agrees with the pain track of the muscle in dysfunction.

Latent Trigger Point


A spot that causes local pain only when palpated.

False Positive Trigger Point


A spot that causes referred pain: or: or: - not in accordance with the identifiable pain - in accordance with the specific track for this trigger point but with an algometric score higher than the MPI

Chapter 3 Algometries

Purpose
The purpose of algometrics is to define whether a TP is active, latent, falsely positive or absent.This knowledge is based on the most recent data from the American study: "PressureThreshold for referred pain by compression on the trigger point and adjacent area." (Chang-Zern Hong, Yuh-Ning Chen, Debra, Twehous, Dennis H. Hong.
Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain.)

Myofascial Pain Index (MPI)


Pain is subjective. To get an idea by means of algometrics of the pain the patient experiences , we must be able to make an objective evaluation. By means of the calculation of a myofascial pain index we can estimate objectively the value of the pain the patient can bear. The MPI is calculated by measurements on the 18 Tender Points with the Algoprobe . The Algoprobe is an electric algometer , by means of which the MPI is automatically calculated .

The trigger point research is linked to the MPI and evaluated in that way in function of the individual pain threshold of each patient.

These are the locations of the Tender Points we have to measure :

1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 7.

occiput : at the insertions of the Suboccipital muscles. lower cervical: at the anterolateral aspect of C5-C6 edge of trapezius: in the middle of the shoulder second rib: up lateral at the sterno-costal junction lateral epicondyl: 2 cm distal of the epicondyl knee: at the medium fleshy thickness proximal of the jOint

4. supraspinatus: the fossa supraspinatus at the medium edge of the scapula

8. major trochanter: posterior of the prominentia trochanterica 9. gluteal: in the upper lateral quadrant anterior
The MPI is the average pressure that is measured at these 18 Tender point locations (9 right - 9 left)
=> =>

18 values have to be registered by pressure with the probe


The MPI is simply the average value measured at the Tender Points.

Here comes an example how the MPI is calculated.

e.g.

left TeP 1 TeP2 TeP3 TeP4 TePS TeP6 TeP7 TeP8 TeP9 3,70 3,30 4,80 4,00 3,90 3,60 6,10 8,90 6,20 44,50 0,12 4,94 MPI

right 4,30 3,30 5,30 3,60 3,50 4,30 7,40 7,20 4,50 43,40 4,82 4,88

at the insertions Suboccipital muscles anterolateral aspect C5-C7 middle point of the shoulder fossa supraspinatus, medium edge scapula upper lateral at costochondral junction rib 2 2 cm distal of the epicondylus lateralis at the medium side of the knee posterior of prominentia trochanterica in upper exterior quadrant

The calculation of an individual MPI is essential for the following reasons:

I.

pain is subjective and has to be assessed objectively and individually.

2. when, as in the example above, a palpation pressure of 2 kg is used, a lot of muscle indications will be missed, as for this person too little pressure is given. When, on the other hand, a palpation pressure of 6 kg is used, this is too high for this person and a lot of false positive results will be registered. 3.
when diagnosing myofascial dysfunctions, this MPI is determining whether we are dealing with active TPs, latent TPs or with False positive TPs. This information is essential as to stipulate the way of treatment.

Myofascial dysfunctions
In function of the pain region (dr. Chapter 4) and the already determined MPI we measure the Trigger Points that are considered. In function of the individual pain index we can automatically read whether a Trigger Point is active, latent or falsely positive. A TP is active when it has a lower score than the MPI and is attended with the typical referred pain . A TP is latent with a lower score than the MPI but without radiation. A TP is falsely positive when it has referred pain with a score higher than the MPI or when the patient experiences a non-recognizable referred pain with a score lower than the MPI.

Conclusions.
It is useless to apply algometrics without determining a Myofascial Pain Index. The interpretation of the measurements can only be objectified in function of the patient himself.

10

Chapter 4

Myofascial Chains in function of the pain region

11

Face - Upper Cheek & Jaw


pain focus referred pai n

Masseter Pterygoideus Lateralis Zygomaticus Major Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Soleus (Iat UTP)
Masseter

Tempora lis (3 anterior TPs) Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Masseter Orbicularis Oculi Platysma Pterygoideus Medialis Temporalis Pterygoideus Medialis Sternocleidomastoideus Digastricus Pterygoideus Lateralis

Pterygoideus Lateralis Zygomaticus Major Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal)

Soleus

Scalenus Trapezius Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervicis Pectoralis Major Masseter Temporalis Orbicularis Oculi Occipitofrontalis Gastrocnemius Tibialis Posterior Haliucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Haliucis Longus Peroneus Tertius

Secundary associated chains

Masseter

Sternocleidomastoideus

Pterygoideus Lateralis Pterygoideus Medialis Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus Masseter Temporalis

12

Face - Lower Cheek & jaw


pain focus referred pain

Masseter Trapezius (TP1)

Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Digastricus Platysma Pterygoideus Medialis Temporalis Pterygoideus Med ialis Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Digastricus Pterygoideus Lateralis (inferior) Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral) Supraspinatus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Pectoralis Major Scalenus Temporalis Occipitofrontalis

Masseter

Trapezius (TP 1 )

Secundary associated chains

Masseter

Digastricus Sternocleidomastoideus

13

Eye
pain focus referred pain

Masseter Occipitofrontalis (UTP) Splenius Cervicis (UTP) Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Orbicularis Oculi
Masseter

Suboccipital Temporalis (anterior TP) Trapezius (TP1 )

Temporalis Pterygoideus Med ialis Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Digastricus Pterygoideus Lateralis (inferior) Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (TP1 ) Splenius Capitis Suboccipital Scalenus Trapezius Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervicis Pectoralis Major Masseter Temporalis Orbicularis Ocu li Occipitofronta lis

Occipitofrontal is Splenius Cervicis

Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal )

Orbicularis Oculi
Primary associated chains

Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal)

Masseter Splenius Cervicis (UTP) Orbicularis Oculi

Secundary associated chains

Masseter Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Splenius Cervicis (UTP)

Temporalis (anterior TP) Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Temporalis (anterior TP) Trapezius (TP 1 ) SL\boccipital Trapezius (TP1 )

14

Ear TMJ
-

pain focus

. referred pain

Masseter Pterygoideus Medialis Pterygoideus Lateralis Sternocleidomastoideus (clavicular)


Masseter

Splenius Cervi cis (UTP)

Temporalis Pterygoideus Med ialis Sternocleidomastoideus Digastricus Pterygoideus Lateralis

Pterygoideus Medialis Pterygoideus Lateralis Sternocleidomastoideus

Scalenus Trapezius Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervicis Pectoralis Major Masseter Temporalis Orbicularis Ocul i Occipitofrontalis

Primary associated chains

Masseter

Sternocleidomastoideus Pterygoideus Medialis Pterygoideus Lateralis

15

Teeth
pain focus referred pain

Temporalis (TP1) (upper incisor teeth) Temporalis (TP2) (upper premolar teeth) Temporalis (TP3) (upper molar teeth) Digastricus (anterior part) (lower incisor teeth) Masseter (superficial part) (upper molar teeth) Masseter (superficial part) (lower molar teeth)
Temporalis

Sternocleidomastoideus

Digastricus Masseter

Masseter (other side) Pterygoideus Lateralis Pterygoideus Medialis Trapezius Sternocleidomastoideus Masseter Temporalis Temporalis Pterygoideus Medialis Sternocleidomastoideus Digastricus Pterygoideus Lateralis

Primary associated chains

Masseter Digastricus

Digastricus Temporalis Masseter Temporalis


Secundary associated chains

Temporalis

Masseter Sternocleidomastoideus

16

Throat
pain focus referred pain

Digastricus Sternocleidomastoideus (sterna/)


Digastricus Sternocieidomastoideus

Pterygoideus Medialis

Masseter Temporalis Scalenus Trapezius Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervicis Pectoralis Major Masseter Temporalis Orbicularis Ocu li Occipitofrontalis

17

Head - Frontal
pain focus referred pain

Masseter Occipitofrontalis Sternocleidomastoideus (clavicular) Zygomaticus Major Temporalis (anterior 2 TPs)


Sternocleidomastoideus

Semispinalis Capitis Splenius Cervicis (UTP) Suboccipital

Scalenus Trapezius Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervicis Pectoralis Major Masseter Temporalis Orbicularis Oculi Occipitofrontalis

Zygomaticus Major Occipitofrontalis Masseter

Temporalis

Temporalis Pterygoideus Medialis Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) D igastricus Pterygoideus Lateralis (inferior) Masseter (other side) Pterygoideus Lateralis Pterygoideus Medialis Trapezius Sternocleidomastoideus

Primary associated chains

Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus Masseter


/

Sternocleidomastoideus Masseter Masseter Occipitofrontalis Temporalis Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus

18

Head - Occi pital


pain focus referred pain

Sternocleidomastoideus Semispinalis Cervicis Trapezius (TP1,2,3) Digastricus (Post TP)

Semispinalis Capitis Temporalis ( Post TP) I nfraspinatus (Upper 2 TPs) Occipitofrontalis Splenius Cervicis (UTP) Suboccipital Scalenus Trapezius Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervicis Pectoralis Major Masseter Temporalis Orbicularis Oculi Occipitofrontalis Multifidus ( neck) Splenius Cervicis Semispinalis Capitis Levator Scapulae Sternocleidomastoideus Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral) Supraspinatus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Pectoralis Major Scalenus Temporalis Occipitofrontalis Masseter Temporalis

Sternocleidomastoideus

Semispi nalis Cervicis

Trapezius (TP 1 ,2,3)

Digastricus

19

Secundary associated chains

Semispinalis Cervicis

Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (TP 1 ,2,3)

Semispinalis Capitis Sternocleidomastoideus Splenius Cervicis Splenius Cervicis Temporalis Trapezius (TP 1 ,2,3) Trapezius (contralateral) Temporalis Occipitofrontalis

20

Head - Temporal
/

pain focus

referred pain

Sternocleidomastoideus (Sternal) Semispinalis Capitis Occipitofrontalis Suboccipital Temporalis Trapezius (TP1) Masseter (superficial lower 2 TPs)

Masseter Splenius Cervicis

Sternocleidomastoideus

Semispinalis Capitis

Scalenus Trapezius Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervicis Pectoralis Major Masseter Temporalis Orbicularis Oculi Occipitofrontalis Levator Scapulae Semispinalis Cervicis Splenius Cervi cis Sternocleidomastoideus Multifidus (neck) Trapezius Sternocleidomastoideus Splenius Capitis Splenius Cervicis Semispinalis Capitis Semispinalis Cervicis Levator Scapulae Multifidus (neck) Masseter (other side) Pterygoideus Lateralis Pterygoideus Medialis Trapezius Sternocleidomastoideus

Occi pitofronta lis Suboccipital

Temporalis

21

Trapezius

Masseter

Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralatera l ) Supraspinatus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Pectoralis Major Scalenus Temporalis Occipitofrontalis Temporalis Pterygoideus Medialis Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) D igastricus Pterygoideus Lateralis (inferior)

Primary associated chains

Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus

Trapezius Temporalis Masseter

Semispinalis Capitis Sternocleidomastoideus (Sternal) Trapezius (TP1 ) Trapezius (TP1 ) Temporalis Occipitofrontalis Masseter Temporalis Trapezius (contralateral, TP 1 ) Occipitofrontalis Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (TP1 ) Masseter Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus

Secundary associated chains

Semispinalis Capitis Sternocleidomastoideus

Splenius Cervicis (UTP) Sternocleidomastoideus (Sternal) Masseter Splenius Cervicis (UTP)

22

Head - Vertex
pain focus referred pain

Splenius Capitis
Splenius Capitis

Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal ) Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius Splenius Cervicis Suboccipital

23

Neck - Posterior
pain focus referred pain

Splenius Cervicis (UTP) Levator Scapulae Multifidus (neck) Trapezius (TP1,2,3)

I nfraspinatus (Upper 2TPs) Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Suboccipital

Splenius Cervicis

Levator Scapulae Multifidus

Trapezius

Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius Splenius Capitis Suboccipital Splenius Cervicis Scalenus Levator Scapulae Semispinalis Capitis Semispinalis Cervicis Sternocleidomastoideus Splenius Cervicis Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral) Su praspinatus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Pectoralis Major Scalenus Temporalis Occipitofrontalis
Primary associated chains

Multifidus(neck) Trapezius

Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervicis Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral, TP1 .2.3)

Secundary associated chains

Splenius Cervicis

Suboccipital $ternocleidomastoideus

24

Back - Upper-Thoracic
pain focus referred pain

Levator Scapulae Rhomboideus Minor Scalenus Trapezius (TP5)

Biceps Brachii Rhomboideus Major I liocostalis Thoracis (T6) Multifidus (neck) Supraspinatus Trapezius (TP2,3) Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Splenius Cervicis Scalenus Levator Scapulae Trapezius I nfraspi natus Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (TP2 ,3) Splenius Capitis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor DiQitorum (rinQ finQer) Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral) Supraspinatus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Pectoralis Major Scalenus Temporalis Occipitofrontalis

Levator Scapulae Rhomboideus Minor

Scalenus

Trapezius

25

Primary associated chains

Rhomboideus Minor Trapezius

Levator Scapulae Trapezius (TP4,5) Levator Scapulae Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Scalenus Trapezius (contralateral)

Secundary associated chains

Scalenus

26

Back - M id-Thoracic
pain focus referred pain

Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Scalenus Trapezius (TP4) Iliocostalis Thoracis (T6) Infraspinatus (lower medial TP) Latissimus Dorsi (UTP) Multifidus(back) (T3) Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Superior

Multifidus (neck) Levator Scapulae Subscapularis Trapezius (TP3-TP5)

Rhomboideus Major

Scale'lus

Trapezius

Iliocostalis Thoracis

Levator Scapulae Trapezius I nfraspinatus Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (TP2,3) Splenius Capitis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Brachialis Brachiorad ialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral) Supraspinatus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus M inor Pectoralis Major Scalenus Temporalis Occipitofrontalis Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior

27

I nfraspinatus

Latissimus Dorsi

Teres Major Teres Minor Deltoideus (Anterior) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi Su bsca pularis Pectoralis Major Teres Major Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Rectus Abdominus (UTP) Subscapularis I liocostalis Thoracis Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Inferior Serratus Posterior Superior Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior Latissimus Dorsi Scalenus Sternocleidomastoideus Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor I liocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus(neck) Levator Scapulae Trapezius Infraspinatus Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor

Multifidus(back)

Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Superior

Rhomboideus Minor

28

Primary associated chains

Iliocostalis Thoracis Latissimus Dorsi

Multifidus(back) Rhomboideus Major Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Superior Trapezius Rhomboideus Minor

Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Superior l Iiosostalis Thoracis Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Superior Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Superior I nfraspinatus Trapezius Latissimus Dorsi Scalenus Scalenus Rhomboideus Major I liocostalis Thoracis Rhomboideus Major Scalenus Trapezius (contralateral) Trapezius I nfraspinatus

Secundary associated chains

Rhomboideus Minor

29

Back - Low-Thoracic
pain focus referred pain

Rectus Abdominus (UTP) Iliocostalis Thoracis (UTP - T11) Serratus Posterior Inferior Latissimus Dorsi(UTP)

Serratus Anterior Trapezius (TP3)

Rectus Abdominus

Iliocostalis Thoracis

Serratus Posterior I nferior Latissimus Dorsi

Obliquus Externus Abdominus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Gracilis Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior Iliocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Teres Major Triceps Brach ii (caput longum) Rectus Abdominus (UTP) Subscapularis I liocostalis Thoracis Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior

Primary associated chains

I liocostalis Thoracis Latissimus Dorsi

Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior I nferior I liocostalis Thoracis Rectus Abdominus Serratus Posterior I nferior

30

Back - Lumbar
pain focus referred pain

Multifidus (back) (L2) Quadratus Lumborum (superficial) Longissimus Thoracis (UTP-L1) Gluteus Medius (med - lat TP) Rectus Abdominis (UTP) Iliocostalis Thoracis (UTP - T11) Iliopsoas Soleus (Iat UTP)

Serratus Posterior I nferior I liocostalis Lumborum Latissimus Dorsi (UTP) Longissimus Thoracis (UTP- T1 0)

Multifidus (back)

Quadratus Lumborum

Longissimus Thoracis

Gluteus Medius (med TP)

Rectus Abdominus

I liocostalis Thoracis

Latissimus Dorsi Quad ratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior Inferior Serratus Posterior Superior Quad ratus Lumborum (other side) I liopsoas I liocostalis Lumborum Obliquus Externus Abdominus Latissimus Dorsi Gl uteus Medius Gluteus Minimus Latissimus Dorsi Quad ratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior Pi riformis Gl uteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus (Posterior) Tensor Fasciae Latae Obliquus Externus Abdominus Adductor Longus Adductor B revis Adductor Magnus Gracilis Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior Inferior Serratus Posterior Superior

31

I l iopsoas

Soleus

Q uadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdominus Q uadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Tensor Fascia Latae Pectineus Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Biceps Femoris Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus Iliocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis I liocostalis Lumboru m Trapezius Splenius Cervicis Levator Scapulae Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus Multifidus (neck) Gastrocnemius Tibialis Posterior Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Tertius

32

Primary associated chains

Quadratus Lumborum

I liopsoas

Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Gluteus Medius Rectus Abdominis I liocostalis Thoracis
Secundary associated chains

Quadratus Lumborum I liopsoas Multifidus (back) Longissimus Thoracis I liocostalis Thoracis


L----

I liocostalis Lumborum Latissimus Dorsi Iliocostalis Lumborum LonQissimus Thoracis Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior I nferior Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior I nferior Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior I nferior

Remark

Eventually we can take the Hamstrings as a key for the low back pain in this region. In this book we didn't take them in the muscle chains.

