Anda di halaman 1dari 36

LIFO Orientations Welcome to Life Orientations

Peak performance organisations are made up of peak performing individuals and teams with exceptional communication skills!

The LIFO Method is a unique performance improvement system that is the foundation for three core training programs: Maximising Individual Performance Building ea! erformance Teams "eveloping #xceptional Communication Skills Further training programs are availa$le %hich use the LIFO Method for specific $usiness applications:

Leadership for ea! erformance ea! erformance Sales Optimising Negotiation Outcomes Resol ing Conflict for &uccess Time !anagement Maximised Coaching for ea! erformance

Wh" should I use the LIFO !ethod# $elo% are some interesting statistics that could &e costing "ou mone"' 'ecent reports have suggested that a$senteeism represents a ma(or cost for )ustralian $usinesses* ) +,,- study conducted $y the recruitment company Morgan and Ban!s found that sic! leave %as costing )ustralian $usinesses .+*/0 $illion a year* ) Turnover 1 )$senteeism study conducted $y 2allis in +,,- 3 +,,45 found that 4+6 of )ustralian %or!ers admitted to fa!ing sic!ies* They also discovered that happy employees %ho feel they have a comforta$le %or!place5 have a good relationship %ith their $oss5 feel competent in %hat they are doing and %ho connect at a social level %ith their co7%or!ers use much less sic! leave than their unhappy counterparts* The total cost of %or!ers compensation claims in )ustralia for stress related conditions is estimated at over .+,, million every year* )ccording to the 8ational 2ealth and &afety 9ommission5 %or!7related stress accounts for the longest stretches of a$senteeism* &tress can have a ma(or effect on %or! performance* &ome of the consequences of %or!place stress include a$senteeism5 diminished performance5 negative attitude and cynicism5 decline in commitment and creativity5 and a decreased a$ility to concentrate5 learn and interact %ith other employees :;<or!place &tress=5 rice%aterhouse9oopers Legal5 +,,0>*

The 2udson survey entitled ;<hy #mployees <al!: +,,/ 'etention Initiatives 'eport=5 postulated that more than one third of %or!ers expect to change (o$s %ithin the next three years* They also discovered that career advancement5 relationship %ith their managers and training is more important than money in retaining staff* )ccording to an employment $randing survey of over 0,, )ustralian (o$see!ers $y 2ays recruiters :+,,0>5 in determining a company@s reputation as an employer5 0A6 of employees vie% treatment and support offered as Bextremely important@* )lso rated as Bextremely important@ %ere the relationship $et%een management and staff :0/6>5 and training and development offered to employees :/?6>* )ccording to an international study $y the Future Foundation ;Cetting the edge in the 8e% eople #conomy= :+,,4>5 poorly performing employees cost )ustralian $usinesses ./*D $illion a year* The study also concluded the follo%ing: ?/6 of employees leave their (o$s $efore they $ecome competent* It ta!es an average of seven months for an employee to $ecome competent in their role* o #mployers spend ?+6 of their time redoing or correcting mista!es $y other team mem$ers* o Managers $elieve the top +/6 of performers are +*E times more competent than the $ottom +/6 of employees* )ccording to "r Fohn &ullivan in ;#nd Bequal treatment@ todayG Focus on top performers= :+,,4>5 top performers almost al%ays exceed the performance of average %or!ers $y %ell over +/6* In fact5 organisations that have estimated the performance differential $et%een average and top performing employees have found that it is often -,,6 higher* &ullivan also found that managers typically spend A,6 of their time %ith +,6 of their team %ho are considered to $e underperforming5 and A,6 of the profita$le activities %ithin their department come from +,6 of their employees*
o o

(o% does the LIFO !ethod %ork# The LIFO Method offers a fast5 effective and lasting path to improve performance of individuals5 teams and organisations through: reducing ineffective $ehaviour and targeting the strategies that %or!5 getting rid of self7 or team7inflicted $arriers to achieving high performance5 giving insight and understanding into %hat ma!es people tic!5 there$y improving communication and motivation5 improving personal organisation and focus5 improving pro$lem7solving strategies5 coping more effectively in stressful situations5 and increasing personal s!ills of persuading5 influencing5 delegation and planning*

The easy-to-use personal style surveys highlight each persons preferred way of doing things, both in normal circumstances and under stress.

Life Orientations effectiveness is due to a number of unique factors: it is not a test and there are no right or %rong ans%ers5 (ust a recognition of %hy people approach tas!s and people in different %ays5 +

the feed$ac! you receive is all a$out you :not you compared to a statistical average person>5 and is po%erful %hilst $eing straightfor%ard5 the feed$ac! is accurate $ecause the survey requires you to identify %hat you actually do5 not %hat you %ould li!e to do or thin! others %ant you to do5 the issues that arise from the feed$ac! are relevant and practical5 and give a ro$ust $asis for choosing ne% improvement strategies quic!ly5 it is a facilitator of personal exploration rather than a cold diagnostic tool that forces people into a narro% stereotype5 the LIFO Method helps people identify their strengths in relation to %hen things are going %ell and also %hen they are faced %ith opposition5 stress or conflict5 Life Orientations can identify %hen someone is overdoing their strengths and as a result not getting the results they envisaged5 it is a dynamic measure5 %hich means that it can $e used time and again to chec! on personal development*

Worldwide Practitioners More than eight million people in +A countries have experienced the $enefits of training and coaching programs utilising the LIFO Method* L !O is now available in "ustralia and #ew $ealand! From the Boardroom to the &hop Floor: H H H H H H H H Creater leadership initiatives More effective strategic planning #xceptional sales results #nhanced customer relations 'educed employee a$senteeism and stress leave 'educed employee turnover Better use of time and resources Increased accounta$ility

I**and much more The LIFO Stor" %he L !O &ethod originated in '()* as a positive and structured tool to supplement organisational development5 T7groups5 and sensitivity training* These ne% group methods helped people learn ho% to improve themselves $y studying each othersJ $ehaviour5 thoughts5 and feelings* 2o%ever5 many participants o$(ected to the method as too un7 structured5 personal5 and em$arrassing for people %ho %or! together* 'esponding to these concerns5 "r* &tuart )t!ins5 %ith consultant "r* #lias orter5 developed the Life Orientations &urvey and the Life Orientations Method $ased on the %or! of #rich Fromm5 9arl 'ogers5 and )$raham Maslo%* In ?D0A5 the Life Orientations &urvey %as presented $y "r* )t!ins and his partner "r* )llan Katcher in the 2uman Factors in Management course at L9L) and %ith such diverse clients as the )merican 9ancer &ociety5 Mattel Toys5 Ceneral Foods5 L*&* &teel5 and the &tate of 9alifornia*