33

Back - Sacral
pain focus referred pain

Multifidus (back) (S1-S4) Rectus Abdominus (UTP) Piriformis Gluteus Medius (Iat TP - med TP) Gluteus Maximus (Iat UTP - med UTP) Soleus (Iat UTP) Quadratus Lumborum (deep) Coccygeus Sphincter Ani Levator Ani Longissimus Thoracis (UTP - L1) Iliopsoas

Q uadratus Lumborum (superficial) Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis (UTP - T1 0-1 1 ) I liocostalis Thoracis (UTP - T1 1 )

Multifidus (back)

Rectus Abdominus

Piriformis

Gluteus Med ius

Gluteus Maximus

Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior Inferior Serratus Posterior Superior Obliquus Externus Abdominus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Gracilis Gluteus Minimus (posterior part) Levator Ani Coccygeus Gluteus Maximus Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus (posterior part) Tensor Fascia latae Gluteus Medius (posterior part) Gluteus Minimis (posterior part) Biceps Femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Longissimus Thoracis I liocostalis Thoracis I liocostalis Lumboru m I l iopsoas Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris

34

Soleus

Quadratus Lumborum

Gastrocnemius Tibialis Posterior Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Tertius Quadratus Lumborum (other side) I liopsoas I liocostalis Lumborum Obliquus Externus Abdominus Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus

Coccygeus Sphincter An i Levator Ani Longissimus Thoracis

I liopsoas

Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior Inferior Serratus Posterior Superior Quadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdominus Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Tensor Fascia Latae Pectineus Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Biceps Femoris Gluteus Maximus Gluteus M edius Gluteus Minimus I liocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis I liocostalis Lumborum Trapezius Splenius Cervi cis Levator Scapulae Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus Multifidus (neck)

35

Primary associated chains

Gluteus Medius Piriformis

Gluteus Maximus Quadratus Lumborum I liopsoas

Gluteus Maximus Piriformis Levator Ani Coccygeus Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Longissimus Thoracis I l iopsoas Quadratus Lumborum (contralateral) I liopsoas Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum Recus Abdominus Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Longissimus Thoracis
Secundary associated chains

Gluteus Maximus

I liocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Iliopsoas

36

Back SIJ
-

pain focus

referred pain

Multifidus (back) (S1) Rectus Abdominus (UTP) Gluteus Medius (med TP - lat TP) Quadratus Lumborum (deep) Soleus (Iat UTP) Iliopsoas Longissimus Thoracis (UTP)

I liocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis (UTP) Quadratus Lumborum (superficial)

Multifidus (back)

Rectus Abdominus

Gluteus Medius

Quadratus Lumborum

Soleus

Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior Inferior Serratus Posterior Superior Obliquus Externus Abdominus Adductor Longu s Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Gracilis Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus (posterior part) Tensor Fasciae latae Quadratus Lumborum (other side) I liopsoas I liocostalis Lumborum Obliquus Externu s Abdominus Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus Gastrocnemius Tibialis Posterior Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Tertius

37

I l iopsoas

Longissimus Thoracis

Quadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdominus Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Tensor Fascia Latae Pectineus Semitendinosus Semimembranosus B iceps Femoris Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus I liocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis I l iocostalis Lumborum Trapezius Splenius Cervicis Levator Scapulae Su boccipital Sternocleidomastoideus M u ltifidus (neck) Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior

Primary associated chains

Quad ratus Lumborum Iliopsoas

Gluteus Medius Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumborum (contralateral) Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Medius LonQissimus Thoracis

Secundary associated chains

I l i opsoas Quadratus Lumborum

Longissimus Thoracis i liocostalis Lumboru m Quadratus Lumborum (contralateral ) I liocostalis Lumborum

38

Back - Coccyx
pain focus referred pain

Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius (Iat TP - med TP) Multifidus (S1 - S4) Obturatorius Internus Levator Ani Coccygeus Sphincter Ani
Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus Biceps Femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Longissimus Thoracis I liocostal is Thoracis I liocostalis Lumborum I l iopsoas Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus Tensor Fascia latae Pi riformis Gl uteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus Tensor Fascia latae Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior

Gluteus Medius

Gluteus Medius

Multifidus

Obturatorius I nternus Levator Ani Coccygeus Sphincter Ani

39

Shoulder - Anterior
pain focus referred pain

Biceps Brachii Coracobrachialis Deltoideus (ant TP - mid TP) Infraspinatus (Iat TP - med TP) Pectoralis Minor Pectoralis Major (clavicular) Scalenus Supraspinatus

Brachialis Latissimus Dorsi Sternalis Subclavius Teres Major Subscapularis Pectoralis Major (sternal)

B iceps Brachii

Coracobrachialis

Deltoideus (anterior)

Brachialis Supinator Triceps Brachii Deltoideu s Supraspinatus Trapezius Coracobrachialis Deltoideus Biceps Brachii Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii I nfraspinatus Supraspinatus

anterior part:
Pectoralis Major (clavicular part) Biceps Brachii Deltoideus (posterior part) Teres Major Teres Minor Deltoideus Anterior Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi Subscapularis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Major Deltoideus (anterior part) Scalenus Sternocleidomastoideus Sternalis

Infraspinatus

Pectoralis M inor

40

Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal)

Scalenus

Supraspinatus

Deltoideus (anterior part) Coracobrachialis Sternalis Sternocleidomastoideus Scalenus Serratus Anterior Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Trapezius (middle part) Subscapularis Teres Minor Deltoideus (posterior part) Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (upper part) Splenius Capitis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) I nfraspinatus Trapezius (upper & middle part) Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi

41

Primary associated chains

B iceps Brachii Coracobrachialis

Deltoideus

I nfraspinatus

Supraspinatus Scalenus Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor

Coracobrachialis Deltoideus (anterior) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Deltoideus (anterior) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii I nfraspinatus Pectoralis Major (clavicular) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Deltoideus (anterior) Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Supraspinatus Deltoideus I nfraspinatus Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Pectoralis Minor Coracobrachialis Deltoideus (anterior) Scalenus Deltoideus (anterior) Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Scalenus
Secundary associated chains

I nfraspinatus

Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor

Teres Major Latissimus Dorsi Subscapularis Pectoralis Major Sternalis Subscapularis Sternalis Pectoralis Major

42

Shou lder - Posterior


pain focus referred pain

Deltoideus (post TP - mid TP) Serratus Posterior Superior Subscapularis Supraspinatus Teres Major Teres Minor Trapezius (TP 3 & TP 6) Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Infraspinatus (/at TP - med TP)

lIiocostalisThoracis Latissimus Dorsi Levator Scapulae Scalenus Biceps Brachii

Deltoideus (posterior)

Infraspinatus Supraspinatus

posterior part:
Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Deltoideus (anterior part) Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Iliocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus (neck) Teres Major Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major I nfraspinatus Teres Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Deltoideus (posterior) I nfraspinatus Trapezius (upper & middle part) Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Triceps Brachii (caput long u m ) Latissimus Dorsi Deltoideus (posterior) Teres Minor Su bscapularis

Serratus Posterior Superior

Subscapularis

Supraspinatus

Teres Major

43

Teres M inor

Trapezius (TP 3 & TP 6)

Triceps Brachii (caput longum)

I nfraspinatus

I nfraspinatus Latissimus Dorsi Deltoideus (posterior) Teres Major Subscapularis Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral) Supraspinatus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Pectoralis Major Scalenus Temporalis Occipitofrontalis Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Teres Minor Anconeus Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Teres Major Teres Minor Deltoideus Anterior Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi Subscapularis Pectoralis Major

44

Primary associated chains

Trapezius Supraspinatus

Teres Major

Teres Minor

Subscapularis

Triceps Brachii Deltoideus

Supraspinatus Trapezius (contralateral) Deltoideus (posterior) Trapezius I nfraspinatus Deltoideus (posterior) Subscapularis Teres Minor Triceps Brachii (caput Longum) Deltoideus (posterior) Subscapularis Supraspinatus Teres Major Infraspinatus Deltoideus (posterior) Teres Major Teres Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) I nfraspinatus Teres Major Teres Minor Supraspinatus Teres Major Triceps Brachii (caput longum) I nfraspinatus

Secundary associated chains

Serratus Posterior Superior Trapezius Teres Minor

Scalenus I liocostalis Thoracis Levator Scapulae Scalenus Biceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi

45

Shou lder - Lateral


pain focus referred pain

Coracobrachialis Supraspinatus Teres Major Deltoideus (middle part) Infraspinatus Subscapularis Serratus Posterior Superior Pectoralis Minor Pectoralis Major (clav) Scalenus

Deltoideus (posterior part) Deltoideus (anterior part) Scalenus Teres Minor Levator Scapulae (UTP) Latissimus Dorsi (UTP)

Coracobrachialis

Su praspinatus

Teres Major

Deltoideus (middle) I nfraspinatus

Subscapularis

Deltoideus Biceps Brachii Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii I nfraspinatus Trapezius (upper & middle part) Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Latissimus Dorsi Deltoideus (posterior) Teres Minor Subscapularis I nfraspinatus Supraspinatus Teres Major Teres Minor Deltoideus Supraspinatus B iceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi Subscapularis Pectoralis Major Teres Major Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major I nfraspinatus Teres Minor Triceps Brachi i (caput longum) Deltoideus (posterior)

46

Serratus Posterior Superior

Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal)

Pectoralis M inor

Scalenus

Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Iliocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus (neck) Deltoideus Coracobrachialis Sternalis Sternocleidomastoideus Scalenus Serratus Anterior Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Trapezius (middle part) Subscapularis Teres Minor Pectoralis Major Deltoideus Scalenus Sternocleidomastoideus Sternalis Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (upper part) Splenius Capitis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brach ii (caput longum) Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger)

47

Primary associated chains

S u praspinatus Deltoideus Coracobrachialis Teres Major I nfraspinatus

Subscapularis

Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal)

Pectoralis Minor

Scalenus

Deltoideus I nfraspinatus I nfraspinatus Supraspinatus Deltoideus Supraspinatus Deltoideus Subscapularis Teres Major Deltoideus Supraspinatus Subscapularis Pectoralis Major Teres Major Pectoralis Major I nfraspinatus Deltoideus Deltoideus Coracobrachialis Scalenus Subscapularis Pectoralis Major Deltoideus Scalenus Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor

Secundary associated chains

Teres Major Su praspinatus I nfraspinatus Su bscapularis Pectoralis Major

Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres M inor Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres Minor Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres Minor Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres Minor Deltoideus

48

Upperarm - Anterior
pain focus referred pain

Biceps Brachii Scalenus Subclavius Triceps Brachii (caput mediale)

Brachialis I nfraspinatus ( upper 2 TPs) Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major (sternal & costal) Pectoralis Minor Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior S u perior Sternalis Supraspinatus Deltoideus (ant - mid) Subscapu laris

Biceps Brachii

Scalenus

Brachialis Supinator Triceps Brachii Deltoideus Supraspinatus Trapezius Coracobrachialis Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (upper part) Splenius Capitis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachi i (caput longum) Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Teres M inor Anconeus Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Subclavius Triceps Brachii

49

Secundary associated chains

Scalenus

Biceps Brachii

Brachialis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii Brachialis Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii Deltoideus

50

Upperarm - Posterior
pain focus referred pain

Coracobrachialis Scalenus Triceps Brachii (caput laterale) Supraspinatus

Deltoideus (ant - post) Latissimus Dorsi (UTP) Levator Scapulae (UTP) Serratus Posterior Superior Subscapularis Teres Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) I nfraspinatus (upper 2 Tps) Teres Major Deltoideus Biceps B rach ii Supraspinatus Triceps Brachi i Sternocleidomastoideus Trapeziu s (u pper part) Splenius Capitis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Teres Minor Anconeus Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus I nfraspinatus Trapezius (upper & middle part) Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi

Coracobrachialis

Scalenus

Triceps Brachii

Supraspinatus

51

Primary associated chains

Coracobrachialis

Secundary associated chains

Coracobrachialis Supraspinatus

Triceps Brachii

Deltoideus Triceps Brachii I nfraspinatus Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Teres Minor

52

Upperarm - Lateral
pain focus referred pain

Scalenus Teres Major Triceps Brachii (caput latera/e)

. I nfraspinatus Deltoideus Supraspinatus Teres Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Levator Scapulae Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (upper part) Splenius Capitis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitoru m (ring finger) Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Latissimus Dorsi Deltoideus (posterior) Teres Minor Subscapularis Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Teres M inor Anconeus Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Scalenus

Teres Major

Triceps Brachii (caput laterale)

Secundary associated chains

Teres Major

Deltoideus Teres Minor Triceps Brachii

53

El bow - Epicondyl us Lateralis


pain focus referred pain

Anconeus Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Serratus Posterior Superior Supinator Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii (caput mediale & longum)

I nfraspinatus (upper 2 TPs) Subclavius Teres Major Deltoideus (anterior & posterior)

Anconeus

Brachioradialis

Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger)

Serratus Posterior Superior

Supinator

Triceps Brachii Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator Triceps Brachii (caput longum & mediale) Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Scalenus Pectoralis Minor Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor I liocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus (neck) Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Anconeus Brachialis Biceps Brachii Palmaris LonQus

54

Supraspinatus

Triceps Brachii

Infraspinatus Trapezius (u pper & middle part ) Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Teres Minor Anconeus Supinator Brachiorad ialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Primary associated chains

Triceps Brachii

Anconeus

Brachioradialis

Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator

Anconeus Brachiorad ialis Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator Triceps Brachii Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Anconeus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Triceps Brachii

Secundary associated chains

Supraspinatus

I nfraspinatus Deltoideus

55

El bow - E picondyl us Medialis


pain focus referred pain

Triceps Brachii (caput mediale) Pectoralis Major (sternal part)

Pectoralis Minor Sternalis Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Superior Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Teres Minor Anconeus Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Deltoideus (anterior part) Coracobrachialis Sternalis Sternocleidomastoideus Scalenus Serratus Anterior Rhomboidei Trapezius (middle part) Subscapularis Teres Minor Deltoideus (posterior part)

Triceps Brachii

Pectoralis Major

Secundary associated chains

Pectoralis Major

Sternalis Serratus Anterior

56

El bow - Olecranon
pain focus referred pain

Triceps Brachii (caput mediale & longum) Scalenus Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Superior Supraspinatus Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
Triceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Teres Minor Anconeus Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor I liocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus (neck) Triceps Brachi i Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Anconeus Brachialis Biceps Brachii Palmaris Longus I nfraspinatus Trapezius (upper & middle part ) Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Scalenus Pectoralis Minor

Serratus Posterior Superior

Supinator

Supraspinatus

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

Primary associated chains

Triceps Brachii Supi nator

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

57

.Elbow - Antecubital
p a i n focus referred pain

Biceps Brachii Supinator


Biceps Brachii

Brachialis I nfraspinatus Brachialis Supinator Triceps B rachii Deltoideus Supraspinatus Trapezius Coracobrachialis Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Anconeus Brachialis Biceps Brachii Palmaris Longus

Supinator

Secundary associated chains

Biceps Brachii Supinator

Supinator Brachialis B rachialis Biceps Brachii

58

Forearm - Volar

pain focus

referred pain

Pectoralis Major (sternal)

Subclavius Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris I nfraspinatus Latissimus Dorsi Palmaris Longus Pectoralis Major Pectoralis M inor Pronator Teres Scalenus Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Superior Supraspinatus Triceps Brachi i (caput mediale) Brachioradialis Deltoideus (anterior part) Coracobrachialis Sternalis Sternocleidomastoideus Scalenus Serratus Anterior Rhomboidei Trapezius (middle part) Subscapularis Teres Minor Deltoideus (posterior part)

Pectoralis Major

59

Forearm - Dorsal
pain focus referred pain

Coracobrachialis Subclavius

Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) I nfraspinatus Latissimus Dorsi Levator Scapulae Scalenus Serratus Posterior Superior Supraspinatus Teres Major Triceps Brachii Deltoideus Biceps Brachii Su praspinatus Triceps Brachii

Coracobrachialis

Subclavius

Secundary associated chains

Coracobrachialis

60

Forearm-Rad ial
pain focus referred pain

Subclavius

Brachioradialis Infraspinatus Scalenus Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii Pronator Teres Flexor Carpi Radialis

I Subclavius

61

Forearm - Ulnar
pain focus referred pain

Pectoralis Major (sternal)

Teres Major Triceps Brachii Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Serratus Anterior Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Latissimus Dorsi Levator Scapulae Serratus Posterior Superior Palmaris Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (rinQ finQer) Deltoideus (anterior part) Coracobrachialis Sternalis Sternocleidomastoideus Scalenus Serratus Anterior Rhomboidei Trapezius (middle part) Subscapularis Teres Minor Deltoideus (posterior part)

Pectoralis Major

62

Hand Dorsal side & Wrist


pain focus referred pain

Brachialis Brachioradialis Coracobrachialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Extensor Indicis Scalenus Serratus Posterior Superior Subscapularis Supinator

Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Latissimus Dorsi (UTP) Levator Scapulae (UTP) Scalenus Subclavius Supraspinatus Infraspinatus (upper 2 TPs) Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Interosseus Dorsalis 1 Abductor Digiti Minimi

Brachialis

Brachioradialis

Coracobrachialis

Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Brevis

Scalenus

Biceps Brachii Brach ioradialis Supinator Adductor Pollicis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator Triceps B rachii Deltoideus Biceps Brachi i Supraspinatus Triceps B rachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus Pectoralis Minor Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (upper part) Splenius Capitis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis M inor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger)

63

Serratus Posterior Superior

Supinator

Extensor Car pi Ulnaris Extensor I ndicis

Subscapularis

Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Iliocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus (neck) Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Anconeus Brachialis B iceps Brachii Palmaris Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Deltoideus(posterior) Teres Major Teres Minor Triceps Brachii(caput longum ) Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major I nfraspinatus

64

Primary associated chains

Brachialis Brachioradialis Supinator Extensor I ndicis Scalenus

Brachioradialis Supinator Extensor Carpi Supinator Brachialis Extensor Carpi Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Supinator Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi

Rad ialis Brevis

Rad ialis Brevis Ulnaris

Radialis Brevis

Secundary associated chains

Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Brevis Subscapularis

Supinator Scalenus

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor Diqitorum (middle finger) Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus Latissimus Dorsi I nfraspinatus Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Triceps Brachii

65

Hand - Wrist - Radial


pain focus referred pain

Brachialis Flexor Carpi Radialis Pronator Teres Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Indicis Opponens Pollicis Coracobrachialis Subscapularis Scalenus Adductor Pollicis

Flexor Pollicis Longus I nfraspinatus I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2 Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Subclavius Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supraspinatus

Brachialis

Flexor Carpi Radialis

Pronator Teres

Supinator

Brachioradialis

Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Brevis

Biceps Brachii Brachiorad ialis Supinator Adductor Pollicis Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profu ndus Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus Flexor Pollicis Longus Triceps Brachi i Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Anconeus Brachialis Biceps Brachii Palmaris Longus Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus Pectoralis Minor

66

Extensor Ind icis

Opponens Pollicis Coracobrachialis

Subscapularis

Scalenus

Adductor Pollicis

Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Ulnaris I nterosseu s Dorsalis 1 & 2 Adductor Pollicis Deltoideus Biceps Brachii Supraspinatus Triceps Brachi i Deltoideus(posterior) Teres Major Teres Minor Triceps Brachii(caput longum) Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major Infraspinatus Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius ( upper part) Splenius Capitis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachi i (caput longu m) Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor DiQitorum (rinQ finQer) Interosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2 Opponens Pollicis Flexor Pollicis Brevis Abductor Pollicis Brevis

67

Primary associated chains

Brachialis

Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Indicis Scalenus

Brachioradialis Supinator Adductor Pollicis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Brachialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Scalenus Supinator Brachioradialis Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

Secundary associated chains

Flexor Carpi Radialis Pronator Teres Brachioradialis Opponens Pollicis Subscapularis Scalenus

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Coracobrachialis

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Triceps Brachii Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2 Adductor Pollicis Triceps Brachii(caput longum) I nfraspinatus Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii

68

Hand Volar side & Wrist


pain focus referred pain

Adductor Pollicis Brachialis Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Opponens Pollicis Palmaris Longus Pronator Teres Serratus Posterior Superior

Extensor Digitorum ( m iddle finger) Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus I nfraspinatus I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2 (fingers) Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Minor Pectoralis Major (sternal) Serratus Anterior Subclavius Subscapularis F lexor Pollicis Longus Scalenus

Brachia lis

Adductor Pollicis

Flexor Carpi Radialis

Flexor Carpi U l naris

Opponens Poll icis Palmaris Longus

Pronator Teres

Biceps Brachii Brachioradialis Supi nator Adductor Pollicis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2 Opponens Pollicis Flexor Pollicis Brevis Abductor Poll icis Brevis Flexor Digitorum Su perficialis Profu ndus Flexor Carpi Ul naris Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Digitorum Su perficialis Profu ndus Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Pollicis Longus I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2 Abd uctor Digiti M i n i m i Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Digitorum Su perficialis Profu ndus Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ul naris Flexor Digitorum Su perficialis Profundus Flexor Pollici" Longus

&

&

&

&

69

Serratus Posterior Superior

Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Rhom boideus Minor I l i ocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus (neck)

Primary associated chains

Pronator Teres Palmaris Longus

Flexor Flexor Flexor Flexor

Carpi Carpi Carpi Carpi

Radialis Ulnaris Radialis Ulnaris

Secundary associated chains

Flexor Carpi Radialis

Flexor Carpi Ul naris

Palmaris Longus

Pronator Teres

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Profundus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Profundus Flexor Carpi Radia lis Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Digitoru m Superficia lis Profu ndus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Profu ndus Flexor Pollicis Longus

& &

& &

70

Hand - Wrist - U l na r
pain focus referred pain

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Serratus Posterior Superior Scalenus Subscapularis

Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Flexor Dig itorum Superficialis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2 Abductor Dig iti Mini m i Levator Scapulae ( UTP) Latissim us Dorsi Serratus Anterior Pectoralis M i nor Pectoralis Major ( sternal ) Triceps Brach i i Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Flexor Dig itorum Su perficialis & Profundus Flexor Carpi Radia lis Flexor Pollicis Longus Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus M i nor I l iocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus (neck) Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius ( upper part) Splenius Capitis Pectora lis Major Pectora lis M i nor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Dig itorum ( m iddle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring fi nger) Deltoideus (posterior) Teres Major Teres M i nor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Latissi mus Dorsi Pectoralis Major I nfraspi natus

Extensor Carpi Ul naris Flexor Carpi Ul naris

Serratus Posterior Su perior

Scalenus

Subscapu laris

71

Secundary associated chains

Subscapularis Scalenus

Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major Triceps Brachii Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Pectoralis Minor Extensor Digitorum (ring finger)

72

F i ngers - Dorsal
pain focus referred pain

Abductor Digiti Minimi (little finger) Brachialis (thumb) Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Interosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2 (thumb, index, middle finger) Scalenus (thumb & index) Serratus Posterior Superior (little finger)

Adductor Pollicis (thumb) Extensor Indicis ( index) Latissimus Dorsi (little finger, ring finger) Subclavius (thumb, i ndex, middle finger) Triceps Brachii (caput laterale) (ring finger) Scalenus (all fingers) I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2 (little finger) Coracobrachialis (middle finger) Levator Scapulae (little finger, ring finger) I nfraspinatus

Abductor Digiti Minimi Brachialis

Extensor Digitorum (middle finger)

Extensor Digitorum (ring finger)

Interosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2

Biceps Brachi i Brachiorad ialis Supinator Adductor Pollicis Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis M inor Pectoralis Major Scalenus Triceps Brachii Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus Flexor Pollicis Longus Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Brevis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor I ndicis

73

Scalenus

Serratus Posterior Superior

Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius Splenius Capitis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor I liocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus (neck)

Primary associated chains

Interosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2

Scalenus Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger)

Secundary associated chains

I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2

Latissimus Dorsi Triceps Brachii Flexor Pollicis Longus Extensor I ndicis

74

F i ngers Volar
-

pain focus

referred pain

Flexor Pollicis Longus (thumb) Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus (little finger, ring finger, middle finger) Opponens Pollicis (thumb) Serratus Posterior Superior

Subclaviu s (thumb, index, middle finger) I nfraspinatus (index, m iddle finger) Adductor Pollicis (thumb) Serratus Anterior (little finger, ring finger) Pectoralis Major (sternal) (little finger, ring finger, middle finger) Pectoralis Minor (little finger, ring finger, middle finger) Triceps Brachii (caput mediale) (little finger, ring finger) Latissimus Dorsi (little finger, ring finger) Interosseus Dorsalis 1

Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus Opponens Pollicis (thumb) Serratus Posterior Superior

Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Pollicis Lonqus Adductor Pollicis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 I nterosseus Dorsalis 2 Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor I liocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Multifid us (neck)

Secundary associated chains

Opponens Pollicis (thumb)

Adductor Pollicis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1

75

Chest - Front
pain focus referred pain

Pectoralis Ma jor (sternal, costal) Pectoralis Minor Sternalis Subclavius Scalenus Serratus Anterior
Pectoralis Major

I liocostalis Thoracis (UTP) Obliquus Externus Abdom inis Platysma Serratus Posterior Superior Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Major (clavicular) Deltoideus Coracobrachialis Sternalis Sternocleidomastoideus Sca lenus Serratus Anterior Rhom boideus Major Rhom boideus Mi nor Trapezius ( m iddle part) Subscapularis Teres Minor Pectora lis Major Deltoideus (anterior part) Scalenus Sternocleidomastoideus Sternalis Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Major Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius ( u pper part) Splenius Capitis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Mi nor Triceps Brachii (caput long um) Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Longus Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum ( m iddle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Latissimus Dorsi Scalenus Sternocleidomastoideus

Pectora lis Minor

Sternalis Subclavius Sca lenus

Serratus Anterior

76

Primary associated chains

Pectoralis Minor

Pectoralis Major Scalenus

Pectoralis Major Sternalis Scalenus Scalenus Sternalis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor

Secundary associated chains

Serratus Anterior Pectoralis Minor Sternalis Scalenus

Sternocleidomastoideus Scalenus Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Major Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Major Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Major

77

Chest - Side
pain focus referred pain

Serratus Anterior
Serratus Anterior

Latissimus Dorsi Latissimus Dorsi Scalenus Sternocleidomastoideus

78

Abdomen
pain focus referred pain

Rectus Abdominis (Mc Burney) Obliquus Externus Abdominis Iliocostalis Thoracis (UTP) Pyramidalis

M ultifidus ( back) ( L2, S 1 ) Obliquus Externus Abdominis Quadratus Lumborum (superficial part) Pectineus Latissimus Dorsi Adductor Magnus I liopsoas Obliquus Externus Abdom inus Add uctor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Gracilis Rectus Abdominis Add uctor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Gracilis Pectineus Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lu mborum Serratus Posterior Superior Serratus Posterior I nferior

Rectus Abdom inis

Obliquus Extern us Abdominis

I liocostalis Thoracis

Pyramidalis

Secundary associated chains

Rectus Abdominis Obliquus Externus Abdominis

Obliquus Externus Abdominis Adductor Magnus Rectus Abdo minis Adductor Magnus

79

Buttock
pain focus referred pain

Gluteus Medius (med TP & mid TP) Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Maximus Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis (UTP) Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Piriformis (lat. TP) Gluteus Minimus Multifidus (back) (S4) Obturatorius Internus Levator Ani Sphincter Ani Coccygeus

I l iopsoas Multifidus ( back) (S1 )

Gl uteus Medius

Quadratus Lumborum

G l uteus Maximus

I l iocosta lis Lumborum

Piriformis Gl uteus Maximus Gl uteus Minimus Tensor Fascia latae Quadratus Lu mborum (other side) I l i opsoas I l i ocostalis Lu mborum Obliquus Externus Abdominus Latissimus Dorsi Gl uteus Medius Gluteus M i n i mus Gluteus Medius Gluteus M i n i mi s Biceps Femoris Semitendi nosus Sem i membranosus Longissimus Thoracis I l i ocostalis Thoracis I liocostalis Lumborum I l iopsoas Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Femoris - Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior

80

Longissimus Thoracis

Sem imembranosus

Semitendi nosus

Piriformis

Gluteus Minimus

Multifidus ( back)

Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior Adductor Magnus . Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quad riceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Gastrocnemius Semitendinosus Biceps Femoris I l i opsoas Quadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdominis I l i ocostalis Thoracis I l i ocostalis Lumboru m Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus Add uctor Magnus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Latera lis Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quad riceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Gastrocnemius Semimembranosus Biceps Femoris I l i opsoas Quadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdominis I l i ocostalis Thoracis I l i ocostalis Lu mborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus Gluteus M i n imus (posterior part) Levator Ani Coccygeus Gl uteus Maximus Pi riformis Gl uteus Maxi mus Gl uteus Medius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Peroneus Longus Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fasciae Latae Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lu mborum Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior

Obturatorius I ntern us Sphincter Ani

81

Levator Ani Coccygeus

Primary associated chains

Gl uteus Medius

Q uadratus Lum borum

Gluteus Maximus

Semitendinosus

Semimem bra nosus

Piriform is

Gl uteus M i n i mus

Pi riformis Gl uteus Maximus Gl uteus M i n i m us Tensor Fascia latae Quadratus Lumborum (other side) I l i ocostalis Lumborum Gluteus Medius Gluteus M i nimus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimis Semitendi nosus Sem i mem branosus Longissimus Thoracis I liocostalis Lu mborum Sem i membranosus Q uadratus Lu mborum I l i ocostalis Lu mborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus Semitend i nosus Quadratus Lumborum I l i ocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis M u ltifidus Gluteus Minimus (posterior part) Levator An i Coccygeus Gluteus Maxi mus Pi riformis Gl uteus Maxi mus Gl uteus Medius Quadratus Lu mborum
Secundary associated chains

Sem itendinosus Semimem branosus

I l i opsoas M ultifidus I l i opsoas Multifidus

82

G ro i n
pain focus referred pain

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus (UTP) Pectineus Obliquus Externus Abdominus (UTPs)
Adductor Brevis

. I liopsoas Piriformis Quadratus Lu mborum Rectus Abdomi nus Q uadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Pectineus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Gracilis I l i opsoas Rectus Abdominus Addutor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Gracilis Pectineus

Adductor Longus

Add uctor Mag nus

Pecti neus

Obliquus Externus Abdominus

83

Primary associated chains

Obliquus Externus Abdominus

Pectineus Adductor Brevis Add u ctor Longus

Adductor Magnus

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Pectineus

84

H i p - Anterior
pain focus referred pain

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus (UTP) Pectineus Obliquus Externus Abdominus (UTPs) Iliopsoas (UTP) Sartorius (UTP)
Add uctor Brevis

Quadratus Lum borum Quadriceps Vastus I ntermed ius Rectus Abdominus

Adductor Longus

Add uctor Mag nus

Pectineus

Obliquus Externus Abdominus

I liopsoas

Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pecti neus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pecti neus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Pecti neus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Gracilis I l i opsoas Rectus Abdominus Addutor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Gracilis Pectineus Quadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdominus Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Tensor Fascia Latae Pectineus Semitendinosus Semimem bra nosus Biceps Femoris Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Gluteus M i n i mus I l i ocostalis Thoracis

Medialis

Medialis

Medialis

Femoris

85

Sartorius

Long issimus Thoracis I liocostalis Lumborum Trapezius Splen ius Cervi cis Levator Scapulae Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus Multifidus (neck) Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Add uctor Magnus Gracilis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Med ialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris

Primary associated chains

Obliquus Externus Abdominus

Pecti neus

Add uctor Brevis

Adductor Longus

Adductor Magnus

Sartorius

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus I l i opsoas Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Add uctor Magnus

Secundary associated chains

I liopsoas

Quadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdominus

86

Hip
pain focus

Lateral
referred pain

Gluteus Maximus (Iat UTP) Gluteus Medius (mid TP) Piriformis (Iat TP) Quadratus Lumborum (superficial) Tensor Fascia Latae Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis (TP3, 4,5) Gluteus Minimus (ant)
Gluteus Maxi mus

Gluteus M i n i mus ( post) I liocostalis Lum borum Gl uteus Medius (med TP) Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateral i s (TP2)

Gl uteL's Med ius

Pi riformis

Quadratus Lu mborum

Tensor Fascia Latae

Gluteus Minimus

Gl uteus Med ius Gluteus M i n i m i s Biceps Femoris Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Longissi m us Thoracis I l i ocostalis Thoracis I l i ocostalis Lumborum I l iopsoas Q uadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Piriform is Gluteus Maxi mus Gl uteus M i n imus Tensor Fascia Latae Gluteus M i n i mus Levator Ani Coccygeus Gl uteus Maximus Quadratus lumborum (other side) I l iopsoas I l i ocostalis Lumborum Obliquus Externus Abdominis Latissimus Dorsi Gl uteus Med i us Gluteus M i n i m us Gluteus Minimus Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris I l i opsoas Sartorius Piriform is Gl uteus Maxi mus Gluteus Med ius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Peroneus Longus Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fasciae Latae

87

Primary associated chains

Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus

Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Tensor Fascia Latae Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fasciae Latae
Secundary associated chains

Quadratus Lumboru m Gluteus Maximus

I l iocostalis Lumborum Gluteus Minimus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimis I l iocostalis Lumborum

88

Th i g h - Med ial
pain focus referred pain

Adductor Magnus (UTP) Gracilis Sartorius (UTPs) Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis (UTP)
Adductor Magnus

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis ( UTP)

Gracilis Sartorius

Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Pectineus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Sartori us Add uctor Brevis Add uctor Longus Adductor Magnus Gracilis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Quadriceps Femoris Rectus I l iopsoas Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Sartorius

Medialis

Medialis Femoris Femoris Lateralis I ntermed i us

Primary associated chains

Sartorius

Adductor Magnus Gracilis Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Medialis


Secundary associated chains

Adductor Mag nus

Sartori us

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadri ceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

89

Th i g h - Anterior
pain focus referred pain

Adductor Magnus (UTP) Iliopsoas (UTP) Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Intermedius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis (UTP) Sartorius (UTPs)

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis ( UTP) Tensor Fascia Latae Pectineus

Adductor Magnus

I l i opsoas

Quad riceps Femoris Vastus I ntermed ius

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Pectineus Quad riceps Vastus Med ialis Quadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdom inus Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Tensor Fascia Latae Pecti neus Semitend i nosus Semi membranosus Biceps Femoris Gl uteus Maxi mus Gl uteus Med ius Gl uteus M i n i mus I l i ocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis I l i ocosta lis Lumborum Trapezius Splenius Cervicis Levator Scapulae Su boccipital Sternocleidomastoideus Multifidus (neck) I liopsoas Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Sartorius

Femo ..is

Lateralis Medialis Femoris

90

Sartorius

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Med i a l is ( UTP)

Add uctor Brevis Add uctor Longus Add uctor Magnus Graci lis Quad riceps Femoris Quadriceps Femoris I l i opsoas Quadriceps Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Quad riceps Femoris Sartorius

Vastus Med i a l is Rectus Femoris Rectus Femoris Vastus Lateralis Vastus I ntermed ius

Primary associated chains

Quad riceps Femoris Vastus I ntermed ius

Sartorius

I liopsoas Sartorius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Med i a l is Adductor Magnus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Med i a l is

Secundary associated chains

Quad riceps Femoris Vastus I ntermed ius Sartorius

Adductor Magnus

Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Adductor Brevis Add uctor Longus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Pecti neus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus

Femoris Med ialis

Medialis Femoris

Med i a l is

91

Th i g h - Posterior

pain focus

referred pain

Gluteus Minimus (post TP) Semimembranosus Semitendinosus

Biceps Femoris Gastrocnem ius (med UTP) Gluteus Medius (mid TP) Gluteus Maximus (med UTP) M u ltifidus ( back) (S1 ) Obtu ratorius I nternus Piriformis Q uad riceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis (TP3)

Gl uteus M i n i mus

Semi membranosus

Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Q uad riceps Femoris Vastus Peroneus Longus Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fasciae Latae Adductor Magnus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Gastrocnem ius Semitendinosus Biceps Femoris I l i opsoas Quadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdominis I l i ocostalis Thoracis 'I liocostalis Lumborum Long issimus Thoracis Multifidus

Lateralis

Latera lis Medialis I ntermed i us Femoris

92

Semitendinosus

Adductor Magnus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Gastrocnemius Semimembranosus Biceps Femoris Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumboru m Rectus Abdominis I liocostalis Thoracis I liocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus

Secundary associated chains

Semitendinosus Semimembranosus

Biceps Femoris M ultifidus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis B iceps Femoris Mu ltifidus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

93

Th i g h
pain focus

Lateral
referred pain

Gluteus Minimus (ant) Tensor Fasciae Latae Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis (TP1-TP2-TP4) Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Intermedius
Gl uteus M i n i mus

Biceps Femoris Gluteus Medius (mid TP) Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis (TP3)

Tensor Fasciae Latae

Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Latera lis

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermed ius

Pi riformis Gl uteus Maxi mus Gl uteus Med ius Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Peroneus Longus Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fasciae Latae Gluteus M i n imus Quadriceps Femoris Rectus I l i opsoas Sartorius I l i opsoas Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Sartorius Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus I liopsoas Sartorius

Latera lis

Femoris

I ntermed ius Med ialis Femoris Femoris Medialis Lateralis

Primary associated chains

Gl uteus M i n i mus

Secundary associated chains

Gl uteus M i n i mus

94

Knee - Posterior
pain focus referred pain

Biceps Femoris Plantaris Popliteus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis (TP3) Gastrocnemius (UTP med - UTP lat)

. Gastrocnemius (UTP med) Gluteus M inimus (post) Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Soleus (UTP)

Biceps Femoris

Plantaris

Popliteus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

Adductor Magnus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Q uadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Gastrocnemius Semimembranosus Semitendinosus I liopsoas Quadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdominis Iliocostalis Thoracis I liocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Gastrocnemius Soleus Tibialis Posterior Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Gluteus Minimus Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Tertius Gastrocnemius Plantaris I liopsoas Q uadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Sartorius

95

Gastrocnemius

Soleus Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Biceps Femoris Tibialis Posterior Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Gluteus Minimus

Primary associated chains

Biceps Femoris Popliteus

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Gastrocnemius Gastrocnemius Plantaris

Secundary associated chains

B iceps Femoris Plantaris

Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Gastrocnemius Gluteus Minimus Soleus

96

Knee - Anterior
pain focus referred pain

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis (TP1-TP4)
Adductor Brevis

Sartorius Gracilis

Adductor Longus

Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pecti neus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus I l iopsoas Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Sartorius I l iopsoas Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Sartorius I liopsoas Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Sartorius

Medialis

Medialis Med ialis Lateralis I ntermed ius

Femoris Lateralis I ntermedius

I ntermed ius Medialis Femoris

97

Primary associated chains

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

98

Knee - Med ial


pain focus referred pain

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Gracilis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Sartorius I liopsoas Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Latera lis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Sartorius