eople %ere fascinated %ith the non7critical5 easy7to7accept interpretation of their survey results and %ere delighted %ith the o$(ective %ay in %hich they could no% tal! to each other a$out their strengths* )fter the fun and surprise of classifying their $ehaviour5 they $egan to as! %hat they could do %ith their ne%7found self7a%areness and understanding* To ans%er these questions5 "r* )t!ins extended the Life Orientations Method $eyond diagnosis to include six developmental strategies779onfirming5 9apitaliMing5 Moderating5 &upplementing5 #xtending5 and Bridging77for performance improvement* To simplify and aid memory5 the Life Orientations trademar! %as shortened $y "r* )t!ins to LIFO5 a contraction of Life Orientations* )t!ins and Katcher soon found the demand for the LIFO Method outstripped their delivery capacity5 so they started licensing organisational trainers in the LIFO Method and developing %or!$oo!s to accelerate learning* In ?DE05 Katcher $egan to focus his LIFO practice internationally5 appointing agents in many countries5 and focusing on executive coaching5 team$uilding5 and O" applications* )t!ins directed LIFO programs in the Lnited &tates5 %ith emphasis on the developmental strategies applied to management development5 individual productivity5 communications5 and team%or!* 2e named this developmental emphasis LIFO Training* &ince then5 the LIFO Method and LIFO Training have $een used $y over A million people in +,5,,, organisations in +A countries* One of KatcherJs earliest LIFO agents5 Business 9onsultants5 Inc*5 Fapan5 gre% to $ecome one of the largest consulting firms in Fapan and one of the largest users of LIFO Training in the %orld* &ince ?DEA in Fapan alone5 ?5??E50-/ people have completed a LIFO survey* B9on5 as it is also !no%n5 purchased )llan Katcher International5 Inc*5 in +,,, and &tuart )t!ins5 Inc*5 in +,,? in order to integrate the %orld%ide reach and expertise of the t%o companies* The firms %ere merged in Octo$er +,,? to $ecome B9on LIFO International5 Inc*5 %hich is no% the sole source for the LIFO Method and LIFO Training %orld%ide* !$TI erses LIFO Less T"pecasting and !ore $eha ioural Change &tyles7$ased instruments are popular training tools $ecause they reduce the complexities of human $ehaviour do%n to a managea$le num$er of NtypesN or Nstyles*N They give people a feeling of quic! insight into themselves and others* They provide a common language for tal!ing a$out similarities and differences* Oet some of the $est learning possi$ilities inherent in these instruments are often overloo!ed* )nd sometimes these instruments actually reinforce stereotypes that limit our understanding of people* Personalit" T"pes ersus Strategies for Change Most styles7$ased instruments are $ased on the assumption that differences in $ehaviour arise from different personality types* This $elief can $e a $arrier to $ehavioural change $ecause a personality NtypeN is fixed 77 it is not su$(ect to choice or change* eople say to themselves5 NIf that is the %ay that I am5 if thatJs me5 %hy should I changePN They may even

%onder5 N2o% can I changePN Typing people provides them %ith information a$out who the+ are5 $ut it does not offer them guidelines a$out how to improve their performance, LIFO Training ta!es a fundamentally different approach from typing or la$elling* It holds that you are not one type or another: it demonstrates that people prefer some $ehavioural styles more than others* Though it $egins %ith a styles7$ased instrument5 it does not typecast people* The LIFO &urvey descri$es differences in behaviour5 rather than perception and (udgment as does the Myers7Briggs ersonality Type Indicator :MBTI>* eople are %illing and a$le to change %hat they do* erception and (udgment are much less amena$le to change* Changing what people dobeats telling them who they are. To support the emphasis on $ehavioural change5 the LIFO style la$els end %ith the suffix5 i7n7g* This suggests a process5 not a fixed Nproduct*N For example5 people are descri$ed as Npreferring the &upporting Civing &tyle5N or Nacting in a &upporting Civing %ay*N Preference not Competence The LIFO styles also descri$e $ehavioural preferences5 not competencies* articipants are not la$elled5 (udged5 or limited $y their survey results* La$elling someone %ith a personality type can $ecome an excuse for su$standard performance* :NIJm no good at that 77 IJm (ust not that type of person*N> Freedom from Categorical )udgments In LIFO training5 differences in $ehaviour are descri$ed quantitativel+5 not qualitatively* There is no reference to good or $ad5 right or %rong5 strong or %ea!* Qualitative or categorical (udgments often lead to oppositional thin!ing 77 Nmy %ayN vs* Nyour %ayN 77 %hich can promote conflict5 impede team%or!5 and ma!e people less %illing to change their $ehaviour* The LIFO survey identifies a personJs relative preference for four $asic $ehavioural styles or patterns* #veryone uses all four $asic $ehavioural patterns* They (ust use them to varying degrees* Of the people ta!ing the LIFO survey5 //6 prefer using t%o styles regularly5 %hile -?6 use three styles and /6 use all four styles %ith a$out the same frequency* That leaves only D6 preferring to use (ust one style most of the time* We are not one st+le or another - we prefer some st+les more than others, The MBTI yields a single5 four7%ord Npersonality typeN la$el5 %hich is a constructed $y selecting one %ord from each of four %ord pairingsRfor example5 N#xtroverted &ensing Thin!ing Fudging*N These la$els are determined $y a process of Nsemantic differential5N in %hich one rates oneself on a scale %ith one %ord at one end of the scale and another %ord at the other end* MBTI results are represented in terms of the %ords at the extreme end of the scales5 %hich form eitherSor categories :such as Nintrovert vs* extrovertN>* The resulting Npersonality typesN do not adequately express the %ide range of $ehaviours in $et%een the t%o extremes* This approach transforms quantitative differences into categorical differences* <ith enough training5 la$els such as these may help people understand themselves $etter* 2o%ever5 these la$els still encourage people to thin!5 NThatJs (ust ho% I

amNRreinforcing attitudes that can $loc! real $ehavioural change* )s a result5 it can increase communication gaps $et%een people instead of $ridging them* * +uantitati e ,ie% of Strength Leads to -reater $eha ioural Change In contrast to the categorical la$els of the MBTI approach5 LIFO theory vie%s $ehaviour along a continuum5 from Ntoo littleN at one end to Ntoo muchN on the other* The notion is that %e all tend to underuse some strengths5 and overuse others* #ither extreme can ma!e us less effective and can $e perceived $y others as an irritating %ea!ness* LIFO training eliminates the concept of personal N%ea!ness5N %hich creates a defensive learning climate* <hat other people call %ea!nesses are seen simply as excesses5 or strengths carried too far* These excessive $ehaviours may $e unproductive5 $ut they are not N$adN 77 they are (ust Ntoo much of a good thing*N .o-called /weaknesses/ are simpl+ strengths pushed to excess too much of a good thing, For example5 a person may overuse the strength of acting quic!ly and $ecome impulsive* )nother person may overdo the search for excellence and $ecome perfectionistic* The LIFO approach to descri$ing $ehaviour in strength7$ased terms allo%s people to accept developmental goals and receive feed$ac! %ith a minimum of defensiveness* LIFO developmental strategies help people identify %hich strengths they need to use less frequentl+ and %hich to use more frequentl+* <or!shop participants develop action plans for gradually changing their $ehavioural patterns so they display (ust the right amount of the appropriate strengths to accomplish %hat they %ant effectively and efficiently* &ince almost everyone needs repeated practice to change esta$lished ha$its5 this incremental approach ma!es it easier for participants to progressively master ne% %ays of vie%ing and responding to people5 pro$lems5 and situations* )ny approach that is $ased on categories 77 especially personality types 77 ma!es it much harder for people to change their $ehaviour* ersonality theories propose that the %ay one $ehaves springs from %ho one Nis*N )s a consequence5 people are li!ely to feel that in order to change %hat they do5 they have to change %ho they are* This is of course a recipe for failure* Strength.$ased Feed&ack Is /asier to *ccept ) quantitative vie% of strength also ma!es it easier for people to give and to receive constructive feed$ac!* <hen people are frustrated or irritated $y others5 they typically use pe(orative terms to descri$e %hat $others them: NBill is domineering5N N&ally is stu$$orn5N or NFeff is aimless*N If these !inds of %ords are used %hen giving feed$ac!5 they trigger defensive reactions and create resistance to change* In LIFO %or!shops5 participants learn to vie% unproductive $ehaviours as the excessive use of productive strengths* ) person %ho comes across as domineering is simply $eing overly directing5 someone %ho is acting stu$$ornly is $eing too steadfast5 and someone %ho appears aimless is too experimental* <ith this understanding5 people learn to give strength7$ased feed$ac!5 in %hich they recommend that others use a little bit less of some 0