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Med ialis

Secundary associated chains

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Sartorius

99

Knee - Lateral
pain focus referred pain

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis (TP1 - TP2 - TP3 - TP4) Gluteus Minimus (ant)
Q uadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

Add uctor Brevis Adductor Longus Q uad riceps Femoris Rectus Femoris B iceps Femoris I liopsoas Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Sartorius Piriformis Gluteus Maxi mus Gluteus Medius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Peroneus Longus Quadratus Lu mborum Tensor Fasciae Latae

I ntermedius Medialis Femoris

Gl uteus Minimus

Lateralis

1 00

Leg - Anterior (shank)


pain focus referred pain

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Tibialis Anterior

101

Leg - Posterior (calf)


pain focu s referred pain

Gluteus Minimus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis (TP3) Soleus) (UTP med) Tibialis Posterior Gastrocnemius (UTP lat - UTP med)

Biceps Femoris Flexor Digitorum Longus Gastrocnemius (UTP med) Piriformis Plantaris Popliteus Sem imem branosus Sem itendinosus Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gl uteus Medius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Peroneus Longus Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fasciae Latae I liopsoas Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Quad riceps Femoris Rectus Sartorius Gastrocnem ius Tibialis Posterior Hall ucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Tertius Flexor Digitoru m Longus Flexor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Soleus Sem imembranosus Semitendi nosus Biceps Femoris Tibialis Posterior Flexor Hal lucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Gl uteus M i n i mus

Gl uteus Mini m us

Latera lis

Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

I ntermed i us Medialis Femoris

Soleus

Tibialis Posterior

Gastrocnem ius

1 02

Primary associated chains

Soleus

Gastrocnemius

Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Posterior Gastrocnemius Soleus Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Posterior

Secundary associated chains

Soleus Gluteus Minimus Gastrocnemius

Flexor Digitorum Longus Gastrocnemius Piriformis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Semimembranosus Semitendi nosus Biceps Femoris Flexor Digitorum Longus

1 03

Leg - Lateral
pain focus referred pain

Gluteus Minimus (ant) Peroneus Tertius

Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Longus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Piriform is Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Peroneus Longus Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fasciae Latae Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Extensor Digitoru m Longus Tibialis Posterior Gastrocnemius Soleus Gluteus M i n imus

Gluteus Minimus

Peroneus Tertius

Secundary associated chains

Gluteus M i n i m us Peroneus Tertius

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis 'Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Longus

1 04

Leg - Med ial


pain focus referred pain

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus

1 05

An kle - M a l leol us Extern us


pain focus referred pain

Gluteus Minimus (ant) Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Longus


Gl uteus M i n i mus

Q uad riceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Peroneus Tertius

Peroneus Brevis

Peroneus Longus

Piriformis Gl uteus Maximus Gl uteus Med i us Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Peroneus Longus Quadratus Lu mborum Tensor Fasciae Latae Peroneus Longus Peroneus Tertius Extensor Digitorum Longus Tibialis Posterior Gastrocnemius Soleus Gl uteus Minimus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Extensor Digitorum Longus Tibialis Posterior Gastrocnem ius Soleus Gl uteus M i n i m u s

Primary associated chains

Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Longus

Peroneus Longus G luteus Minimus Peroneus Brevis Gl uteus M i n i mus

1 06

Ankle - M a l leol us I ntern us


pai n focus referred pain

Flexor Oigitorum Longus Abductor Hallucis

Add uctor Brevis Adductor Longus Tibialis Anterior Soleus Tibialis Posterior Extensor Digitoru m Longus Extensor Digitoru m Brevis Flexor Hallucis Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Extensor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Digitoru m Brevis Flexor Hallucis Brevis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 Quadratus Plantae Add uctor Hall ucis Flexor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Digitoru m Brevis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1

Flexor Digitorum Longus

Abductor Hal lucis

1 07

Foot - Plantar
pai n focus referred pain

Abductor Digiti Minimi (toes) Abductor Hallucis Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Hallucis Longus Gastrocnemius (UTP med) Quadratus Plantae Soleus (UTP med) Interossei Dorsalis 1 Adductor Hallucis

Piriformi s Tibialis Posterior

Abductor Digiti M i n i m i (toes) Abductor Hallucis

Quadratus Plantae Adductor Hallucis Flexor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Digitorum Brevis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 Tibialis Posterior Extensor Digitoru m Longus Extensor Digitoru m Brevis Flexor Hallucis Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Extensor Hallucis Brevis F lexor Digitorum Brevis F lexor Hallucis Brevis I nterosseus Dorsa lis 1 Tibialis Posterior Extensor Digitoru m Longus Extensor Digitoru m Brevis Flexor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Extensor Haflucis Brevis F lexor Digitorum Brevis F lexor Hallucis Brevis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1

Flexor Digitoru m Brevis Flexor Digitoru m Longus

Flexor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Hallucis Longus

1 08

Gastrocnemius

Soleus Semitend inosus Semimem branosus Biceps Femoris Tibialis Posterior Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitoru m Longus Gl uteus M i n imus Gastrocnem i us Tibialis Posterior Hall ucis Longus Flexor Digitoru m Longus Gluteus M i n i mus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitoru m Longus Extensor Haliucis Longus Peroneus Tertius

Quadratus Plantae Soleus

I nterossei Dorsa lis 1 Add uctor Hallucis

Primary associated chains

Abductor Haliucis

Gastrocnem i us

Flexor Digitorum Longus

Flexor Hall ucis Longus

Quadratus Plantae Flexor Haliucis Brevis Flexor Digitoru m Brevis I nterossei Dorsa lis 1 Adductor Haliucis Flexor Digitoru m Longus F lexor Haliucis Longus Soleus F lexor Digitoru m Brevis Flexor Haliucis Longus Flexor Haliucis Brevis I nterossei Dorsalis 1 Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Haliucis Brevis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1

Secundary associated chains

Soleus

Flexor Digitorum Longus Tibialis Posterior

1 09

Foot - Dorsal
pain focus referred pain

Extensor Digitorum Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Brevis Extensor Hallucis Longus Tibialis Anterior Interosseus Dorsalis 1 Flexor Hallucis Brevis
Exte nsor Digitorum Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus

Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Longus Peroneus Tertius

Extensor Hallucis Brevis Extensor Hallucis Longus

Tibialis Anterior I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 Flexor Hallucis Brevis

Extensor Hallucis Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Hal lucis Longus Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Extensor Digitorum Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Peroneus Longus Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus

110

Primary associated chains

Extensor Digitorum Brevis

Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Brevis Extensor Hallucis Longus Tibialis Anterior

Extensor Hallucis Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis LonQus Tibialis Anterior Extenspr Hallucis LonQus Extensor Digitorum Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus

Secundary associated chains

Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus

Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius

111

Chapter 5 Myofascial Muscle Chains per muscle

1 12

Abductor Digiti Minimi (fingers)

(CB-T1 )

Chains containing the Abductor Digiti M inimi (fingers) M uscle


associated muscles Palmaris Longus

113

(
Abductor Hallucis
(L5-S 1 )

C hains starting from the Abductor Hallucis


associated muscles Quadratus Plantae Adductor Hallucis Flexor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Digitorum Brevis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1
Primary associated chains

foot - plantar

Quadratus Plantae Flexor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Digitorum Brevis I nterossei Dorsalis 1 Adductor Hallucis

1 14

Adductor Brevis

(L2-L4)

Chains starting from the Adductor Brevis


associated muscles Add uctor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Primary associated chains

groin hip - anterior knee - anterior

Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Chains containing the Adductor B revis M uscle


associated muscles Add uctor Longus Adductor Magnus Pecti neus Sartorius Rectus Abdominis Obliquus Externus Abdominis

)
115

Primary associated chains

Adductor Longus Obliquus Externus Abdominus Pectineus

knee - anterior

groin Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Obliquus Externus Abdominus Pectineus hip - anterior Adductor Longus Sartorius Adductor Magnus

Adductor Brevis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Maqnus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Iliopsoas Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Maqnus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Pectineus

116

Secundary associated chains

Sartorius thigh - anterior Adductor Magnus

Adductor Magnus thigh - medial Sartorius

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Pectineus Adductor Brevis Add uctor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

117

Adductor Hallucis

(51 -52)

C h ains containing the Adductor Hallucis M uscle


associated muscles Abductor Hallucis

Primary associated chains

Abductor Hallucis

foot - plantar

Adductor Hallucis Quadratus Plantae Flexor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Digitorum Brevis I nterossei Dorsalis 1

1 18

Adductor Longus

( L2-L4)

C hains starting from the Adductor Longus


associated muscles Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Primary associated chains

groin hip anterior


-

knee - anterior

Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Chains containing the Adductor Longus M uscle


associated muscles Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Sartorius Rectus Abdominis Obliquus Externus Abdominis

1 19

Primary associated chains

Obliquus Externus Abdominus Pectineus groin Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Obliquus Externus Abdominus Pectineus hip - anterior Adductor Brevis Sartorius Adductor Magnus Adductor Brevis knee - anterior

Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Maqnus Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Pectineus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus I liopsoas Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Pectineus Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

1 20

Secundary associated chains

Sartorius thigh - anterior Adductor Magnus

Adductor Magnus thigh - medial Sartorius

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

121

Adductor Magnus

(L2-S 1 )

C hains starting from the Adductor M agnus


associated muscles Adductor Brevis Add uctor Longus Pectineus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Primary associated chains

groin hip - anterior

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Pectineus
Secundary associated chains

thigh - medial thigh - anterior

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Pectineus

Chains containing the Adductor M agnus M uscle


associated muscles Add uctor longus Adductor Brevis Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Biceps Femoris Sartorius Rectus Abdominis Obliquus Externus Abdominis Pectineus

1 22

Primary associated chains

Obliquus Externus Abdominus Pectineus hip - anterior Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Sartorius Obliquus Externus Abdominus Pectineus groin Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Sartorius Sartorius thigh - anterior thigh - medial

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Iliopsoas Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Magnus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Magnus Gracilis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Secundary associated chains

Rectus Abdominus abdomen Obliquus Externus Abdominus

Obliquus Externus Abdominis Adductor Magnus Rectus Abdominis Adductor Magnus

1 23

Adductor Pollicis

(C8-T1 )

Chains starting from the Adductor Pollicis


associated muscles Interosseus Dorsalis 1 Opponens Pollicis Flexor Pollicis Brevis Abductor Pollicis Brevis

C hains containing the Adductor Pollicis M uscle


associated muscles Brachialis

Primary associated chains

Brachialis

hand - wrist - radial

Brachioradialis Adductor Pollicis Supinator

Secundary associated chains

Opponens Pollicis Opponens Pollicis

hand - wrist - radial fingers - volar

I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 Adductor Pollicis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 Adductor Pollicis

1 24

Anconeus

(C7-C8)

Chains starting from the Anconeus


associated muscles Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Triceps Brachii

Primary associated chains

elbow - epicondylus lateralis

Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Triceps Brachii

Chains containing the Anconeus M u scle


associated muscles

Primary associated chains

Triceps Brachii elbow epicondylus lateralis Supinator

Anconeus Brachioradialis Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis LonQus Anconeus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Triceps Brachii

1 25

Biceps Brachii

(C5-C6)

C hains starting from the Biceps Brachii


associated muscles Brachialis Supinator Triceps Brachii Deltoideus Supraspinatus Trapezius Coracobrachialis
Primary associated chains

shoulder - anterior

Coracobrachialis Deltoideus (anterior) Supraspinatus

Secundary associated chains

arm - anterior

elbow - antecubital

Brachialis Deltoideus Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii Supi nator Brachialis

1 26

Chains containing the Biceps Brachii M uscle


associated muscles Teres M inor I nfraspinatus Deltoideus Coracobrachialis Brachialis Supinator

Primary associated chains

Coracobrachialis

Deltoideus shoulder - anterior

I nfraspinatus

Biceps Brachii Deltoideus (anterior) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii I nfraspinatus Pectoral is Major ( clavicular) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Deltoideus (anterior) Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Supraspinatus

Secundary associated chains

Teres Minor Supinator

shoulder - posterior elbow - antecubital

Latissimus Dorsi Biceps Brachii Brachialis Biceps Brachii

1 27

Biceps Femoris

(L5-S2)

Chains starting from the Biceps Femoris


Biceps Femoris Adductor Magnus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Gastrocnemius Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumboru m Rectus Abdominis Iliocostalis Thoracis Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis
Primary associated chains

knee - posterior

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Gastrocnemius

Secundary associated chains

knee - posterior

Semimembranosus Semitendinosus

C hains containing the Biceps Femoris Muscle


associated muscles Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Gluteus Maximus Gastrocnemius

1 28

Secundary associated chains

Semitendinosus thigh -posterior Semimembranosus

Gastrocnemius

leg - posterior (calf)

Biceps Femoris Multifidus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Biceps Femoris Multifidus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Biceps Femoris Flexor Digitorum Longus

1 29

Brachialis

(C5-C6)

Chains starting from the Brachialis


associated muscles Biceps Brachii Brachioradialis Supinator Adductor Pollicis

Primary associated chains

hand - dorsal side & wrist hand - wrist - radial

Brachioradialis Supinator Brachioradialis Supinator Adductor Pollicis

Chains containing the Brachialis Muscle


associated muscles Supinator Scalenus Biceps Brachii

Primary associated chains

Supinator hand - wrist - rad ial Scalenus

Supinator Scalenus hand - dorsal side & wrist

Extensor Carpi Brevis Brachialis Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Brevis Brachialis Extensor Carpi Brevis Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Brevis

Radialis

Rad ialis Radialis

Radialis

1 30

Secundary associated chains

Biceps Brachi i Supinator Scalenus arm - anterior Biceps Brachi i elbow - antecubital

Supinator Brachialis Brachialis Biceps Brachii Brachialis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii Brachialis Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii Deltoideus

131

Brachioradialis

(C5-C8)

C h ains starting from the Brachioradialis


associated muscles Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator Triceps Brachii (caput longum & medial)

Primary associated chains

elbow - epicondylus lateralis

hand - dorsal side & wrist hand - wrist - radial

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Supinator

Secundary associated chains

hand - dorsal side & wrist hand - wrist - radial

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Triceps Brachii Extensor Digitorum (middle finger)

1 32

C h ains containing the Brachioradialis M u scle


associated muscles Triceps Brachii Scalenus Brachialis Anconeus Extensor I ndicis Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor DiQitorum (middle finQer)
Primary associated chains

Brachialis Extensor Indicis hand - wrist - radial Scalenus

Brachialis hand - dorsal side & wrist Extensor I ndicis

Triceps Brachii

Anconeus

elbow epicondylus lateralis

Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Scalenus hand - dorsal side & wrist

Brachioradialis Supinator Adductor Pollicis Supinator Brach ioradialis Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Brach ioradialis Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Anconeus Brachioradialis Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Triceos Brachii Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Brevis

1 33

Coccygeus

(54-55)

Chains containing the Coccygeus M uscle


associated muscles Piriformis

Primary associated chains

Piriformis

buttock

Piriformis

back - sacral

Gluteus Minimus (posterior part) Levator Ani Coccygeus Gluteus Maximus Levator Ani Coccygeus Gluteus Maximus

1 34

Coracobrachialis

(C6-C7)

Chains starting from the Coracobrachialis


associated muscles Deltoideus Biceps Brachii Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii

Primary associated chains

shoulder - anterior shoulder - lateral arm - posterior


.

Biceps Brachii Deltoideus (anterior) Supraspinatus Deltoideus Supraspinatus Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii

Secundary associated chains

arm - posterior forearm - dorsal hand - wrist - radial

Deltoideus Triceps Brachii Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii

Chains containing the Coracobrachialis M uscle


associated muscles

1 35

Primary associated chains

Biceps Brachii shoulder - anterior Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Major shoulder - lateral

Coracobrachialis Deltoideus Supraspinatus Coracobrachialis Deltoideus Scalenus Coracobrachialis Deltoideus Scalenus Subscapularis

1 36

Deltoideus

(C4-C6)

Chains starting from the Deltoideus


associated muscles I nfraspinatus Supraspinatus
anterior part:

Pectoral is Major (clavicular part) Biceps Brachii Deltoideus (posterior part)


posterior part:

Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Deltoideus (anterior part)

Primary associated chains

shoulder - anterior

shoulder - posterior shoulder - lateral

Biceps Brachii I nfraspinatus Pectoralis Major (clavicular) Supraspinatus Supraspinatus Teres Major Triceps Brachii (caput lonQum) I nfraspinatus Supraspinatus

Chains containing the Deltoideus M uscle


associated muscles Teres M inor Teres Major Supraspinatus Pectoralis Major Pectoralis M inor I nfraspinatus Coracobrachialis Biceps Brachii

1 37

Primary associated chains

Supraspinatus

Teres Major shoulder - posterior Teres Minor

Su bscapularis

Biceps Brachi i Coracobrachialis

I nfraspinatus Supraspinatus Pectoralis Major Pectoralis M inor Su praspinatus Coracobrachialis Teres Major shoulder - lateral shoulder - anterior

I nfraspinatus

Deltoideus (posterior) Trapezius Deltoideus (posterior) Subscapularis Teres Minor Triceps Brachi i (caput Lonqum) Deltoideus (posterior) Subscapularis Supraspinatus Teres Major Deltoideus (posterior) Teres Major Teres M inor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Coracobrachialis Deltoideus (anterior) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Deltoideus (anterior) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Deltoideus (anterior) Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Supraspinatus Deltoideus Infraspinatus Coracobrachialis Deltoideus (anterior) Scalenus Deltoideus (anterior) Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Scalenus Deltoideus I nfraspinatus Deltoideus Supraspinatus Deltoideus Subscapularis Deltoideus Teres Major Supraspinatus Subscapularis Pectoralis Major

1 38

Subscapularis shoulder - lateral Pectoralis Major

Pectoralis Minor

Deltoideus Teres Major Pectoralis Major Infraspinatus Deltoideus Scalenus Subscapularis Coracobrachialis Deltoideus Scalenus Pectoralis Major

Secundary associated chains

Teres Major Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Subscapularis Pectoralis Major Teres Major Coracobrachialis arm - posterior Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Supraspinatus arm - anterior elbow epicondylus lateralis arm - lateral shoulder - lateral

Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres Minor Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres Minor Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres Minor Deltoideus Teres Minor Deltoideus Teres Minor Triceps Brachii Deltoideus Triceps Brachii I nfraspinatus Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Brachialis Su praspinatus Triceps Brachii Deltoideus I nfraspinatus Deltoideus

1 39

Digastricus
C h ains starting from the Diastricus
associated muscles

C hains containing the Digastricus M uscle


associated muscles Masseter

Primary associated chains

Masseter

teeth

Secundary associated chains

Masseter

face - lower cheek

Digastricus Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal)

1 40

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis


C hains starting from the Extensor Carpi Radialis B revis
associated muscles

(C7)