strengths and a little bit more of other strengths* This strength7$ased feed$ac! is much more li!ely to $e perceived as helpful and supportive* eople are therefore more li!ely to accept and act upon it* People learn to use a little bit more of some strengths and a little bit less of other strengths. Si0teen T"pes ersus Four St"les There are sixteen different MBTI personality types* It can $e difficult for %or!shop participants to remem$er the meaning of each type5 let alone understand the differences $et%een them* The complexity of the categories ma!es it hard for people to learn ho% to recogniMe other peopleJs NtypesN and therefore determine the most effective communication strategies for influencing them* In contrast5 there are (ust four $asic LIFO $ehaviour styles5 or orientations to life5 %hich are much easier to remem$er* This conceptual simplicity follo%s the psychologist Ceorge KellyJs Nmini7maxN principle: any $ehavioural construct should include the minimum num$er of concepts required to explain the maximum range of $ehaviours* The simplicity of LIFO theory does not oversimplify the diversity of human $ehaviour* In fact5 it does a far $etter (o$ of explaining the extraordinary variety of %ays that people $ehave* It does this $y identifying a personJs relative preference for the four $asic LIFO categories under $oth favourable and unfavourable conditions* Oet the smaller num$er of concepts ma!es it easier for participants to learn5 remem$er5 and apply the information in practical %ays that improve their performance* The simplicity of LI !" theory encompasses the e#traordinarydiversity of human behaviour.

LIFO St"le Preferences are Situational The %ord pairs that form the MBTI semantic differentials are not presented in any context* Oou simply rate yourself in the a$stract* In contrast5 the LIFO survey is highly contextual* <hen ta!ing the survey5 you are as!ed to thin! of yourself in a particular setting: at %or!5 %ith your family5 or as part of a specific group* The survey itself consists of a series of statements that descri$e different situations* )fter reading each statement5 you ran! four possi$le reactions according to ho% li!ely you are to act that %ay in that particular situation* The choices that you ma!e are therefore much more concrete 77 much more connected to ho% you actually see yourself responding to people5 pro$lems5 and situations*

People $eha e 1ifferentl" in 1ifferent Situations In contrast to the fixed la$els of the MBTI approach5 LIFO style preferences are not set in stone* They are dynamic* eople use different styles in different contexts and in different relationships* For example5 research sho%s that approximately /,6 of the population changes their $ehavioural patterns in stressful situations* eople may also use different styles at home and at %or!5 or %ith their supervisors and %ith their co7%or!ers* )ny instrument that yields a single Npersonality typeN is therefore inaccurate predictor of ho% most people %ill actually $ehave in the real %orld* E

$alf the population behaves differently under stress.

$e"ond 1iagnosis to Impro ing Performance LIFO %or!$oo!s5 training materials5 and performance support tools ena$le participants to lin! their LIFO survey results to six performance improvement strategies to attain clearly defined development goals* These materials focus on appl+ing information to improve performance5 rather than on information for informationJs sa!e or5 even %orse5 la$elling people so that their $ehaviour can $e predicted* redictions tend to $e self7fulfilling5 and once a person has $een la$elled5 his or her options for $ehavioural change may actually $e reduced instead of expanded* L !O training focuses on improving performance0 not 1ust diagnosing patterns, / er"da" Language2 Practical Focus2 and /ase of *dministration LIFO training uses everyday language5 free of psychological terms and (argon5 ma!ing the concepts easy to understand and to discuss* 9ontrast the LIFO style la$el N&upporting CivingN %ith the MBTI la$el NIntroverted &ensing Feeling Fudging*N In LIFO %orkshops participants practice ne% skills that enhance producti it"2 communication2 and team%ork2 and the" %ork together to de elop practical action plans to use these skills to attack immediate2 real.%orld pro&lems3 The LIFO instrument can $e administered in (ust ?/ to +, minutes* <or!shop participants can ta$ulate their results in a$out five minutes* The LIFO survey can also $e completed online in advance of a %or!shop and automatically ta$ulated5 saving valua$le classroom time* Because of its systematic structure and practical focus5 LIFO training is easily grasped and immediately useful* It provides a cognitive map for getting through5 getting agreement5 and getting action from others* articipants learn to give strength7$ased feed$ac! a$out $ehavioural choices and their impact* They learn a language for discussing individual5 interpersonal5 and team performance issues %hile respecting diverse values5 goals5 strengths5 and styles* Pro en Results %ith World%ide *cceptance LIFO training has $enefited over eight million people in more than +,5,,, organisations %orld%ide* It has proved itself to $e a valua$le part of management and supervisory development %ith target populations varying %idely in educational $ac!ground5 %or! experience5 and organisational position* !ultiple *pplications

LIFO training is used in numerous applications5 including team $uilding5 management and supervisory development5 leadership training5 interpersonal communication5 selling styles5 and conflict resolution* <hat are the LIFO &tylesP There is a total of 4 styles:7 The supporting 4 gi ing.in orientation

Philosoph+: 5If I pro e m" %orth &" %orking hard and pursuing e0cellence2 the good things in life %ill come to me36 5I alue e0cellence36 2oals: Pro e %orth3 $e helpful3 .trengths: Principled2 cooperati e2 dedicated2 pursues e0cellence3 For someone %ho emphasises this orientation in hisSher $ehaviour it is very important to $e a ;good person=5 to $e nice to people5 to feel a %orth%hile human $eing 3 one %ho is doing hisSher share to ma!e a contri$ution5 and then some* There is a strong $elief that ideals and values are important5 and that each of us can help ma!e this a $etter %orld to live in* Thus %hat is of greatest concern is a sense of mission and purpose5 and the desire to $ehave in such a %ay that one can feel heSshe is living up to hisSher $est intentions and capa$ilities* Key to one@s efforts is the importance of not simply preaching $ut $eing 3 serving as an example for others5 trying to $e responsive and co7operative* There is an inner sense of satisfaction derived from $ehaving in this %ay %hich goes $eyond external recognition* One does not $oast a$out personal $ehaviour requesting recognition although there %ill $e good feelings derived from appreciation and ac!no%ledgement of personal efforts* There is a $asic %illingness to $elieve in the %orth and value of others 3 to $e interested in helping people gro% and develop* One $ecomes a mem$er of a group and shares its goals and values5 and should $e dedicated to enhancing its %elfare5 expecting appropriate guidance and direction from leaders5 prefera$ly people %ho have personal integrity and earned respect through their competence* One $elieves that re%ards %ill come from $eing earned 3 that a ;good deed= %ill $ring its (ust desserts* Ideals serve as standards* Thus one is al%ays comparing self and others to those standards5 D

hopefully meeting them through constant striving through improvement* Failure to meet such goals often leads to disappointment5 disillusionment and guilt* In conflict situations there is a desire to deal %ith the other person in a fair and reasona$le %ay %ith the expectation that there %ill $e reciprocity* There is little interest in trying to ta!e advantage of the other person and great distaste and discomfort for emotional confrontations* Often5 it is difficult to directly as! for something one %ants or expects5 hoping for the other person to recognise the need and gratify it* <hen pressed hard5 the person relying on this orientation is li!ely to accede to the other person5 %ithout expressing reservations* Thus others %ill often feel that this person is easy to get along %ith* <hen crises arrive5 such a person all too often tends to feel overly responsi$le yet is %illing to see! and accept advice from others %ho demonstrate their expertise and mastery* %+pical behaviours: through listening to %hat people have to say5 appreciating others@ a$ilities to solve pro$lems5 through providing resources necessary for others to get things done5 through encouraging others %hen they meet difficulties5 lending a hand5 removing road $loc!s %hich may $e in someone@s %ay5 preparing the %ay for someone5 $eing considerate of another person@s time or difficulties and not intruding %ith one@s o%n needs5 demands5 or $urdening the person %ith additional inputs5 anticipating the needs of another person and ta!ing care of them in advance5 co7operating and colla$orating %ith others to expedite a tas!5 ma!e it easier5 more en(oya$le5 etc*5 providing the value of one@s experience and advice to facilitate progress :if requested>5 underta!ing an assignment in a %illing5 %holehearted and dedicated manner5 not helping5 unless as!ed5 $ut $eing %illing to pitch in if as!ed5 emphasises the importance of goals and values5 providing assignments $ut not constantly as!ing for information a$out it5 encouraging others to participate in pro$lem7solving and decision7ma!ing5 trusting others5 and helping others develop* The controlling 4 taking.o er orientation

Philosoph+:

?,

5If I get results &" &eing competent and sei7ing opportunit"2 the good things in life %ill &e there for the taking36 5I alue action36 2oals: $e competent3 -et results3 .trengths: Persistent2 initiating2 urgent2 directing3 Of ma(or concern is getting things accomplished that one desires 3 and quic!ly* The person %ho emphasises this orientation has high confidence in hisSher capa$ility5 in the $elief that given dedicated energy and imagination any pro$lem can $e solved 3 and usually5 if %ithin the area of hisSher !no%ledge and experience5 through personal involvement* &uch a person has an interest in ;ma!ing hay %hile the sun shines= and ta!ing advantage of opportunities that arise* 9onsequently5 time is of utmost importance* Further5 there is a tendency to trust one@s o%n intuitive assessment of situations5 or to rely on experts %ho one trusts and5 having done that5 to marshal the resources necessary to ma!e things happen* This is also accompanied $y an en(oyment of the po%er of decision7ma!ing and the delight in autonomous functioning* 9hallenges and variety intrigue such a person* 9onsequently someone %ho favours this orientation is usually involved in many activities* There is a $elief in individual responsi$ility and capa$ility* <hen conflict occurs there is a %illingness to confront differences in a confident and assertive %ay to get one@s %ay and to convince others of the value of the position that has $een ta!en* Through intensive give and ta!e5 this person learns the value of other vie%points and can ma!e decisions accordingly* There is en(oyment of competitive disputation5 as %ell as an emphasis on stating one@s vie%s and feelings openly and directly* In stress situations5 there is a desire to restore control immediately5 to ta!e actions quic!ly and to $e involved in a num$er of situations personally* rompt and competent handling of situations is valued*

%+pical behaviours: expressing confidence that the person can achieve %hat is as!ed for :I can do that* I !no% it can $e done>5 expressing desires directly to eliminate confusion5 indicating specifically %hat one is loo!ing for5 ma!ing decisions quic!ly5 gathering resources and directing them against the tas!5 letting others !no% %here they stand %ith himSher5 $eing %illing to ta!e ris!s5 staying on top of %hat is happening5 acting directly to sho% %hat is needed5 confronting differences5 ta!ing charge %hen there is no action5 exercising initiative to get things done5 and acting independently* ??

The conser ing 4 holding.on orientation

Philosoph+: 5If I think &efore I act and make the most of %hat I8 e got2 I can &uild up m" suppl" of the good things in life36 2oals: $e careful3 -et it right3 .trengths: S"stematic2 anal"tical2 maintaining2 tenacious3 The person %ho relies heavily on this orientation is interested in minimising loss and optimising gains* There is a !een interest in getting things done accurately and thoroughly* )nalysis5 planning5 systems and routines are used to minimise ris! and assure that everything is $eing handled properly* 9are5 caution5 organisation and good systematic ha$its are therefore highly valued* One %ould feel that it@s a lot easier and less expensive5 to ma!e sure one !no%s %hat one %ants to do5 has surveyed alternatives to determine the $est and most economical %ay to do it5 has planned ho% to get it done %ith resources availa$le and follo%s7up systematically to assure that things have $een done according to plan* There is a $elief that more things get out of hand $ecause people lose focus and concentration 3 $ecome distracted5 instead of staying %ith one thing fully until it is finished* olicies and procedures are follo%ed rigorously* Once systems5 policies and procedures have $een esta$lished this person favours follo%ing them until someone proves there is a $etter %ay 3 or one that ma!es more sense* )ttention is paid to small details as %ell* 9onsequently there is emphasis on appropriate documentation and information retrieval systems* In disagreements !een attention is paid to the accuracy of facts and information5 the quality of reasoning involved and the systematic covering of all aspects of the issue* There is a calm and deli$erate manner preferred to deal %ith such situations5 a reluctance to engage in emotional $ehaviour and a preference for spending time on research $efore $ecoming involved in arguments* Once engaged in de$ate5 only $etter facts or superior logic %ill prevail in overcoming this person@s vie%s* There is no rush to achieve resolution and one can hang on doggedly despite pressure* ) similar deli$erateness5 emphasising research and analysis5 characterises the approach to extreme stress situations* Once understanding of %hat is involved is clear5 then efforts are made to organise a planned approach to remedy the situation* Information is gathered as ?+

efforts progress to assess %hat is involved5 to !eep trac! of events and to evaluate performance* Long term resolutions are favoured to immediate relief* %+pical behaviours: dou$le chec!ing %hat has happened5 esta$lishing a clear structure for %or! efforts5 carefully analysing %hat is involved $efore acting5 documenting %hat happens5 calling attention to the need for information $efore ma!ing decisions5 spending effort to assure clarity of instructions5 thoroughly revie%ing all the details involved5 adhering to schedules and $udgets5 attention to costs %hen considering proposals5 maintaining calmness %hen crises arrive5 assuring o$(ective and fair evaluations5 ma!ing sure everything is treated in an organised and systematic fashion5 chec!ing the logic and facts that underlie a position5 encouraging attention to details5 assuring adherence to policies and procedures5 providing consistent $ehaviour5 and requesting appropriate planning and organisation for meetings* The adapting 4 dealing.a%a" orientation

Philosoph+: 5If I please other people and fill their needs first2 then I can get the good things in life that I8 e %anted all along36 5I alue harmon"36 2oals: 9no% people3 -et along3 .trengths: /mpathetic2 tactful2 fle0i&le2 enthusiastic3 ) $asic consideration is the desire to have people li!e and admire you* There is !een interest in $eing included $y others in activities and groups* ) person %ho emphasises this orientation en(oys %or!ing %ith people5 finds the challenge of ne% relationships exciting and !no%s that once one gets to understand people one can influence them a lot* There is