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus Pectoralis M inor

Secundary associated chains

hand - dorsal side & wrist hand - wrist - radial

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus

Chains containing the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Muscle


associated muscles Supinator Scalenus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Brachioradialis

1 41

Primary associated chains

Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus hand - wrist - radial

Brachioradialis Supinator Scalenus hand - dorsal side & wrist

Scalenus

hand - wrist - ulnar

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Brachialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Scalenus Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Supinator Brachialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Triceps Brachii Pectoralis Minor Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

1 42

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus


C hains starting from the Extensor C arpi Radialis Longus
associated muscles

(C5-C7)

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Scalenus Pectoralis Minor


Primary associated chains

hand - wrist - radial

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Scalenus

C hains containing the Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Muscle


associated muscles Triceps Brachii Scalenus Supinator Brachiorad ialis Anconeus Extensor I ndicis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Dig itorum (ring finger) Extensor Dig itorum (middle finger)

1 43

Primary associated chains

Triceps Brachii

Anconeus elbow epicondylus lateralis Brachioradialis

Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator

Triceps Brachii Supinator elbow - olecranon Supinator

Brachioradialis hand - wrist - radial Scalenus

Anconeus Brachioradialis Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator Triceps Brachii Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Anconeus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Triceps Brachii Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Brachialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Supinator Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

1 44

Secundary associated chains

Brachioradialis

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Supinator Scalenus

hand - dorsal side & wrist

Scalenus hand - wrist - radial Extensor Carpi Radialis Brev;s

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor Digitorum (middle finQer) Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Triceps Brachii Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (middle finQer) Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus

1 45

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

(C7-C8)

C hains containing the Extensor Carpi U1naris M uscle


associated muscles Extensor Indicis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor DiQitorum (rinQ finQer)

Primary associated chains

Extensor I ndicis

hand - dorsal side & wrist

Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Supinator

1 46

Extensor Digitorum (middle finger)


(C5-C8)

C hains starting from the Extensor Digitorum (middle finger)


associated muscles Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

Chains containing the Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Muscle


associated muscles Brachioradialis Scalenus Extensor DiQitorum (rinQ finQer)

Primary associated chains

I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2

fingers - dorsal

Scalenus Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (rinQ finQer)

1 47

Secundary associated chains

Brachioradialis hand - wrist - radial Scalenus

Brachioradialis

hand - dorsal side & wrist

Triceps Brachii (Extensor Digitorum middle finger) Triceps Brachii(caput longum) Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor Digitorum (middle finger)

1 48

Extensor Digitorum (ring finger)


(C5-C8) Chains starting from the Extensor Digitorum (ring finger)
associated muscles Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Ulnaris
Primary associated chains

elbow - epicondylus lateralis

Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supi nator

C hains containing the Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Muscle


associated muscles Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Scalenus Brachioradialis

Primary associated chains

I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 &2

fingers - dorsal

Brachioradialis

elbow epicondylus lateralis

Scalenus Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator Triceps Brachii

1 49

Secundary associated chains

Brachioradialis

hand - dorsal side & wrist

Scalenus

hand - wrist - ulnar

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor Digitorum (middle finQer) Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Triceps Brachii Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Pectoralis Minor

1 50

Extensor Digitorum Brevis

(51 -52)

C hains starting from the Extensor Digitorum Brevis


associated muscles Extensor Hallucis Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus

Primary associated chains

foot - dorsal

Extensor Hallucis Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis LonQus

Chains containing the Extensor Digitorum Brevis M uscle


associated muscles

Primary associated chains

Extensor Hallucis Brevis

foot - dorsal

Extensor Digitorum Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus

1 51

Extensor Digitorum Longus


C hains starting from the Extensor Digitorum Longus
associated muscles

(L5-S 1 )

Tibialis Anterior Extensor Haliucis Longus Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius

Primary associated chains

foot - dorsal

Tibialis Anterior Extensor Hallucis Lon us

Secundary associated chains

foot - dorsal

Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius

C hains containing the Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle


associated muscles Tibialis Anterior Soleus Plantaris Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Flexor Haliucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Extensor Haliucis Brevis

1 52

Primary associated chains

Extensor Digitorum Brevis

Extensor Hallucis Brevis foot - dorsal

Extensor Hallucis Longus Tibialis Anterior

Extensor Hallucis Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Extensor Digitorum Brevis Extensor D igitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis LonQus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis LonQus

1 53

Extensor Hallucis Brevis

(51 -52)

C h ains starting from the Extensor Hallucis Brevis


associated muscles Extensor Digitorum Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus

Primary associated chains

foot - dorsal

Extensor Digitorum Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus

C h ains containing the Extensor Hallucis Brevis M uscle


associated muscles

Primary associated chains

Extensor Digitorum Brevis

foot - dorsal

Extensor Hallucis Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus

1 54

Extensor Hallucis Longus

( L4-S 1 )

Chains starting from the Extensor Hallucis Longus


associated muscles Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius
Primary associated chains

foot - dorsal us
Secundary associated chains

foot . dorsal

Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius

C hains containing the Extensor Hallucis Longus M uscle


associated muscles Tibialis Anterior Soleus Plantaris Flexor Hal lucis Longus Flexor Dig itorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Brevis

1 55

Primary associated chains

Extensor Digitorum Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus foot - dorsal Extensor Hallucis Brevis

Tibialis Anterior

Extensor Hallucis Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Hallucis Longus Extensor Digitorum Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus

1 56

Extensor Indicis

(CB-T1 )

Chains starting from the Extensor I ndicis


associated muscles Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Ulnaris

Primary associated chains

hand - dorsal side & wrist

hand - wrist - radial

Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Longus Supinator Supinator Brachioradialis

Chains containing the Extensor I ndicis M uscle

Secundary associated chains

Interosseus Dorsalis 1 &2

fingers - dorsal

Latissimus Dorsi Triceps Brachii Flexor Pollicis Longus Extensor Indicis

1 57

Flexor Carpi Radialis

(CB-T1 )

Chains starting from the Flexor C arpi Radialis


associated muscles Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Pollicis Longus

Secundary associated chains

hand - wrist - radial hand - volar side & wrist

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus

C hains containing the Flexor C arpi Radialis M uscle


associated muscles Pronator Teres Palmaris Longus Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus

Primary associated chains

Pronator Teres Palmaris Longus

hand - volar side & wrist

Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

1 58

Secundary associated chains

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

hand - volar side & 'tIrist hand - wrist - radial

Pronator Teres

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Pollilcis Longus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

1 59

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

(C8-T1 )

C hains starting from the Flexor Carpi U1naris


associated muscles Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Pollicis Longus
Secundary associated chains

hand - volar side & wrist

Flexor Digitorum Superficial is & Profundus Flexor Carpi Radialis

C hains containing the Flexor C arpi Ulnaris Muscle


associated muscles Pronator Teres Palmaris Longus Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus

Primary associated chains

Pronator Teres Pal maris Longus hand - volar side & wrist

Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

Secundary associated chains

Flexor Carpi Radialis

hand - volar side & wrist

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus

1 60

Flexor Digitorum Brevis

(L5-S1 )

Chains containing the Flexor Digitorum Brevis M uscle


associated muscles Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Abductor Hallucis

Primary associated chains

Abductor Hallucis

Flexor Digitorum Longus foot - plantar

Flexor Hallucis Longus

Quadratus Plantae Flexor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Digitorum Brevis I nterossei Dorsalis 1 Adductor Hallucis Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Hallucis Brevis I nterossei Dorsalis 1 Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Brevis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1

1 61

Flexor Digitorum Longus

(51 -53)

Chains starting from the Flexor Digitorum Longus


associated muscles Tibialis Posterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Hallucis Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Extensor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Hal/ucis Brevis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1

Primary associated chains

foot - plantar

Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Hallucis Brevis Interossei Dorsalis 1

Chains containing the Flexor Digitorum Longus M uscle


associated muscles Tibialis Posterior Soleus Plantaris Gastrocnemius Flexor Hallucis Lonqus

1 62

Primary associated chains

Gastrocnemius foot - plantar Flexor Hallucis Longus

Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Longus Soleus Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Brevis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1

Secundary associated chains

Soleus leg - posterior (calf) Gastrocnemius

Soleus

foot - plantar

Flexor Digitorum Longus Gastrocnemius Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Biceps Femoris Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Tibialis Posterior

1 63

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Profundus (C7-T1 )


C hains starting from the Flexor Superficialis & P rofundus
associatiespieren Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Pollicis Longus

&

C hains containing the Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & P rofundus M uscle


associated muscles Pronator Teres Palmaris Longus Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Carpi Radialis
Secundary associated chains

Flexor Carpi Radialis

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris hand - volar side & wrist

Palmaris Longus

Pronator Teres

Flexor Carpi Radialis hand - wrist - radial Pronator Teres

Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundusi Flexor Digtorum Superficialis & Profundus Flexor Pollicis LonQus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Pollilcis Longus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

1 64

Flexor Hallucis Brevis

(LS-S1 )

Chains containing the Flexor Hallucis Brevis M uscle


associated muscles Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Abductor Hallucis

Primary associated chains

Abductor Hallucis foot - plantar Flexor Digitorum Longus

Flexor Hallucis longus

Quadratus Plantae Flexor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Digitorum Brevis I nterossei Dorsalis 1 Adductor Hallucis Flexor Digitorum Brevis F lexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Hallucis Brevis Interossei Dorsalis 1 Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Brevis Interosseus Dorsalis 1

1 65

Flexor Hallucis Longus

(51 -53)

Chains starting from the Flexor Hallucis Longus


associated muscles Tibialis Posterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Extensor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Hallucis Brevis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1
Primary associated chains

foot - plantar

Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Brevis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1

Chains containing the Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle


associated muscles Tibialis Posterior Soleus Plantaris Gastrocnemius Flexor Digitorum Longus
Primary associated chains

Gastrocnemius foot - plantar Flexor Digitorum Longus

Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Longus Soleus Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Hallucis Brevis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1

1 66

Flexor Pollicis Longus

(C6-C8)

Chains containing the Flexor Pollicis Longus M u scle


associated muscles Palmaris Longus Adductor Poll icis Flexor Digitorum Superficial is & Profundus Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Carpi Radialis

Secundary associated chains

Palmaris Longus hand - volar side & wrist Pronator Teres

Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus

Flexor Carpi Radialis hand - wrist - radial Pronator Teres

nterosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2

fingers - dorsal

Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Pollilcis Longus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Latissimus Dorsi Triceps Brachii Flexor Pollicis Longus Extensor Ind icis

1 67

Gastrocnemi US

(51 -52)

Chains starting from the Gastrocnemius


Gastrocnemius Soleus Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Biceps Femoris Tibialis Posterior Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Gluteus Minimus
Primary associated chains

leg - posterior (calf)

Soleus Gluteus M inimus Tibialis Posterior


Secundary associated chains

leg - posterior (calf)

foot - plantar

Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Biceps Femoris Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Longus Soleus

C hains containing the Gastrocnemius M uscle


associated muscles Soleus Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Popliteus Plantaris Peroneus Tertius Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Biceps Femoris

1 68

Primary associated chains

Biceps Femoris knee -, posterior Popliteus Soleus leg - posterior (calf)

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Gastrocnemius Gastrocnemius Plantaris Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Posterior Gastrocnemius

Secundary associated chains

Plantaris Soleus

knee - posterior leg - posterior (calf)

Gastrocnemius Gluteus Minimus Soleus Flexor Digitorum Longus Gastrocnemius

1 69

Gluteus Maximus

(L5-S2)

Chains starting from the Gluteus M aximus


associated muscles Gluteus Medius (posterior part) Gluteus Minimis (posterior part) Biceps Femoris Semitend inosus Semimembranosus Longissimus Thoracis Iliocostalis Thoracis Iliocostalis Lumboru m I l iopsoas Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris

Primary associated chains

back - sacral buttock

Gluteus Medius Longissimus Thoracis I liopsoas Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimis Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Longissimus Thoracis I liocostalis Lumborum

Secundary associated chains

back - sacral

I liocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis I liopsoas

C hains containing the Gluteus M aximus M uscle


associated muscles Piriformis Gluteus Minimus Gluteus Medius

1 70

Primary associated chains

Gluteus Medius Piriformis back - sacral I liopsoas

Gluteus Medius hip - lateral Gluteus Minimus

Gluteus Medius

buttock Piriformis

Gluteus Minimus

Gluteus Maximus Piriformis Levator Ani Coccygeus Gluteus Maximus Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Medius Gluteus Maximus Longissimus Thoracis Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Tensor Fascia Latae Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fascia Latae Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus Tensor Fascia latae Gluteus Minimus (posterior part) Levator Ani Coccygeus Gluteus Maximus Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumboru m

1 71

Gluteus Medius

(L4-LS)

C h ains starting from the Gluteus M edius


associated muscles Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus (posterior part) Tensor Fascia latae

Primary associated chains

back - sacral buttock

Gluteus Maximus Piriformis Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus Tensor Fascia latae

C hains containing the Gluteus M edius M uscle


associated muscles Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus Quadratus Lumborum

1 72

Primary associated chains

Quadratus Lumborum back - SIJ Iliopsoas

Gluteus Maximus Quadratus Lumborum back - sacral

Iliopsoas

Quadratus Lumborum back - lu mbar I liopsoas Quadratus Lumborum

hip - lateral Gluteus Minimus

Quadratus Lumborum

buttock

Gluteus Medius I liopsoas Quadratus Lumborum (contralateral) Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Medius Lonqissimus Thoracis Gluteus Medius Longissimus Thoracis Iliopsoas Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Il iopsoas Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Medius G luteus Maximus Longissimus Thoracis Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Gluteus Medius I liocostalis Thoracis Rectus Abdominus Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fascia Latae Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Iliocostalis Lumborum Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus

1 73

Gluteus Maximus buttock Gluteus Minimus

Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimis Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Longissimus Thoracis Iliocostalis Lumborum Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum

Secundary associated chains

Quadratus Lumborum hip - lateral Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus thigh - lateral

Iliocostalis Lumborum Gluteus Minimus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimis I liocostalis Lumborum Gluteus Medius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

1 74

Gluteus Minimus

( L4-S 1 )

C hains starting from the Gluteus Minimus


Gluteus Minimus Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Peroneus Longus Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fasciae Latae

Primary associated chains

buttock

hip - lateral

thigh - lateral

Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fasciae Latae Tensor Fasciae Latae Quadratus Femoris Vastus Lateralis
Secundary associated chains

thigh - lateral leg - posterior (calf) leg - lateral

Gluteus Medius Quadratus Femoris Vastus Lateralis Piriformis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Peroneus Longus

1 75

Chains containing the Gluteus M inimus M uscle


associated muscles Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Tensor Fasciae Latae Soleus Quadratus Lumborum Plantaris Piriformis Gluteus Medius Gluteus Maximus Gastrocnemius
Primary associated chains

Gluteus Medius

Quadratus Lumborum buttock G luteus Maximus

Piriformis

Soleus Gastrocnemius Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Longus

leg - posterior ( calf)

ankle malleolus externus

Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus Tensor Fascia latae Quadratus Lumborum ( other side ) Iliocostalis Lumborum Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimis Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Longissimus Thoracis Iliocostalis Lumborum Gluteus Minimus (posterior part) Levator Ani Coccygeus Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Posterior Gastrocnemius Soleus Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Posterior Peroneus Longus Gluteus Minimus Peroneus Brevis Gluteus Minimus

1 76

Secundary associated chains

Quadratus Lumborum hip -. Iateral Gluteus Maximus Plantaris knee - posterior

I liocostalis Lumborum Gluteus Minimus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimis I l iocostalis Lumborum Gastrocnemius Gluteus Minimus Soleus

1 77

Gracilis

(L2-L4)

C hains starting from the Gracilis


associated muscles Sartorius

C h ains containing the Gracilis M u scle


associated muscles Sartorius Obliquus Externus Abdominis Rectus Abdominis Pectineus

Primary associated chains

Sartorius

thigh - medial

Adductor Magnus Gracilis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

1 78

Iliocostalis Lumborum

(C4-L3)

Chains starting from the Iliocostalis L umborum


associated muscles Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior Inferior Serratus Posterior Superior

Chains containing the Iliocostalis Lumborum Muscle


associated muscles Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Maximus

Primary associated chains

Quadratus Lumborum

Gluteus Maximus buttock

Semitendinosus

Semimembranosus

Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Iliocostalis Lumborum Gluteus Medius Gluteus Mini mus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimis Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Longissimus Thoracis Iliocostalis Lumborum Semimembranosus Quadratus Lumborum Il iocostalis Lumborum Lonqissimus Thoracis Semitendinosus Quadratus Lumborum Iliocostalis Lumborum Lonqissimus Thoracis

1 79

Secundary associated chains

I liopsoas back SIJ


-

Quadratus Lumborum

Quadratus Lumborum back - lumbar Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumborum hip - lateral Gluteus Maximus

Longissimus Thoracis Iliocostalis Lumborum Quadratus Lumborum (contralateral) Iliocostalis Lumborum Iliocostalis Lumborum Latissimus Dorsi Iliocostalis Lumborum LonQissimus Thoracis Iliocostalis Lumborum Gluteus Minimus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimis Iliocostalis Lumborum

1 80

Iliocostalis Thoracis

(C4-L3)

Chains starting from the I liocostalis Thoracis


associated muscles Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior

Primary associated chains

back - mid-thoracic back - low-thoracic

Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Superior Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior I nferior

Secundary associated chains

back - lumbar

Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior I nferior

Chains containing the I l iocostalis Thoracis M uscle


associated muscles Serratus Posterior Superior Serratus Posterior I nferior Latissimus Dorsi

1 81

Primary associated chains

Latissimus Dorsi

back - low-thoracic

Latissimus Dorsi back - mid-thoracic Serratus Posterior Superior

I liopsoas

back - lumbar

lliosostalis Thoracis Rectus Abdominus Serratus Posterior inferior lliosostalis Thoracis Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Superior Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Iliocostalis Thoracis Iliocostalis Thoracis Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Gluteus Medius

Secundary associated chains

Gluteus Maximus Serratus Posterior Superior

back - sacral shoulder - posterior

Iliocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Iliopsoas Scalenus Iliocostalis Thorac _i

1 82

Iliopsoas
associated muscles

(T1 2-L4)

C hains starting from the Iliopsoas


Quadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdominus Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Tensor Fascia Latae Pectineus Semitend inosus Semimembranosus Biceps Femoris Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus I l iocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis I liocostalis Lumborum Trapezius Splenius Cervi cis Levator Scapulae Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus Multifidus (neck)
Primary associated chains

back - lumbar

back - SIJ

back - sacral

Quadratus Lumboru m Longissimus Thoracis Gluteus Medius I liocostal is Thoracis Rectus Abdominis Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Medius Longissimus Thoracis Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Medius Gluteus Maximus Longissimus Thoracis
Secundary associated chains

back - lumbar back - SIJ

I liocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis I l iocostalis Lumborum

1 83

C hains containing the Iliopsoas M uscle


associated muscles Tensor Fasciae Latae Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadratus Lumborum Pectineus Gluteus Maximus
Primary associated chains