?-

effort spent o$serving as %ell as $eing friendly and socia$le* There is the realisation that understanding ho% a person thin!s and feels5 %hat heSshe values and %hat heSshe is sensitive to provides important !eys to gain acceptance and colla$oration* This person has also learned that it is important to !eep oneself open to ne% experiences5 to $e enthusiastic and %illing to experiment5 and to $e flexi$le in relating to people* <hen one approach fails there is the feeling that there are others that can %or!* #ven in failure situations5 the $elief exists that if one !eeps one@s eye open there %ill $e cues that %ill help to discover more successful %ays* There is emphasis on presenting points and ideas %ith tact and care* Life is vie%ed as a matter of give and ta!e 3 this person en(oys negotiating and dealing %ith people* 2eSshe $elieves that it pays to go through life ma!ing as many friends as possi$le 3 and !eeping one@s options open* ) friendly and optimistic attitude is valued as a $asic asset to achieve success* One tries5 %henever possi$le to communicate positive feelings a$out others 3 to $e generous in offering compliments and statements of ac!no%ledgement and appreciation for efforts that others have made* &ensitivity to feelings and social amenities is highly valued* 2umour and light touches are appreciated and utilised %henever possi$le* There is a %in7%in attitude reflected in conflicts and disagreements* One is attentive to the other person@s vie%point5 ac!no%ledges its value and tries to utilise understanding to provide convincing arguments for one@s o%n position* 9ritical and demeaning comments are rarely employed* The ma(or effort is made to $e persuasive %ithout antagonising the other person* 2umour and other tension7relieving remar!s are made to defuse tension and preserve relationships* ) %illingness to compromise and achieve mutually satisfactory agreements is demonstrated readily* In stress situations there is attentiveness to morale as %ell as resolving difficulties* &uch a person is flexi$le and open to ne% ideas5 %illing to experiment %ith any approach that could $e successful* )n optimistic outloo! is maintained and communicated to others5 $oth staff and superiors* %+pical behaviours: expressing appreciation for efforts5 sensing feelings and ac!no%ledging them5 expressing empathetic remar!s5 listening to ne% ideas in a positive %ay5 encouraging flexi$ility and experimentation5 $uilding harmony and friendly relationships5 providing information ho% people are li!ely to feel if treated in a particular %ay5 a%areness of customer needs and attitudes5 %illingness to see the other side of the issue5 negotiating in a positive and %in7%in %ay5 expressing remar!s that ma!e people feel good a$out themselves5 providing a sense of fun in %hat is $eing done5 expressing and encouraging enthusiasm and optimism5 %illingness to approach changes in a positive manner5 a$ility to deal positively %ith the pu$lic and other groups5 %illingness to try something first $efore accepting or re(ecting it5 and tactful and diplomatic $ehaviour in dealing %ith delicate situations* Relia&ilit" and ,alidit"

?4

Relia&ilit" and ,alidit" of the LIFO Personal St"le Sur e" an %ibbles &" 34antab,50 &.c 3London5 ntroduction 9ommon questions from potential licensees and from participants completing a ersonal &tyle &urvey are ;2o% relia$le is this surveyP= ;Is it relevant to me at %or! :or at home>P= and ;)re the results accurateP= These are important questions and must $e ans%ered clearly if the results of the survey are to have any credi$ility for that person* The difficulty is that the questions can $e ans%ered in a num$er of different %ays depending on the perspective of the questioner and their degree of understanding of the issues of relia$ility and validity in the design of $ehavioural surveys* This note see!s to give licensees a frame%or! for dealing %ith $oth the technical and non7technical questioner* %hat does &psychometric' mean( This term is %idely used to descri$e a$ility5 aptitude5 $ehavioural and personality surveys and questionnaires* Literally ;metric= means measure and ;psycho= means mind 3 its dictionary definition is ;the science of measuring mental capacities and processes=* This is done through the collection and interpretation of survey data* The ersonal &tyle &urvey %as designed using psychometric principles of survey construction* %he difference between a test and a surve+ ) test is designed to measure some aspect of a$ility5 aptitude5 personality or motivation against a pre7determined standard* otentially it can $e threatening to the participant5 as there is inevita$ly a sense of pass or fail in the analysis* It is therefore5 important that the use of tests is demonstrated to $e o$(ective5 fair and appropriate* Tests of personality5 for example5 commonly have measures of:

fa!ing good fa!ing $ad and consistency

to ensure the results are not distorted* The $enefits of this process are that it is o$(ective :as far as possi$le> and usually rigorous* The potential disadvantages are that it is threatening and can $e a mystery to the participant %ho is trying to understand ho% the results %ere arrived at* %he Personal .t+le .urve+s are not tests and should never be described or used as such, #very$ody scores ?,,6* #ach survey simply see!s to measure ho% the person completing it prefers to $ehave %hen things are going %ell :favoura$le conditions> and %hen they are experiencing stress or conflict :unfavoura$le conditions>* The surveys are not situation specific and are not a predictor of effective or ineffective $ehaviour 3 each person@s profile is capa$le of $eing effective or ineffective depending on their understanding and

?/

management of their $ehavioural strengths and potential %ea!nesses* 8evertheless the results can $e very po%erful5 giving people insights into ho% to:

ma!e more of their strengths5 ma!e more effective use of the strengths of others5 minimise potentially inappropriate or ineffective $ehaviour5 and get on %ell %ith people %ho are not li!e them*

)nsuring the reliability and validity of the personal style survey findings The ersonal &tyle &urvey is constructed as a ;forced choice ran!ing= of four different endings to each statement* The process of forcing the person completing the survey to choose $et%een 4 $ehaviours quic!ly is designed to access the individual@s sub-conscious self-understanding and to $ring it into conscious understanding through feed$ac! and discussion of the survey results* Because the process is non7threatening it is possi$le to openly discuss and confirm the survey findings %ith the client 3 ;"oes this feel or sound accurate to themP= The licensee can encourage them to discuss and validate the findings %ith friends and colleagues* It is important to ensure that they choose someone who the+ trust to know them and to have a constructive opinion to offer* If necessary5 they should $e allo%ed to modify the findings to create a ;$est fit= profile of their $ehaviour* 2o%ever5 some aspects of traditional relia$ility and validity measures are helpful* Belo% is a description of the measures and ho% they relate to the ersonal &tyle &urvey* *eliability &urvey scores vary from one measurement to another* ) range of factors may cause this:

differing degrees of effort variations in attention levels administration health circumstances etc*

The precision or consistency of measurement displayed $y a survey is referred to as its relia$ility* It is normally expressed in terms of a statistic 3 the correlation coefficient5 often referred to as the relia$ility coefficient* The three most common types of relia$ility measure are:

Test 3 retest* This compares the results of the same survey $eing completed $y the same candidate at different points in time* ersonal &tyle &urvey 3 Tersion T%o* This compares the results of t%o or more forms of the same survey completed $y the same group of su$(ects* Internal consistency* This measures the performance of all items :questions> in a survey $y comparing the t%o halves of the survey 3 the split7half technique or using the Kuder7'ichardson relia$ility coefficient :the mean of all split7half coefficients>*