Quadratus Lumborum

back - SIJ

Quadratus Lumborum

back - lumbar

Gluteus Maximus back - sacral Quadratus Lumborum

Pectineus

hip - anterior

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius

thigh - anterior

Gluteus Medius Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumborum (contralateral) Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Gluteus Medius Gluteus Medius Iliopsoas Longissimus Thoracis Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Gluteus Medius Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Iliopsoas Iliopsoas Sartorius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Secundary associated chains

Gluteus Maximus Semitendinosus

back - sacral buttock

Semimembranosus

I liocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Iliopsoas Iliopsoas Multifidus Iliopsoas Multifidus

1 84

Infraspinatus

(C4-C6)

Chains starting from the Infraspinatus


associated muscles Teres Major Teres Minor Deltoideus (Anterior) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi Subscapularis Pectoralis Major

Primary associated chains

shoulder - anterior

shoulder - lateral

Biceps Brachii Deltoideus Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Supraspinatus Teres Major Deltoideus Supraspinatus Subscapularis Pectoralis Major

Secundary associated chains

shoulder - anterior

shoulder - lateral

Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Subscapularis Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Teres M inor Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi

1 85

C hains containing the Infraspinatus M uscle


associated muscles Teres Minor Supraspinatus Rhomboideus Minor Rhomboideus Major Deltoideus
Primary associated chains

Deltoideus shoulder - anterior Supraspinatus Supraspinatus

Teres M inor shoulder - posterior Subscapularis

Deltoideus Supraspinatus Deltoideus shoulder - lateral Subscapularis Rhomboideus Major back - mid-thoracic Rhomboideus Minor

Biceps Brachii Infraspinatus Pectoralis Major (clavicular) Supraspinatus Deltoideus Infraspinatus Deltoideus Infraspinatus Trapezius Deltoideus Infraspinatus Subscapularis Supraspinatus Teres Major Deltoideus Infraspinatus Teres Major Teres Minor Triceps Brachii Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres Major Triceps Brachii Deltoideus Infraspinatus Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Deltoideus Infraspinatus Teres Major Pectoralis Major I nfraspinatus Trapezius Infraspinatus Trapezius

1 86

Secundary associated chains

Supraspinatus Supraspinatus Subscapularis Subscapularis

arm - posterior elbow epicondylus lateralis hand - wrist - radial hand - dorsal side & wrist

Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Infraspinatus Infraspinatus Deltoideus Triceps Brachii(caput longum) Infraspinatus Latissimus Dorsi Infraspinatus Triceps Brachii

1 87

Interosseus Dorsalis
T1 )

1 &2

(fingers)

(CB

C hains starting from the I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2


associated muscles Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis M inor Pectoralis Major Scalenus Triceps Brachii Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Digitorum Su perficialis & Profundus Flexor Pollicis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor I ndicis

Primary associated chains

fingers - dorsal

Scalenus Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger)

Secundary associated chains

fingers - dorsal

Latissimus Dorsi . Triceps Brachii Flexor Pollicis Longus Extensor Indicis

1 88

Chains containing the Interosseus Dorsalis 1 & 2 M u scle


associated muscles Adductor Pollicis

Secundary associated chains

Opponens Pollicis Opponens Pollicis

hand - wrist - radial fingers - volar

Interosseus Dorsalis 1 &2 Adductor Pollicis Interosseus Dorsalis 1 Adductor Pollicis

1 89

Interosseus Dorsalis

(toes)

(51 -52)

C hains containing the Interosseus Dorsalis 1 (toes) Muscle


associated muscles Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Abductor Hallucis

Primary associated chains

Abductor Hallucis

Flexor Digitorum Longus

foot - plantar

Flexor Hallucis Longus

Quadratus Plantae Flexor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Digitorum Brevis Interossei Dorsalis 1 Adductor Hallucis Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Hallucis Brevis Interossei Dorsalis 1 Flexor Digitorum Brevis Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Brevis Interosseus Dorsalis 1

1 90

Latissimus Dorsi

(C6-C8)

Chains starting from the Latissimus Dorsi


associated muscles Teres Major Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Rectus Abdominus (upper) Subscapularis Iliocostalis Thoracis Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Inferior Serratus Posterior Superior

Primary associated chains

back - mid-thoracic back - low-thoracic

I l iosostalis Thoracis Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Superior l Iiosostalis Thoracis Rectus Abdominus Serratus Posterior inferior

C hains containing the Latissimus Dorsi M uscle


associated muscles lIiosostalis Thoracis Triceps Brachii Teres Minor Teres Major Supraspinatus Subscapularis Serratus Anterior Quadratus Lumborum Multifidus (back) Longissimus Thoracis I nfraspinatus Iliocostalis Lumboru m Deltoideus

1 91

Primary associated chains

I liocostalis Thoracis I liocostalis Thoracis

back - low-thoracic

back - mid-thoracic Multifidus(back) Serratus Anterior

Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Inferior Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Superior Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Superior Latissimus Dorsi Scalenus

Secundary associated chains

Quadratus Lumborum Multifidus (back) back - l umbar Longissimus Thoracis Iliocostalis Thoracis I nfraspinatus Teres Minor Teres Major Supraspinatus shoulder - lateral I nfraspinatus Subscapularis shoulder - anterior shoulder - posterior

Iliocostalis Lumborum Latissimus Dorsi Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Inferior Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Inferior Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior I nferior Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Subscapularis Pectoralis Major Latissimus Dorsi Biceps Brachii Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres Minor Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres Minor Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres Minor

1 92

Triceps Brachii arm - posterior Supraspinatus Subscapularis hand - wrist - ulnar

Subscapularis

hand - dorsal side & wrist

I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 &2

fingers - dorsal

Teres Major Teres M inor Latissimus Dorsi I nfraspinatus Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major Triceps Brachii Deltoideus (posterior) Teres Major Teres Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major I nfraspinatus Latissimus Dorsi Triceps Brachii Flexor Pollicis Longus Extensor Indicis

1 93

Levator Ani

(53-55)

C h ains containing the Levator Ani Muscle


associated muscles Piriformis

Primary associated chains

Piriformis

buttock

Piriformis

back - sacral

Gluteus Minimus (posterior part) Levator Ani Coccygeus Gluteus Maximus Levator Ani Coccygeus Gluteus Maximus

1 94

Levator Scapulae

(C4-C5)

Chains starting from the Levator Scapulae


associated muscles Splenius Cervicis Scalenus

Chains containing the Levator Scapulae M uscle


associated muscles Trapezius Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus Mu ltifidus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor

Primary associated chains

Multifidus (neck) neck - posterior Trapezius Rhomboideus Minor back - high-thoracic Trapezius

Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervicis Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral, TP 1 ,2 ,3) Levator Scapulae Trapezius (TP4,5) Levator Scapulae Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Scalenus Trapezius (contralateral)

Secundary associated chains

Rhomboideus Minor Trapezius

back - mid-thoracic shoulder - posterior

Trapezius Levator Scapulae Levator Scapulae Scalenus

1 95

Longissimus Thoracis

(C2-LS)

Chains starting from the Longissimus Thoracis


associated muscles Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior

Secundary associated chains

back - lumbar

Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior I nferior

Chains containing the Longissimus Thoracis M uscle


associated muscles Gluteus Maximus Serratus Posterior Inferior Serratus Posterior Superior

1 96

Primary associated chains

Gluteus Maximus back - sacral Iliopsoas

Iliopsoas

back - SIJ

Iliopsoas

back - lumbar

Gluteus Maximus

buttock Semitendinosus

Semimembranosus

G luteus Medius Longissimus Thoracis Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Gluteus Medius Iliocostalis Thoracis Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Gluteus Medius Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Gluteus Medius Rectus Abdominus Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimis Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Longissimus Thoracis Iliocostalis Lumborum Semimembranosus Quadratus Lumborum Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Semitendinosus Quadratus Lumborum Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis

1 97

Secundary associated chains

I liopsoas I liopsoas Gluteus Maximus

back - lu mbar back - SIJ back - sacral

Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis I l iocostalis Lumborum I liocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis I l iopsoas

1 98

Masseter
Chains starting from the Masseter
associated muscles Temporalis Pterygoideus Medialis Sternocleidomastoideus Digastricus PteryQoideus Lateralis

Primary associated chains

ear - TMJ head - frontal head - lateral

Sternocleidomastoideus Pterygoideus Medialis Pterygoideus Lateralis Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus

Secundary associated chains

face - upper cheek

face - lower cheek eye

Pterygoideus Lateralis Pterygoideus Medialis Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Temporalis (3 anterior TPs) Digastricus Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Temporalis (anterior TP) Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal)

1 99

C hains containing the Masseter M u scle


associated muscles Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus DiQastricus

Primary associated chains

Digastricus Sternocleidomastoideus Temporalis

teeth eye

head - frontal Sternocleidomastoideus Sternocleidomastoideus head - lateral Temporalis

Masseter Temporalis Masseter Splenius Cervicis (UTP) Orbicularis Oculi Masseter Sternocleidomastoideus Masseter Occipitofrontalis Temporalis Trapezius Masseter Occipitofrontalis Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius Masseter

--

Secundary associated chains

Sternocleidomastoideus Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus

face - u pper cheek teeth head - lateral

Masseter Temporalis Masseter Sternocleidomastoideus Masseter Splenius Cervicis (UTP)

200

Multifidus (neck)

(C3-S4)

C hains starting from the Multifidus (neck)


associated muscles Levator Scapulae Semispinalis Capitis Semispinalis Cervicis Sternocleidomastoideus Splenius Cervicis

Primary associated chains

neck - posterior

Chains containing the M ultifidus (neck) Muscle


associated muscles Suboccipital

201

Multifidus (back)

(C3-S4)

C hains starting from the M ultifidus (back)


associated muscles Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum Serratus Posterior I nferior Serratus Posterior Superior

Primary associated chains

back - mid-thoracic

Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Su erior

Secundary associated chains

back - lumbar

Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior I nferior

C h ains containing the M ultifidus (back) M uscle


associated muscles

Serratus Posterior Superior

Primary associated chains

Semitendinosus buttock Semimembranosus

Semimembranosus Quadratus Lumborum I liocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus Semitendinosus Quadratus Lumborum I liocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus

202

Secundary associated chains

Semitendinosus buttock Semimembranosus

Semitendinosus thigh - posterior Semimembranosus

I l iopsoas Multifidus I liopsoas Multifidus Biceps Femoris Multifidus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Biceps Femoris Multifidus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

203

Obliquus Externus Abdominis

(T5-T1 2)

C hains starting from the Obliquus Externus Abdominus


associated muscles Rectus Abdominis Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Gracilis Pectineus
Primary associated chains

groin

hip - anterior

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus
Secundary associated chains

abdomen

Rectus Abdominis Adductor Ma nus

C hains containing the Obliquus Externus Abdominus M uscle


associated muscles Rectus Abdominis Quadratus Lumboru m
Secundary associated chains

Rectus Abdominus

abdomen

Obliquus Externus Abdominis Adductor Magnus

204

Obturatorius Internus

(L 1 -L4)

Chains containing the Obturatorius Externus M uscle


associated muscles Piriformis

205

Occipitofrontalis

C hains containing the Occipitofrontalis M uscle

Primary associated chains

Sternocleidomastoideus head - lateral Trapezius

Sternocleidomastoideus

head - frontal

Trapezius (TP1 ) Temporalis Occipitofrontalis Masseter Temporalis Trapezius (contralateral, TP1 ) Occipitofrontalis Masseter Occipitofrontalis Temporalis

Secundary associated chains

Trapezius

head - occipital

Trapezius (contralateral) Temporalis Occipitofrontalis

206

Opponens Pollicis

(C6-C7)

Chains starting from the Opponens Pollicis


associated muscles I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 Add uctor Pollicis

Secundary associated chains

hand - wrist - radial fingers - volar

I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 Adductor Pollicis I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 Add uctor Pollicis

Chains containing the Opponens Pollicis M uscle


associated muscles Adductor Poll icis

207

Orbicularis Oculi

C h ains containing the Orbicularis Oculi M uscle


associated muscles Sternocleidomastoideus

Primary associated chains

Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal)

eye

Masseter Splenius Cervi cis (UTP) Orbicularis Oculi

208

Palmaris Longus

(CB-T1 )

Chains starting from the Palmaris Longus


associated muscles Abductor Digiti Minimi Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

Primary associated chains

hand - volar side & wrist

Secundary associated chains

hand - volar side & wrist

Flexor Pollicis Longus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus

Chains containing the Palmaris Longus Muscle


associated muscles Supinator

209

Pectineus

(L2-L4)

C hains starting from the Pectineus


associated muscles Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Gracilis Iliopsoas

Primary associated chains

g roin hip - anterior

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus

Chains containing the Pectineus M uscle


associated muscles Obliquus Externus Abdominis Iliopsoas Adductor Magnus Adductor Longus . Adductor Brevis

210

Primary associated chains

Obliquus Externus Abdominus Adductor Brevis hip - anterior Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Obliquus Externus Abdominus Adductor Brevis g roin Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Add uctor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pecti neus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Pectineus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Pectineus

Secundary associated chains

Adductor Magnus

thigh - anterior

Adductor Brevis Add uctor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Pecti neus

21 1

Pectoralis Major

(C5-T1 )

Chains starting from the Pectoralis M ajor


associated muscles Deltoideus (anterior part) Coracobrachialis Sternalis Sternocleidomastoideus Scalenus Serratus Anterior Rhomboidei Trapezius (middle part) Subscapularis Teres Minor Deltoideus (posterior part)

Primary associated chains

thorax - anterior shoulder - anterior shoulder - lateral

Scalenus Sternalis Coracobrachialis Deltoideus Scalenus Coracobrachialis Deltoideus Scalenus Subscapularis

--

Secundary associated chains

shoulder - anterior shoulder - lateral elbow - epicondylus medialis

Sternalis Subscapularis Teres Minor Deltoideus Sternalis Serratus Anterior

212

Chains containing the Pectoralis Major Muscle


associated muscles Trapezius Subscapularis Sternocleidomastoideus Scalenus Rhomboideus Minor Rhomboideus Major Pectoralis Minor I nfraspinatus Deltoideus

Primary associated chains

Pectoralis Minor thorax - anterior Scalenus

Deltoideus

Infraspinatus shoulder - anterior Scalenus Pectoralis M inor

I nfraspinatus

Pectoralis Major Sternalis Scalenus Pectoralis Major Pectoralis M inor Biceps Brachii I nfraspinatus Pectoralis Major (clavicular) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Deltoideus Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Supraspinatus Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Pectoralis Minor Deltoideus Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Scalenus Teres Major Deltoideus Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Supraspinatus Subscapularis

213

Subscapularis shoulder - lateral Pectoralis M inor

Scalenus

Teres Major I nfraspinatus Deltoideus Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Deltoideus Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Scalenus Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Pectoralis Minor

Secundary associated chains

I nfraspinatus shoulder - anterior Pectoralis Minor Scalenus arm - anterior

Subscapularis Pectoralis M inor Sternalis Scalenus

hand - wrist - ulnar

thorax - anterior

Teres Major Latissimus Dorsi Subscapularis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Major Sternalis Brachialis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi Triceps Brachii Pectoralis Major Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Major Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Major Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Major

214

Pectoralis Minor

(C6-C8)

Chains starting from the Pectoralis Minor


associated muscles Pectoralis Major Deltoideus (anterior part) Scalenus Sternocleidomastoideus Sternalis

Primary associated chains

thorax - anterior shoulder - anterior shoulder - lateral


,

Pectoralis Major Sternalis Scalenus Deltoideus , Pectoral is Major Scalenus Deltoideus Pectoral is Major Scalenus
,.

Secundary associated chains

shoulder - anterior thorax - anterior

Pectoralis Major Sternalis Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Major

C hains containing the Pectoralis Minor M uscle


associated muscles Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

215

Primary associated chains

Scalenus Scalenus Scalenus

thorax - anterior shoulder - anterior shoulder - lateral

Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor

Secundary associated chains

Scalenus

arm - anterior

Scalenus

hand - wrist - ulnar

Brachialis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii

216

Peroneus Brevis

(L5-S 1 )

Chains starting from the Peroneus Brevis


associated muscles Peroneus Longus Peroneus Tertius Extensor Digitorum Longus Tibialis Posterior Gastrocnemius Soleus Gluteus Minimus
Primary associated chains

ankle - malleolus - externus

Peroneus Longus Gluteus Minimus

Chains containing the Peroneus Brevis M u scle


associated muscles Peroneus Longus Peroneus Tertius Tibialis Posterior Extensor Hallucis Longus
Primary associated chains

Peroneus Longus

ankle malleolus - extern us


Secundary associated chains

Peroneus Brevis Gluteus Minimus

Extensor Digitorum Longus foot - dorsal Extensor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Tertius leg - lateral

Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Longus

217

Peroneus Longus

(L5-S 1 )

C hains starting from the Peroneus Longus


associated muscles Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Extensor Digitorum Longus Tibialis Posterior Gastrocnemius Soleus Gluteus M inimus

Primary associated chains

ankle - malleolus - extern us

Peroneus Brevis Gluteus Minimus

C hains containing the Peroneus Longus M uscle


associated muscles Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Tibialis Posterior Tibialis Anterior Gluteus Minimus . Extensor Hallucis LonQus

218

Primary associated chains

Peroneus Brevis

ankle malleolus - extern us

Peroneus Longus Gluteus Minimus

Secundary associated chains

Extensor Digitorum Longus foot - dorsal Extensor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Tertius leg - lateral Gluteus Minimus

Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Peroneus Longus

219

Peroneus Tertius

(L5-S1 )

C h ains starting from the Peroneus Tertius


associated muscles Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Extensor Digitorum Longus Tibialis Posterior Gastrocnemius Soleus Gluteus Minimus

Secundary associated chains

leg - lateral

Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Lon us

Chains containing the Peroneus Tertius Muscle


associated muscles Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Longus Plantaris Extensor Hallucis Longus

Secundary associated chains

Extensor Digitorum Longus foot - dorsal Extensor Hallucis Longus

Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius

220

Piriformis

( L5-S2)

C h ains starting from the Piriformis


associated muscles Gluteus Minimus (posterior part) Levator Ani Coccygeus Gluteus Maximus

Primary associated chains

back - sacral buttock

Levator Ani Coccygeus Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus (posterior part) Levator Ani Coccygeus Gluteus Maximus

Chains containing the P iriformis Muscle


associated muscles Gluteus Minimus Gluteus Medius

221

Primary associated chains

Gluteus Medius

back - sacral

Gluteus Minimus hip - lateral Gluteus Medius G luteus Medius buttock Gluteus Minimus

Gluteus Maximus Piriformis Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fascia Latae Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Tensor Fascia Latae Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus Tensor Fascia latae Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum

Secundary associated chains

Gluteus Minimus

leg - posterior (calf)

Piriformis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

222

Plantaris

(51 -52)