?0

'elia$ility coefficients are usually expressed as a num$er $et%een ,*? and ?*,* ) coefficient of ,*+ %ould suggest a much lo%er level of relia$ility than a coefficient of ,*0* It should $e $orn in mind ho%ever that this is strictly incorrect5 as the figure is onl+ an estimate based on a particular group of people, t is not 1ust the statistic but the qualit+ of the stud+ from which it was derived which needs to be understood, It is important for any survey to measure consistently and %ith a reasona$le degree of accuracy* The relia$ility coefficient for the ersonal &tyle &urvey %as derived using 9ron$ach@s coefficient alpha and is reported $elo% from an analysis $y "r )llan Katcher :co developer of the Life Orientations Method> for the eight scales: Orientations &upporting S Civing7in 9ontrolling S Ta!ing7over 9onserving S 2olding7on )dapting S "ealing7a%ay Fa oura&le ,*/4 ,*E, ,*0,*0? :nfa oura&le ,*/4 ,*0? ,*40 ,*-E

%est6retest stud+ 7 8+ 9r "llan :atcher The reporting of the sta$ility of test results over time is usually reported as part of the data around the performance of any psychological instrument* TestSretest data has a less clear meaning %ith regard to test relia$ility than internal consistency data* 2o%ever5 it cannot $e determined %hether the person has changed over time5 has reported him or herself from t%o different standpoints :not test7related> or %hether the survey evo!es different !inds of reporting at different times* There is also the attenuation pro$lemU on the second completion of the survey5 it is no longer really ne% 3 even though in the study reported $elo%5 meaning %as not put on the test $et%een the first and second administration* &till5 in all5 one should expect some amount of sta$ility if the test measures salient varia$les5 though apparent shortcomings are very hard to interpret* The ersonal &tyle &urvey %as administered to 0- graduate students and then re7 administered after five %ee!s* The su$(ects %ere not given their scores or any information a$out the meaning of the survey until after the second administration* The simple product7 moment correlations are as follo%s: Orientations &upporting S Civing7in 9ontrolling S Ta!ing7over 9onserving S 2olding7on )dapting S "ealing7a%ay Fa oura&le ,*4D ,*0? ,*0+ ,*0D :nfa oura&le ,*/,*/E ,*0, ,*-D

It is of interest to see %hether the Life Orientations Method style descriptions change from one administration to the next* #ach pair of test profiles %as analysed to note %hether the $asic descriptions changed* The results of this analysis are as follo%s: ?E

8o change :favoura$le> 8o change :unfavoura$le> 8o change :considering $oth>

-A of 0-0,6 -? of 0-4D6 ?D of 0--,6

#ven though -,6 of those tested sho%ed virtually identical scores on $oth administrations5 it %as suspected that those %ho sho%ed a clearly predominant style preference %ould $e less li!ely to changeU that is5 if the test really measures some genotype varia$les* )gain5 the test %as considered in t%o parts5 the ;favoura$le= style and ;unfavoura$le= style* +? su$(ects sho%ed a predominant style choice :/ points more than any other score> on the ;favoura$le= scales and of those5 ?45 or 0E65 sho%ed the same style preference on the second administration* +, su$(ects sho%ed a predominant ;unfavoura$le= style %ith ?05 or A,65 sho%ing no change on the second ta!ing* These same data %ere also examined to pic! out those su$(ects %ho had clear ;favoura$le= and ;unfavoura$le= styles that %ere the same5 another gross measure of strength of preference* Of the +E %ho sho%ed such a pattern on the original administration ?E5 or 0-65 sho%ed no change %ith the second administration* The expectation that those %ho have clear style preferences are less li!ely to change over time is strongly supported* Overall5 it is evident that the ersonal &tyle &urvey measures pretty much the same thing in people over time though5 as stated earlier5 the interpretation of less than perfect sta$ility is difficult* &ome anecdotal evidence suggests that changes in scores could $e due to su$(ects focusing on different parts of their lives as they too! the test at different times5 or that they could respond differently according to mood* One person reported some progress in his personal therapy $et%een the first and second administrations5 and felt the second test results reflected more %hat he %as going after and the first a rather pessimistic vie% of himself* But this sort of evidence only adds to the confidence in the survey@s relia$ility and usefulness* :e+ Points on the ;eliabilit+ of the Personal .t+le .urve+ In demonstrating %hy the survey should $e considered to $e relia$le it is important to ma!e the follo%ing points:

Trac! record 3 the survey has $een in use internationally in all the ma(or developed countries for over +/ years* Our experience of using the survey5 com$ined %ith data from our licensees is used to constantly improve the product range* Translations into other languages are carefully chec!ed $y experienced survey developers from each country for accuracy in terms of the culture and linguistic nuances 3 rather than (ust literally translated* Over A million people have completed the survey* The model is $ased on %ell respected and soundly $ased psychological theories: o #rich Fromm in Man For 2imself o the strengthS%ea!ness paradox o 4 $ehavioural orientations o 9arl 'ogers the founding father of client centred therapy o client centred development o communication congruency

?A

The standard statistical measure of relia$ility often quoted is to achieve a correlation coefficient of ,*E or a$ove* 2o%ever this measure is relevant for sychometric Tests5 often used in isolation from other dataG The ersonal &tyle &urvey is not a test5 its structure can $e easily explained 3 its results can therefore $e chec!ed and explored openly and fully %ith the participant* Therefore a lo%er measure of statistical relia$ility5 ,*4 3 ,*0 is perfectly accepta$le* 9onclusions are easily understood $y the participants and :$ecause the process is non7threatening> can $e openly chec!ed against previous scores and reasons for differences explored (ointly to esta$lish confidence in the findings*

!uture 9evelopments The technically minded %ill $e a%are that the transparent construction of the survey limits its performance in testSretest* 2aving completed the survey once completing the same survey at a later date can allo% some unconscious manipulation of data 3 if the individual has had feed$ac! on their profile :unli!e the study descri$ed a$ove> they may ans%er on the second occasion as they thin! they should* Licensees may not $e a%are that %e already have a Personal .t+le .urve+ 7 <ersion %wo for use %ith individuals %ho %ish to assess ho% their $ehaviours may have changed* "uring ?DDA %e %ill $e ma!ing availa$le for the first time a range of surveys %here the sequence of the ans%ers has $een randomised* <e %ill notify licensees in the quarterly ne%sletter %hen they are availa$le to purchase* The *elationship +etween *eliability and ,alidity 'elia$ility has importance $ecause of its relationship to the validity of the survey* <hilst relia$ility is a$out the measurement5 validity is a$out the relevance and usefulness of %hat is measured* It is possi$le for a survey to $e relia$le i*e* to measure the same thing consistently and %ith precision and for %hat it measures to $e of no use or invalid* )n example of this %ould $e 3 !no%ledge of the person@s $ehavioural preferences is not a valid measure of their intellectual a$ility :the ersonal &tyle &urvey does not measure this>* 2o%ever5 it is not possi$le for survey results to $e valid if the data is not relia$le* ,alidity -easures <e shall distinguish three types of non-technical validity %hich in a sense could $e argued not to $e validity at all:

face validity content7analytic validity faith validity

***and four main types of technical validity:


content validity construct validity concurrent validity predictive validity

Face alidit" Face validity is concerned %ith %hether an instrument appears to measure %hat it %as designed to measure* <hilst face validity has no technical or statistical $asis5 it must not $e

?D

overloo!ed if a survey is to $e accepted $y participants or :psychometrically> untrained managerial staff* Content.anal"tic alidit" One sometimes hears test users spea! of content7analytic validity %here the item content of a test has $een analysed and related su$(ectively to a$ilities that are of assumed importance in the (o$* )s an illustration5 the argument might go:

<e %ish to select a good salesman* This survey as!s questions a$out selling* Therefore this is a valid survey*

This is often %hat untrained people call validity $ut it has o$vious fla%s in failing to define %hat the specific characteristics of a good salesman are and ho% the survey %ill measure these* Faith alidit" This is often the most difficult to deal %ith* It is a $elief in the validity of an instrument %ithout any o$(ective data to $ac! it up5 and the evidence is not %antedG The more empiricall" &ased concepts are; Content alidit" This is mainly in relation to attainment tests e*g* a spelling test containing only the names of politicians in )merica %ould $e a poor test of general spelling in the Lnited Kingdom* 2igh content validity should al%ays $e chec!ed %ith one of the empirical methods of validation descri$ed $elo% %hen using any survey as a test* Construct alidit" 9onstruct validity is more a$stract than the other forms of validity and is the extent to %hich a test measures some theoretical construct or trait* &uch constructs might $e mechanical5 ver$al or spatial a$ility5 emotional sta$ility or intelligence* Building up a picture of the construct validity of a test can $e a long process and involves any information that thro%s some light on the nature of the construct under investigation* The complex statistical technique %hich goes past the more visual inspection of inter7correlations $et%een different tests and %hich is often met in construct validation is !no%n as factor analysis* Other information5 %hich can lead to an understanding of the construct validity of a test5 includes internal consistency and the effect of experimentally controlled varia$les and also varia$les such as age5 sex and culture on test scores* Concurrent alidit" 9oncurrent validity is the relationship $et%een test scores and some criterion of performance o$tained at the same time* Thus5 if %e %ere to test a group of computer programmers and correlate the results %ith supervisors@ ratings of %or! performance5 %e %ould have underta!en a concurrent validity study* <here %e %ish to !no% the current status of an individual5 concurrent validity is the most appropriate form of validity* &ome organisations5 for example5 use attainment tests of (o$ !no%ledge at the end of training courses or in ma!ing decisions on staff promotion* +,

2o%ever5 although a test may $e of high concurrent validity it does not necessarily mean that it %ill $e useful in predicting later performance* Predicti e alidit" This is the extent to %hich a test predicts some future outcome or criterion* This is of crucial importance in personnel selection and placement* T%o difficulties in relation to this form of study are:

The timescales for underta!ing studies are often lengthy reducing the practical use of the findings* 'esults can $e distorted $y the tests themselvesU for example5 measuring %hether individuals assessed as high flyers achieved their potential can produce false results* &uccess may $e partly a function of $eing identified $y tests as having potential enhancing prospects rather than data on individual potential identified $y testing $eing validated $y actual performance leading to career progression*

&tatistical $enchmar!s for validity studies are set at much lo%er levels than relia$ility 3 usually a correlation of $et%een ,*+7,*- as opposed to ,*07,*E for relia$ility reflecting the difficulty of achieving secure findings in validity studiesG The Personal .tyle .urvey and ,alidity Of the non7empirical measures only face validity has any relevance 3 the other non7 empirical measures are seriously fla%ed and therefore inapplica$le* The %hole range of ersonal &tyle &urveys has very high face validity according to feed$ac! received from licensees and course participants over many years* The reasons for this are: The transparency of the analysis 3 clients can see ho% the results are derived* The ;deceptive= simplicity of the model 3 it is easily understood $y participants yet also produces po%erful insights into their $ehavioural strategies* 9omparison of the feed$ac! %ith self perception 3 the forced choice ran!ing is actually accessing su$7conscious self7understanding and $ringing it into conscious analysis 3 giving the client more choices to consider* The a$ility to cross reference the survey findings %ith the vie%s of others %ho !no% the individual :either in discussion or from analysis of the results of the ersonal &tyle Feed$ac! &urvey>* Face validity is important for $oth the user and the administrator of the survey to have confidence in the appropriateness of the instrument in individual5 team or organisational development*

Faith and 9ontent7)nalytic validity are unsound measures and should $e discounted* The empirical measures all presuppose some form of testing as they all require some form of standard to measure the survey against:

content validity depends on %hat purpose the survey is $eing used for to measure the content against*

+?

concurrent validity and predictive validity are $oth trying to measure against a set of performance characteristics*

The difficulty here is that the ersonal &tyle &urvey is not designed to measure performance or abilit+ 7 onl+ behavioural preferences* )s it is not used in isolation as a test there is no $asis for doing such studies* ) num$er of studies do exist on the use of the survey in career development and assessment centres $ut these are measuring the overall effectiveness of the process i*e* the com$ination of instruments and exercises 3 not the ersonal &tyle &urvey on its o%n* Information from licensees consistently indicates that the survey is very useful in processes %here other instruments and processes can validate its results* It provides a helpful focus5 %hich can $e explored in more depth %ith the other techniques* Conclusion The ersonal &tyle &urvey is one of the most %idely used $ehavioural surveys in the %orld* Because of the open process %hich is employed it is one of the most relia$le and meaningful insights an individual can have into their su$conscious self7understanding* The individual completing the survey can validate the findings against their self7experience and against the !no%ledge of them that others have* This information can $e used to amend and extend the analysis provided $y the survey results5 %hich ensures a refinement of measurement5 %hich is su$tler and more ro$ust than a statistical coefficient in isolation* The a$ility of the individual to understand5 explore and chec! out the survey results against real life data creates a more meaningful and valid outcome than a validity study can provide 3 the understanding and o%nership of the conclusions are %ith the client rather than the coachScounsellor* &tatistically the level of confidence achieved $y validity studies is much lo%er than that derived from relia$ility studies and there are numerous examples %here difficulties in measuring %ith confidence and fla%ed study techniques can all too often undermine the quality of the data generated* Lsing a statistical frame%or! to prove the relia$ility and validity of findings can :unintentionally> disempo%er clients as it is perceived $y many as an incomprehensi$le ;$lac! $ox= %hich can create unnecessary threat and provo!e caution and scepticism %hich is inhi$iting and unhelpful in a development setting* In contrast the ersonal &tyle &urvey and associated development exercises give the client o%nership of the analysis using a client-centred process5 promoting understanding and the confidence to consider ne% $ehavioural choices validated $y their self7understanding and the feed$ac! of friends and colleagues*

(o% It Works;

Team mem$ers or individuals can get constructive feed$ac! from up to ?+ people5 online*

++

Individuals can request feed$ac! from their colleagues5 $oss5 su$ordinates5 friends or family*

Trainers or managers can ena$le all the mem$ers of a team to give online feed$ac! to one another*

2elps each person to $ecome more effective in !ey relationships and increase their productivity*

Fits into many applications such as: Team Building5 Leadership5 9oaching5 &elf development*

LIFO Training Helps People Manage Their Strengths


LIFO Training focuses on strengths 77 on %hatJs right a$out leaders5 teams5 and individuals* It $egins $y identifying each personJs $asic orientation to life and %or!* Based on this information5 it offers po%erful learning strategies for greater personal productivity5 increased influence %ith !ey people5 and more effective team%or!*

Flexible, Half-Day LIFO Training Wor shops


+-

LIFO Training is the core performance improvement technology for three essential performance improvement programs: $ridge the Communication -ap Individuals and teams $ecome more effective in getting through5 getting agreement5 and getting action %hen dealing %ith !ey people at home and at %or!* They learn ho% to:
1. Recognize other people's most preferred channels of communication. 2. Translate their messages so they answer the key questions that are uppermost in other people's minds.