Chains starting from the Plantaris


associated muscles Gastrocnemius Soleus Tibialis Posterior Flexor Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Gluteus Minimus Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Tertius

Secundary associated chains

knee - posterior

Gastrocnemius Gl uteus Minimus Soleus

Chains containing the Plantaris M uscle


associated muscles Popliteus

Primary associated chains

Popliteus

knee - posterior

Gastrocnemius Plantaris

223

Popliteus

(L4-S1 )

C hains starting from the Popliteus


Popliteus Gastrocnemius Plantaris

Primary associated chains

Popliteus

Gastrocnemius Plantaris

224

Pronator Teres

(C6-C7)

Chains starting from the Pronator Teres


associated muscles Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Flexor Digitorum Superficialis & Profundus Flexor Pollicis Longus

Primary associated chains

hand - volar side & wrist

Secundary associated chains

hand - wrist - radial

Flexor Carpi Radialis Flexor Pollilcis Longus Flexor Digitorum Superficialis

225

Pterygoideus Lateralis

Chains containing the Pterygoideus Lateralis M uscle


associated muscles Temporalis Masseter

Primary associated chains

Masseter

ear - TMJ

Sternocleidomastoideus Pterygoideus Medialis Pterygoideus Lateralis

Secundary associated chains

Masseter

face - upper cheek

Pterygoideus Lateralis Pterygoideus Medialis Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Temporalis (3 anterior TPs)

226

Pterygoideus Medialis

Chains containing the Pterygoideus Medialis Muscle


associated muscles Temporalis Masseter

Primary associated chains

Masseter

ear - TMJ

Sternocleidomastoideus Pterygoideus Medialis Pterygoideus Lateralis

Secundary associated chains

Masseter

face - upper cheek

Sternocieidomastoideus Pterygoideus Medialis Pterygoideus Lateralis Temporalis

227

Quadratus Lumborum

(T1 2-L4)

C hains starting from the Quadratus Lumborum


associated muscles Quadratus Lumborum (other side) I liopsoas I liocostalis Lumborum Obliquus Externus Abdominus Latissimus Dorsi Gluteus Medius Gluteus M inimus

Primary associated chains

back - lumbar back - sacral back - SIJ buttock

Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Gluteus Medius Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Iliopsoas Gluteus Medius Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumborum (contralateral) Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Iliocostalis Lumborum Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus

Secundary associated chains

back - lumbar back - SIJ

Iliocostalis Lumborum Latissimus Dorsi Quadratus Lumborum (contralateral) Iliocostalis Lumborum

228

Chains containing the Quadratus Lumborum M u scle


associated muscles I liopsoas Multifidus (back) I liocostalis Thoracis Gluteus Minimus Longissimus Thoracis I l iocostalis Lumborum

Primary associated chains

Quadratus Lumborum back - SIJ Iliopsoas

Quadratus Lumborum back - sacral Iliopsoas

Quadratus Lumborum back - lumbar I liopsoas

Gluteus Medius Iliopsoas Quadratus Lumborum (contralateral) Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Medius Longissimus Thoracis I liopsoas Quadratus Lumborum(other side) Gluteus Medius Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum G luteus Medius Gluteus Maximus Longissimus Thoracis I liopsoas Quadratus Lumborum(other side) Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Gluteus Medius Rectus Abdominus Iliocostalis Thoracis

229

Gluteus Minimus hip - lateral Quadratus Lumborum

Quadratus Lumborum

Semitendinosus buttock Semimembranosus

Gluteus Minimus

Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fascia Latae Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Quadratus Lumborum (other side) Iliocostalis Lumborum Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimus Semimembranosus Quadratus Lumborum Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus Semitendinosus Quadratus Lumborum I liocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum

Secundary associated chains

Quadratus Lumborum I liopsoas

back - SIJ hip - anterior

Quadratus Lumborum (contralateral) Iliocostalis Lumborum Quadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdominus

230

Quadratus Plantae

(51 -52)

Chains containing the Quadratus Plantae Muscle


associated muscles Abductor Hallucis

Primary associated chains

Abductor Hallucis

foot - plantar

Quadratus Plantae Flexor Hallucis Brevis Flexor Digitorum Brevis Interossei Dorsalis 1 Adductor Hallucis

231

Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris


(L2-L4)

Chains starting from the Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris


Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Iliopsoas Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Sartorius

Primary associated chains

knee -anterior

Chains containing the Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris M uscle


associated muscles Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Tensor Fascia Latae Sartorius Iliopsoas Gluteus Maximus

232

Primary associated chains

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis knee - anterior Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

Secundary associated chains

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Intermedius thigh - anterior Sartorius

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

knee - medial

Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Add uctor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Sartorius

233

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Intermedius (L2-L4)


Chains starting from the Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius
associated muscles I l iopsoas Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Sartorius

Primary associated chains

thigh - anterior

Iliopsoas Sartorius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Secundary associated chains

thigh - anterior

C hains containing the Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius M uscle


associated muscles Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris

234

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis


( L2-L4)

Chains starting from the Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis


associated muscles Iliopsoas Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Sartorius

Primary associated chains

knee -anterior

Chains containing the Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis M uscle


associated muscles Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Semitendi nosus Semimembranosus Biceps Femoris

235

Primary associated chains

Gluteus Minimus

hip - lateral

Gluteus Minimus Biceps Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris

thigh - lateral knee - posterior

knee - anterior Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumborum Tensor Fascia Latae Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Tensor Fasciae Latae Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Gastrocnemius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris

Secundary associated chains

Gluteus Minimus Semitendinosus

thigh - lateral

thigh - posterior Semimembranosus

Gluteus Minimus Gluteus Minimus

leg - lateral leg - posterior (calf)

Gluteus Medius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Biceps Femoris Multifidus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Biceps Femoris Multifidus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Peroneus Longus Piriformis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

236

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis


( L2-L4)

C hains starting from the Quadriceps Femoris Vastus M edialis


associated muscles I liopsoas Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Sartorius

Primary associated chains

knee -anterior

Secundary associated chains

knee - medial

Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Sartorius

C hains containing the Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis M uscle


associated muscles Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Sartorius Add uctor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus

237

Primary associated chains

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius thigh - anterior Sartorius Sartorius thigh - medial

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus knee - anterior Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris

Iliopsoas Sartorius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Magnus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Magnus Gracilis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

238

Secundary associated chains

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Intermedius

Sartorius thigh - anterior

Adductor Magnus

Adductor Magnus thigh - medial Sartorius

Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Femoris Vastus Quadriceps Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Pectineus Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

239

Rectus Abdominus

(T5-T1 2)

C hains starting from the Rectus Abdominus


associated muscles Obliquus Externus Abdominus Adductor Longus Adductor Brevis Adductor Magnus Gracilis

Secundary associated chains

abdomen

Obliquus Externus Abdominis Adductor Ma nus

C hains containing the Rectus Abdominus M uscle


associated muscles I l iopsoas Latissimus Dorsi

240

Primary associated chains

Latissimus Dorsi

back - low-thoracic

I liopsoas

back - lumbar

Iliopsoas

back - SIJ

Iliopsoas

back - sacral

lIiosostalis Thoracis Rectus Abdominus Serratus Posterior inferior Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Medius Longissimus Thoracis Iliocostalis Thoracis Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Medius LonQissimus Thoracis Rectus Abdominus Quadratus Lumborum Gluteus Medius Gluteus Maximus Lonqissimus Thoracis

Secundary associated chains

Obliquus Externus Abdominus Iliopsoas

abdomen hip - anterior

Rectus Abdominus Adductor MaQnus Quadratus Lumboru m Rectus Abdominus

241

Rhomboideus Major

(T1 -T4)

Chains starting from the Rhomboideus Major


associated muscles Levator Scapulae Trapezius I nfraspinatus Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor

Primary associated chains

back - mid-thoracic

C hains containing the Rhomboideus Major M uscle


associated muscles Trapezius Rhomboideus Minor Pectoralis Major Serratus Posterior Superior

Primary associated chains

Trapezius

back - high-thoracic

Serratus Posterior Superior back - mid-thoracic Trapezius

Levator Scapulae Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Scalenus Trapezius (contralateral) Scalenus Rhomboideus Major I liocostalis Thoracis Rhomboideus Major Scalenus Trapezius (contralateral)

242

Rhomboideus Minor

(C4-C5)

Chains starting from the Rhomboideus Minor


associated muscles Levator Scapulae Trapezius I nfraspinatus Pectoralis Major Pectoralis M inor

Primary associated chains

back - high-thoracic back - mid-thoracic

Levator Scapulae Trapezius (TP4,5) Trapezius (TP4) Infraspinatus

Secundary associated chains

back - mid-thoracic

Trapezius (TP3-5) Levator Sca u lae

Chains containing the Rhomboideus Minor M uscle


associated muscles Trapezius Rhomboideus Major Pectoralis Major Serratus Posterior Superior

Primary associated chains

Trapezius

back - high-thoracic

Levator Scapulae Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Scalenus Trapezius (contralateral)

243

Sartorius

lL 1 -L3)

C h ains starting from the Sartorius


associated muscles Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Gracilis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris

Primary associated chains

hip - anterior thigh - medial thigh - anterior

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Adductor Magnus Adductor Magnus Gracilis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Magnus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis
Secundary associated chains

thigh - medial thigh - anterior

Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Adductor Brevis Adductor Longus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris

Chains containing the Sartorius M uscle


associated muscles Gracilis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Tensor Fasciae Latae

244

Primary associated chains

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Intermedius

thigh - anterior

Iliopsoas Sartorius Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

Secundary associated chains

Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Medialis

knee - medial

Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Sartorius

245

Scalenus

(C4-C8)

Chains starting from the Scalenus


associated muscles Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (TP2,3) Splenius Capitis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger)

Primary associated chains

shoulder - anterior shoulder - lateral hand - wrist - radial hand - dorsal side & wrist

Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Pectoralis Minor Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Pectoralis Minor Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis

Secundary associated chains

back - high-thoracic arm - anterior

hand - wrist - radial hand - dorsal side & wrist

Trapezius Triceps Brachii Brachialis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis M inor Triceps Brachii Triceps Brachii Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Triceps Brachii

246

hand - wrist - ulnar

thorax - anterior

Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Triceps Brachii Pectoral is Minor Extensor DiQitorum (rinQ finQer) Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Major

Chains containing the Scalenus M uscle


associated muscles Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Levator Scapulae Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Superior

Primary associated chains

Trapezius

back - high-thoracic

Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Superior Trapezius back - mid-thoracic

Pectoralis Minor thorax - anterior

Levator Scapulae Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Scalenus Trapezius (contralateral) Latissimus Dorsi Scalenus Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Iliocostalis Thoracis Rhomboideus Major Scalenus Trapezius (contralateral) Pectoralis Major Sternalis Scalenus

247

Pectoralis Major Pectoralis M inor shoulder - anterior Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Major shoulder - lateral Pectoralis Minor Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus hand - wrist - radial

I nterosseus Dorsalis

fingers - dorsal

Scalenus Sternalis Deltoideus (anterior) Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Scalenus Coracobrachialis Deltoideus (anterior) Scalenus Coracobrachialis Deltoideus (anterior) Scalenus Subscapularis Deltoideus (anterior) Scalenus Pectoralis Major Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Brevis Scalenus Scalenus Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Digitorum (ring finger)

Secundary associated chains

Serratus Posterior Superior Trapezius Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Serratus Anterior

shoulder - posterior

hand - wrist - radial hand - dorsal side & wrist thorax - anterior

Scalenus I liocostalis Thoracis Levator Scapulae Scalenus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus Sternocleidomastoideus Scalenus

248

Semimembranosus

(L5-S2)

C hains starting from the Semimembranosus


associated muscles Adductor Magnus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Gastrocnemius Semitend inosus Biceps Femoris I liopsoas Quadratus Lumborum Rectus Abdominis Iliocostalis Thoracis Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus

Primary associated chains

buttock

Semitendinosus Quadratus Lumborum Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus


Secundary associated chains

thigh - posterior buttock

Biceps Femoris Multifidus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Iliopsoas Multifidus

249

Chains containing the Semimembranosus M u scle


associated muscles Biceps Femoris Semitendinosus Gluteus Maximus Gastrocnemius

Primary associated chains

Gluteus Maximus buttock Semitendinosus

Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimis Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Longissimus Thoracis I liocostalis Lumborum Semimembranosus Quadratus Lumborum Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus

Secundary associated chains

Biceps Femoris

knee - posterior

Gastrocnemius

leg - posterior (calf)

Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Biceps Femoris Flexor Digitorum Longus

250

Semispinalis Capitis

(C3-C6)

Chains starting from the Semispinalis C apitis


associated muscles Levator Scapulae Semispinalis Cervicis Splenius Cervicis Sternocleidomastoideus Multifidus (neck)

Secundary associated chains

head - lateral

Splenius Cervicis (UTP) Sternocleidomastoideus

C hains containing the Semispinalis Capitis M uscle


associated muscles

Primary associated chains

Suboccipital

head - lateral

Semispinalis Capitis Sternocleidomastoideus (Sternal) Trapezius (TP 1)

Secundary associated chains

Semispinalis Cervicis

head - occipital

Semispinalis Capitis Sternocleidomastoideus Splenius Cervicis

251

Semispinalis Cervicis

(C3-C6)

C h ains starting from the Semispinalis Cervicis


associated muscles Multifidus (neck) Splenius Cervicis Semispinalis Capitis Levator Scapulae Sternocleidomastoideus

Secundary associated chains

head - occipital

Semispinalis Capitis Sternocleidomastoideus Splenius Cervicis

C h ains containing the Semispinalis Cervicis M uscle


associated muscles

252

Semitendinosus

(L5-S2)

Chains starting from the Semitendinosus


associated muscles Adductor Magnus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Quad riceps Femoris Vastus Medialis Quadriceps Femoris Vastus I ntermedius Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris Gastrocnemius Semimembranosus Biceps Femoris I liopsoas Quadratus Lumboru m Rectus Abdominis I liocostalis Thoracis I liocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus

Primary associated chains

buttock

Semimembranosus Quadratus Lumborum Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis M ultifidus

Secundary associated chains

buttock thigh - posterior

I liopsoas Multifidus Biceps Femoris Multifidus Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

253

C hains containing the Semitendinosus M uscle


associated muscles Biceps Femoris Semimembranosus Gluteus Maximus Gastrocnemius

Primary associated chains

Gluteus Maximus buttock Semimembranosus

Gluteus Medius Gluteus Minimis Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Longissimus Thoracis Iliocostalis Lumborum Semitendinosus Quadratus Lumborum Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus

Secundary associated chains

Biceps Femoris

knee - posterior

Gastrocnemius

leg - posterior (calf)

Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Biceps Femoris Flexor Digitorum Longus

254

Serratus Anterior

(C5-C7)

Chains starting from the Serratus Anterior


associated muscles Latissimus Dorsi Scalenus Sternocleidomastoideus

Primary associated chains

back - mid-thoracic

Latissimus Dorsi Scalenus

Secundary associated chains

thorax - anterior

Sternocleidomastoideus Scalenus

Chains containing the Serratus Anterior M uscle


associated muscles Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Ma'or

Primary associated chains

Latissimus Dorsi

back - mid-thoracic

I liosostalis Thoracis Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Superior

Secundary associated chains

Pectoralis Major

elbow epicondylus medialis

Sternalis Serratus Anterior

255

Serratus Posterior Inferior


C hains starting from the Serratus Posterior Inferior
associated muscles

(T9-T12)

C hains containing the Serratus Posterior Inferior Muscle


associated muscles I liocostalis Thoracis Iliocostalis Lumborum Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus (back) Latissimus Dorsi

Primary associated chains

I liocostalis Thoracis back - low-thoracic Latissimus Dorsi

Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Inferior l I iosostalis Thoracis Rectus Abdominus Serratus Posterior inferior

Secundary associated chains

Multifidus (back) Longissimus Thoracis Iliocostalis Thoracis back - lumbar

Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Inferior Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Inferior Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Inferior

256

Serratus Posterior Superior


C hains starting from the Serratus Posterior Superior
associated muscles Scalenus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor I l iocostalis Thoracis Longissimus Thoracis Multifidus(neck)

(T1 -T4)

Primary associated chains

back - mid-thoracic

Scalenus Rhomboideus Major I liocostalis Thoracis

Chains containing the Serratus Posterior Superior Muscle


associated muscles Multifidus (back) Longissimus Thoracis Latissimus Dorsi I liocostalis Lumborum I liocostalis Thoracis

Primary associated chains

I liocostalis Thoracis Latissimus Dorsi back - mid-thoracic

Multifidus(back)

Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Superior Iliosostalis Thoracis Serratus Anterior Serratus Posterior Superior Latissimus Dorsi Serratus Posterior Superior

257

Soleus

(51 -52)

Chains starting from the Soleus


associated muscles Gastrocnemius Tibialis Posterior Hallucis Longus Flexor Digitorum Longus Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Tertius

Primary associated chains

leg - posterior (calf)

Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Posterior Gastrocnemius

Secundary associated chains

leg - posterior (calf) foot - plantar

Flexor Digitorum Longus Gastrocnemius Flexor Digitorum Longus Tibialis Posterior

C hains containing the Soleus Muscle


associated muscles Gastrocnemius Plantaris Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius

258

Primary associated chains

Gastrocnemius Gastrocnemius

leg - posterior (calf) foot - plantar

Soleus Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Posterior Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Longus Soleus

Secundary associated chains

Plantaris

knee - posterior

Gastrocnemius Gluteus Minimus Soleus

259

Splenius Capitis

(C1 -C8)

C hains starting from the Splenius Capitis


associated muscles Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius Splenius Cervicis Suboccipital

C h ains containing the Splenius Capitis M uscle


associated muscles Splenius Cervicis . Suboccipital Scalenus

260

Splenius Cervicis

(C1 -C8)

Chains starting from the Splenius Cervicis


associated muscles Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius Splenius Capitis S u boccipita I

Secundary associated chains

eye neck - posterior

Suboccipital Trapezius (TP 1 ) Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus (Sternal)

Chains containing the Splenius Cervicis M uscle


associated muscles Splenius Capitis Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus Multifidus (neck) Levator Scapulae

261

Primary associated chains

M ultifidus(neck) Sternocleidomastoideus

neck - posterior eye

Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervicis Masseter Splenius Cervicis Orbicularis Oculi

Secundary associated chains

Semispinalis Capitis head - lateral Sternocleidomastoideus Semispinalis Cervi cis head - occipital Sternocleidomastoideus

Splenius Cervicis Sternocleidomastoideus Masseter Splenius Cervicis Semispinalis Capitis Sternocleidomastoideus Splenius Cervicis Splenius Cervicis Temporalis Trapezius

262

Sternalis
Chains starting from the Sternalis
associated muscles Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Ma"or

Secundary associated chains

thorax - anterior

Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Ma"or

Chains containing the Sternalis M u scle


associated muscles Pectoralis Major Pectoralis Minor

Primary associated chains

Pectoralis Minor thorax - anterior Pectoralis Major

Pectoralis Major Sternalis Scalenus Scalenus Sternalis

Secundary associated chains

Pectoralis Major shoulder - anterior Pectoralis Minor Pectoralis Major elbow epicondylus medialis

Sternalis Subscapularis Pectoralis Major Sternalis Sternalis Serratus Anterior

263

Sternocleidomastoideus

(C1 -C2)

C hains starting from the Sternocleidomastoideus


associated muscles Scalenus Trapezius Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervi cis Pectoralis Major Masseter Temporalis Orbicularis Oculi Occipitofrontalis

Primary associated chains

eye head - lateral

head - frontal

Masseter Splenius Cervicis (UTP) Orbicularis Oculi Trapezius (TP1 ) Temporalis Occi pitofronta I is Masseter Masseter Occipitofrontalis Temporalis

Secundary associated chains

eye head - occipital face - upper cheek

Temporalis (anterior TP) Trapezius (TP 1 ) Splenius Cervi cis Temporalis Trapezius (TP 1 ,2,3) Masseter Temporalis

264

Chains containing the Sternocleidomastoideus M u scle


associated muscles Splenius Cervicis Pectoralis Major Masseter Temporalis Suboccipital Sternalis Splenius Capitis Serratus Anterior Scalenus Pectoralis M inor Multifidus (neck)

Primary associated chains

Masseter Suboccipital

ear - TMJ

head - lateral Temporalis Temporalis Masseter Masseter head - frontal

Sternocleidomastoideus Pterygoideus Medialis Pterygoideus Lateralis Semispinalis Capitis Sternocleidomastoideus (Sternal ) Trapezius (TP1) Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (TP1 ) Masseter Masseter Sternocleidomastoideus Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus

265

Secundary associated chains

Masseter Masseter Masseter Temporalis Semispinalis Cervi cis Semispinalis Capitis Splenius Cervi cis Pectoralis Minor Sternalis

face - lower cheek face - u pper cheek eye teeth head - occipital head - lateral neck - posterior

thorax - anterior Scalenus Serratus Anterior

Digastricus Sternocleidomastoideus Pterygoideus Lateralis Pterygoideus Medialis Temporalis (3 ant TPs) Sternocleidomastoideus Temporalis (anterior TP) Sternocleidomastoideus Masseter Sternocleidomastoideus Semispinalis Capitis Sternocleidomastoideus Splenius Cervicis Splenius Cervicis (UTP) Sternocleidomastoideus Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Ma jor Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Major Sternocleidomastoideus Pectoralis Major Sternocleidomastoideus Scalenus

266

Suboccipital

(C1 )

C hains starting from the Suboccipital


associated muscles Trapezius Sternocleidomastoideus Splenius Capitis Splenius Cervicis Semispinalis Capitis Semispinalis Cervicis Levator Scapulae Multifidus (neck)

Primary associated chains

head - lateral

Semispinalis Capitis Sternocleidomastoideus (Sternal ) Trapezius (TP1)

Chains containing the Suboccipital M u scle


associated muscles Splenius Capitis Splenius Cervicis Trapezius

Secundary associated chains

Splenius Cervicis Splenius Cervicis

eye neck - posterior

Suboccipital Trapezius (TP 1) Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus (Sternal)

267

Subscapularis

(C5-C8)

C h ains starting from the Subscapularis


associated muscles Teres Major Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major I nfraspinatus Teres Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Deltoideus (posterior)

Primary associated chains

shoulder - posterior

shoulder - lateral

Deltoideus Teres Major Teres Minor Triceps Brachii Teres Major Pectoralis Major I nfraspinatus Deltoideus

--

Secundary associated chains

shoulder - lateral hand - dorsal side & wrist hand - wrist - radial hand - wrist - ulnar

Teres Minor Latissimus Dorsi Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi I nfraspinatus Triceps Brachii Triceps Brachii I nfraspinatus Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major Triceps Brachii

268

Chains containing the Subscapu laris M uscle


associated muscles Pectoralis Major Teres Major Teres Minor Latissimus Dorsi Infraspinatus

Primary associated chains

Teres Major shoulder - posterior Teres Minor Teres Major

Infraspinatus

shoulder - lateral

Pectoralis Major

Deltoideus Subscapularis Teres Minor Triceps Brachii (caput Longum) Deltoideus Subscapularis Supraspinatus Teres Major I nfraspinatus Deltoideus Subscapularis Deltoideus Subscapularis Teres Major Supraspinatus Pectoralis Major Deltoideus Subscapularis Coracobrachialis Scalenus

Secundary associated chains

I nfraspinatus shoulder - anterior Pectoralis Major

Latissimus Dorsi Subscapularis Teres Major Pectoralis Major Sternalis Subscapularis

269

Supinator

(CS-C6)

C hains starting from the Supinator


associated muscles Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Anconeus Brachialis Biceps Brachii Palmaris Longus

Primary associated chains

elbow - epicondylus lateralis elbow - olecranon hand - dorsal side & wrist hand - wrist - radial

Anconeus Extensor Carpi Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Triceps Brachii Brachialis Extensor Carpi Extensor Carpi Extensor Carpi Brachialis

Radialis Longus Radialis Longus Radialis Brevis Radialis Longus Radialis Brevis

Secundary associated chains

elbow - antecubital hand - dorsal side & wrist hand - wrist - radial

Brachialis Biceps Brachii Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Longus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Scalenus

C h ains containing the Supinator Muscle


associated muscles Triceps Brachii Extensor Indicis Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Brachioradialis Brachialis . Biceps Brachii Anconeus

270

Primary associated chains

Triceps Brachii

Anconeus elbow epicondylus lateralis Brachioradialis

Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Tric8ps Brachi i Brachialis hand - wrist - radial Brachioradialis Extensor Indicis Brachialis Brachioradialis Extensor Indicis hand - dorsal side & wrist elbow - olecranon

Anconeus Brachioradialis Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator Triceps Brachii Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supi nator Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Brachioradialis Supinator Adductor Pollicis Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Supinator Supinator Brachi,oradialis Brachioradialis Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Supinator

Secundary associated chains

Biceps Brachii

elbow - antecubital

Supinator Brachialis

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Supraspinatus

(C4-C6)

C hains starting from the Supraspinatus


associated muscles I nfraspinatus Trapezius (upper & middle part) Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi

Primary associated chains

shoulder - anterior shoulder - posterior shoulder - lateral

Deltoideus I nfraspinatus Trapezius Deltoideus Deltoideus I nfraspinatus

Secundary associated chains

shoulder - lateral elbow - epicondylus lateralis

Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Infraspinatus Deltoideus

Chains containing the Supraspinatus M uscle


associated muscles Trapezius Teres M inor I nfraspinatus Deltoideus Coracobrachialis Biceps Brachii

272

Primary associated chains

Biceps Brachii Coracobrachialis

Deltoideus

shoulder - anterior

Infraspinatus

Trapezius

Teres Minor shoulder - posterior Deltoideus Deltoideus Coracobrachialis shoulder - lateral I nfraspinatus

Coracobrachialis Deltoideus (anterior) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Deltoideus (anterior) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii I nfraspinatus Pectoralis Major (clavicular) Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii Deltoideus (anterior) Pectoralis Major (clavicular & sternal) Supraspinatus Supraspinatus Trapezius (contralateral) Deltoideus (posterior) Subscapularis Supraspinatus Teres Major I nfraspinatus Supraspinatus Teres Major Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Infraspinatus I nfraspinatus Supraspinatus Deltoideus Supraspinatus Deltoideus Supraspinatus Teres Major Subscapularis Pectoralis Major

273

Secundary associated chains

Coracobrachialis Biceps Brachii Coracobrachialis Coracobrachialis

arm - posterior arm - anterior forearm - dorsal hand - wrist - radial

Deltoideus Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii Brachialis Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii Deltoideus Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii

274

Temporalis
Chains starting from the Temporalis
associated muscles Masseter (other side) Pterygoideus Lateralis Pterygoideus Medialis Trapezius Sternocleidomastoideus

Primary associated chains

head - lateral head - frontal

Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (TP 1 ) Masseter Sternocleidomastoideus Masseter

Chains containing the Temporalis M uscle


associated muscles Sternocleidomastoideus Masseter Trapezius Digastricus

275

Primary associated chains

Masseter teeth Digastricus Sternocleidomastoideus head - lateral Trapezius Masseter Sternocleidomastoideus head - frontal Masseter

Digastricus Temporalis Masseter Temporalis Trapezius (TP1 ) Temporalis Occipitofrontalis Masseter Temporalis Trapezius (contralateral, TP1 ) Occipitofrontalis Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus Masseter Occipitofrontalis Temporalis Temporalis Sternocleidomastoideus

Secundary associated chains

Masseter Sternocleidomastoideus Masseter

eye

face - upper cheek Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius head - occipital Sternocleidomastoideus

Temporalis (anterior TP) Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Temporalis (anterior TP) Trapezius (TP1) Pterygoideus Lateralis Pterygoideus Medialis Sternocleidomastoideus (sternal) Temporalis Masseter Temporalis Trapezius (contralateral) Temporalis Occipitofrontalis Splenius Cervicis Temporalis Trapezius (TP1 ,2,3)

276

Tensor Fasciae Latae

(L4-S 1 )

Chains starting from the Tensor Fascia L atae


associated muscles Gluteus Minimus (anterior part) Quadriceps Femoris Rectus Femoris I liopsoas Sartorius

Chains containing the Tensor Fascia Latae Muscle


associated muscles I liopsoas Gluteus Minimus Gluteus Medius

Primary associated chains

Gluteus Minimus Glulteus Medius

thigh - lateral buttock

Gluteus Medius hip - lateral Gluteus Minimus

. Tensor Fasciae Latae Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Minimus Tensor Fascia latae Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Tensor Fascia Latae Piriformis Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius Quadratus Lumboru m Tensor Fascia Latae Quadriceps Femoris Vastus Lateralis

277

Teres Major

(C6-C7)

C hains starting from the Teres Major


associated muscles Triceps Brachii (caput longum) Latissimus Dorsi Deltoideus (posterior) Teres Minor Subscapularis

Primary associated chains

shoulder - posterior

shoulder - lateral

Deltoideus Subscapularis Teres Minor Triceps Brachii (caput Longum) Deltoideus Subscapularis

Secundary associated chains

shoulder - lateral arm - lateral

Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres Minor Deltoideus Teres Minor Triceps Brachii

Chains containing the Teres M ajor M u scle


associated muscles Triceps Brachii Teres Minor Subscapularis Latissimus Dorsi I nfraspinatus Deltoideus

278

Primary associated chains

Teres M inor

Subscapularis shoulder - posterior Triceps Brachii

Deltoideus

Infraspinatus shoulder - lateral Subscapularis

Deltoideus Subscapularis Supraspinatus Teres Major I nfraspinatus Deltoideus Teres Major Teres Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) I nfraspinatus Teres Major Teres Minor Su praspinatus Teres Major Triceps Brachii (caput longum) I nfraspinatus Deltoideus Teres Major Pectoralis Major Subscapularis Supraspinatus Deltoideus Teres Major Pectoralis Major I nfraspinatus

Secundary associated chains

Infraspinatus

shoulder - anterior

Triceps Brachii

arm - posterior

Pectoralis Major Subscapularis Teres Major Latissimus Dorsi Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Teres Minor

279

Teres Minor

(C5-C6)

C hains starting from the Teres M inor


associated muscles I nfraspinatus Latissimus Dorsi Deltoideus (posterior) Teres Major Subscapularis Supraspinatus Biceps Brachii

Primary associated chains

shoulder - posterior

Deltoideus (posterior) Subscapularis Supraspinatus Teres Major

Secundary associated chains

shoulder - posterior

Biceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi

Chains containing the Teres M inor M uscle


associated muscles Teres Major Triceps Brachii Subscapularis ,Pectoralis Major I nfraspinatus

280

Primary associated chains

Teres Major

shoulder - posterior Subscapularis

Triceps Brachii

Deltoideus Subscapularis Teres M inor Triceps Brachii (caput LonQum) Deltoideus Teres Major Teres Minor Triceps Brachii (caput longum) I nfraspinatus Teres Major Teres M inor

Secundary associated chains

Teres Major Triceps Brachii Teres Major I nfraspinatus

arm - lateral arm - posterior

shoulder - lateral Subscapularis Pectoralis Major

Deltoideus Teres Minor Triceps Brachii Latissimus Dorsi Teres M inor Teres Major Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres Minor Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres Minor Deltoideus Latissimus Dorsi Teres M inor Deltoideus Teres Minor

281

Tibialis Anterior

( L4-S 1 )

C h ains starting from the Tibialis Anterior


associated muscles Peroneus Longus Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus

Primary associated chains

foot - dorsal

Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Lon us

C h ains containing the Tibialis Anterior M uscle

associated muscles

Extensor Hallucis Longus Soleus

Primary associated chains

Extensor Digitorum Longus foot - dOrsal Extensor Hallucis Longus

Tibialis Anterior Extensor Hallucis Longus Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitorum Longus

282

Tibialis Posterior

(L4-LS)

C hains starting from the Tibialis Posterior


associated muscles Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis

Chains containing the Tibialis Posterior M uscle


associated muscles Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis Peroneus Tertius Soleu Plantaris Gastrocnemius

Primary associated chains

Soleus leg - posterior (calf) Gastrocnemius

Gluteus Minimus Tibialis Posterior Gastrocnemius Soleus G luteus Minimus Tibialis Posterior

Secundary associated chains

Soleus

foot - plantar

Flexor Digitorum Longus Tibialis Posterior

283

Trapezius

(C2-C4)

C h ains starting from the Trapezius


associated muscles Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral) Supraspinatus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Pectoralis Major Scalenus Temporalis Occipitofrontalis

Primary associated chains

head - lateral neck - posterior back - high-thoracic

back - mid-thoracic shoulder - posterior

Temporalis Trapezius (contralateral, TP1 ) Occipitofrontalis Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral, TP1 ,2,3) Levator Scapulae Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Scalenus Trapezius (contralateral) Rhomboideus Major Scalenus Trapezius (contralateral) Supraspinatus Trapezius (contralateral)

Secundary associated chains

head - occipital shoulder - posterior

Trapezius (contralateral) Temporalis Occipitofrontalis Levator Scapu lae Scalenus

284

C hains containing the Trapezius M uscle


associated muscles Supraspinatus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Pectoralis Major Scalenus Temporalis Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus Splenius Cervicis Splenius Capitis Biceps Brachii

Primary associated chains

Trapezius shoulder - posterior Supraspinatus Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor back - mid-thoracic Trapezius Rhomboideus Minor back - high-thoracic Trapezius

Trapezius

neck - posterior

Supraspinatus Trapezius (contralateral) Deltoideus (posterior) Trapezius I nfraspinatus I nfraspinatus Trapezius I nfraspinatus Trapezius Rhomboideus Major Scalenus Trapezius (contralateral) Levator Scapulae Trapezius (TP4,5) Levator Scapulae Rhomboideus Major Rhomboideus Minor Scalenus Trapezius (contralateral) Levator Scapulae Trapezius (contralateral, TP1 ,2,3)

285

Suboccipital Sternocleidomastoideus head - lateral Trapezius

Temporalis

Semispinalis Capitis Sternocleidomastoideus (Sternal) Trapezius (TP1 ) Trapezius (TP1 ) Temporalis Occipitofrontalis Masseter Temporalis Trapezius (contralateral, TP1 ) Occi p itofrontal is Sternocleidomastoideus Trapezius (TP1 ) Masseter

Secundary associated chains

Scalenus back - high-thoracic Rhomboideus Minor Sternocleidomastoideus head - occipital Trapezius Sternocleidomastoideus eye Splenius Cervicis back - mid-thoracic

Trapezius Triceps Brachii (caput lonqum) Trapezius Levator Scapulae Splenius Cervi cis Temporalis Trapezius (TP1 ,2 ,3) Trapezius (contralateral ) Temporalis Occipitofrontalis Temporalis (anterior TP) Trapezius (TP1 ) Suboccipital Trapezius (TP1 )

286

Triceps Brachii

(C6-C8)

Chains starting from the Triceps Brachii


associated muscles Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Teres Minor Anconeus Supinator Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus
Primary associated chains

shoulder - posterior elbow - epicondylus lateral is

elbow - olecranon

Teres Major Teres Minor Anconeus Brachioradialis Supinator Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Extensor Carpi Rad ialis Longus

Secundary associated chains

arm - posterior

Teres Major Teres Minor Latissimus Dorsi

Chains containing the Triceps Brachii M uscle


associated muscles Teres Major Supinator Subscapularis Scalenus Latissimus Dorsi Deltoideus Coracobrachialis Brachioradialis Biceps Brachii Anconeus

287

Primary associated chains

Teres Major

S ubscapularis

shoulder - posterior

Deltoideus Coracobrachialis Supinator arm - posterior elbow - olecranon

Anconeus

Brachioradialis elbow epicondylus lateralis Supinator

Deltoideus (posterior) Subscapularis Teres Minor Triceps Brachii Deltoideus (posterior) Teres Major Teres Minor Triceps Brachii I nfraspinatus Supraspinatus Teres Major Triceps Brachii I nfraspinatus Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Triceps Brachii Brachioradialis Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Supinator Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Supinator Triceps Brachii Anconeus Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Triceps Brachii

288

Secundary associated chains

Scalenus Scalenus

back - high-thoracic

arm - anterior Biceps Brachii

Teres Major Coracobrachialis Coracobrachialis Coracobrachialis Brachioradialis Subscapularis

arm - lateral arm - posterior forearm - dorsal

hand - wrist - radial

Scalenus

Subscapularis hand - wrist - ulnar Scalenus

Subscapularis hand - dorsal side & wrist Supinator

Trapezius Triceps Brachii Brachialis Pectoralis Major Pectoralis M inor Triceps Brachii Brachialis Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii Deltoideus Deltoideus Teres Minor Triceps Brachii Deltoideus Triceps Brachii Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii Supraspinatus Triceps Brachii Triceps Brachii Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Triceps Brachii Infraspinatus Triceps Brachii Extensor Digitorum (middle finger) Extensor Carpi Rad ialis LonQus Latissimus Dorsi Pectoralis Major Triceps Brachii Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Pectoralis M inor Extensor Digitorum (ring finger) Latissimus Dorsi I nfraspinatus Triceps Brachii
Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus

289

Scalenus I nterosseus Dorsalis 1 &2

hand - dorsal side & wrist fingers - dorsal

Triceps Brachii Extensor Carpi Radialis Lonqus Latissimus Dorsi Triceps Brachii Flexor Pollicis Longus Extensor I ndicis

290

Chapter 6 Appendix

291

Abreviations

UTP LTP TMJ SIJ TP Tps ant post med lat mid C T L S

Upper Trigger Point Lower Trigger Point Temporo Mandibular Joint Sacro Iliacal Joint Trigger Point Trigger Points anterior posterior medial lateral middle Cervical Vertebra Thoracal Vertebra Lumbar Vertebra Sacral Vertebra

292