$uild Colla&orati e Team%ork articipants develop s!ills that ena$le them to %or! together more productivity as a team* They learn ho% to:
1. Inventory team strengths. 2. tilize individual differences for greater participation !. "ontrol team e#cesses to avoid wasting time and resources $. %vercome team &lind spots so the team can see all sides of pro&lems and make un&iased decisions.

$reak the Producti it" $arrier articipants $uild confidence and self7esteem $y understanding and appreciating their styles5 strengths5 and uniqueness* They learn ho% to:
1. 'void overusing their most preferred strengths so they don't waste time and energy or have a negative impact on others. 2. (et help from people with different styles and strengths to fill in their &lind spots and provide a wider perspective in planning and solving pro&lems.

-* Become more versatile in their approach to people and pro$lems $y using more of the strengths of their least preferred styles*

!ight "easons Why O#r Progra$s an% Materials &re So !ffe'ti(e

) *

Progressi(e Mastery
)earning activities are carefully sequenced so participants &uild confidence as they quickly acquire relevant skills* attitudes and insights.

Self !(al#ation Instr#$entation


+urveys* checklists* open,ended questions* and other self,evaluations ena&le participants to ascertain what they most need to learn.

+4

+ . 0 1 3 4

& ,o$$on Lang#age an% a ,on'ept#al Fra$e-or #veryday language5 a structured approach5 and the lin!ing of !ey concepts in simple patterns facilitate discussion and shorten learning time* Personali/e% Learning
The learning tools are highly evocative. They serve as -cognitive Rorshach tests- which allow participants to learn from their own e#periences rather than using a&stract models* simulations* or case studies.

& "e'or% of Written "esponses articipants %rite do%n their responses $efore discussing them* They gain a sense of o%nership and clarity a$out their o%n responses and are protected from $eing unduly influenced $y the reactions of others* This also gives them a permanent record of their o%n individual learning* S$all 2ro#p Dis'#ssions
'fter writing down their responses* participants &reak into pairs or trios for discussion. This ena&les them to e#plore their own feelings* gain feed&ack from others* and develop commitment to following practical action plans.

O#r Progra$s &re Thoro#ghly "esear'he%, !(al#ate% an% Teste%


'fter analyzing the needs of industries and organizations* our professional staff of instructional designers and master trainers reviews the e#isting literature* develops programs* tests them in pilot groups* and revises them until we know they work well.

O#r Progra$s &re Designe% For 5oth Parti'ipants an% Trainers


%ver thirty five years of e#perience in trainer training* consulting with managers* and conducting training programs have given us great understanding and respect for the real,world requirements for effective training. .e create programs that can &e easily transferred to in,house trainers when that &ecomes the most practical method for facilitating learning in a wider audience or for follow,up sessions.

Lea%ership De(elop$ent /evelop !012 )eaders with )I3%4 )eadership +kills

2ro- !ffe'ti(e Lea%ers thro#gho#t 6o#r Organi/ation 7


Leaders Who Will...

,o$$#ni'ate a -i%e-angle (ision -ith $axi$#$ appeal Inspire a'tion a$ong all types of follo-ers

+/

Ma e effe'ti(e %e'isions be'a#se they see all si%es of iss#es

The 1e elop <=>? Leaders course goes far $eyond merely providing leaders %ith -0,V feed$ac!* It develops $readth of vision and $ehavioral versatility so leaders can provide direction to a %ider range of follo%ers and implement plans that %onJt run into pro$lems due to missing information* articipants learn ho% to:

Direct and inspire in ways that tap into the rich variety of their followers' values and goals. Plan and implement in ways that factor in the widest possi&le range of e#ternal conditions* organizational factors* and personnel resources.

Lea%ership S ills Learne%


This practical %or!shop can $e easily ad(usted to meet the varying needs of executives5 managers5 and team leaders* articipantJs learn in %ays that are appropriate to each organiMational level ho% to:
Create plans that5 Take into consideration all relevant information a&out &oth e#ternal and internal conditions. o Incorporate diverse viewpoints so all stakeholders feel engaged and committed. Direct others &ased on5 o "lear decisions. o The confidence to commit in the face of uncertainty o The a&ility to hold others accounta&le for desired outcomes. Implement actions through effective systems for5 o /elegating tasks o (etting feed&ack o "orrecting errors. Inspire others to work with vigor and determination to achieve organizational goals. o

Lea%ership ,ore ,on'epts


#ffective leaders exhi$it certain s!ills that differentiate them from people %ho do not lead as effectively* This program teaches four fundamental sets of skills that must $e mastered in order to $e effective as a leader* These s!ills include $oth leadership skills and management skills $ecause one cannot lead %ell %ithout also managing %ell* These four s!ill sets are: Leadership Skills ?* "irecting +* Inspiring +0

!anagement Skills -* lanning 4* "oing


6ffective leaders must demonstrate versatility in practicing each of these skill sets. They need to take into account the variety of values* goals* needs* opportunities* and resources present in their organization and in their organization's environment. (enuine versatility ensures that they don't overlook important issues due to &lind spots or fail to take needed actions due to a personal reluctance to act in certain ways.

Pre(ie- It 8o- -The LIFO Lea%ership Style S#r(ey


There is no one special type of person %ho is especially effective as a leader* One can lead others in many different %ays* 2o%ever for maximum influence5 it is important to lead others the way they want to be led* &ince different people respond to different styles of leadership5 an effective leader must $e a$le to***
Inspire people with a vision of possi&ilities... and e#press urgency to act now. "olla&orate with others to ensure mutual commitment... and swiftly choose a clear course of action. 'nalyze situations and evaluate the options... and e#periment and e#plore possi&ilities.

're you aware of your special approach to leading others7 'nd are you aware of alternative approaches that could &e even more effective in certain situations7 To determine the approaches that you are most comforta&le with ,, and those that you need to master to &ecome even more effective ,, click the link &elow. Tea$ 5#il%ing 8uild Teams that .ork with )I3%4 (roup +kills

5#il% Tea$s that Wor

,reate a 'li$ate of tr#st "esol(e ongoing 'onfli'ts an% #npro%#'ti(e %isagree$ents

Fill in gro#p blin% spots Sti$#late the open floof infor$ation


This %or!shop utiliMes the Life Orientations Method to help teams set priorities and maximiMe the contri$utions of all team mem$ers* It encourages real +E

pro$lem7solving and real team%or! %ithout creating hassles5 hard feelings5 or harsh confrontation* It creates long7lasting results $y ena$ling participants to:
+ee situations from multiple points of view Take advantage of diversity ,, rather than resisting it

Tea$-or S ills Learne%


Teams who complete this half,day* )ife %rientations workshop will5 Inventory team strengths so each mem&er can contri&ute the most. Identify areas for improvement using constructive language that minimizes defensiveness. Give helpful feedback that encourages positive changes in &ehavior. Utilize individual differences for greater participation of all group mem&ers* Develop total perspective for seeing all sides of pro&lems. Make unbiased decisions that take into account all points of view for more relia&le results. Take focused action to avoid wasting time and resources.

Tea$-or ,ore ,on'epts


The Life Orientations approach to $uilding team%or! utiliMes the follo%ing six $uilding $loc!s5 or competencies5 for $uilding high performing teams:
Confirming trengths! 'cknowledge team mem&ers' strengths.

Treating "egatives Positively! (ive feed&ack that promotes positive &ehavioral change. Utilizing Differences! Incorporate the unique strengths of each team mem&er. #isioning the $hole! /evelop !01 degree perspective for &etter plans and decisions. Getting %greement! 6ncouraging the e#pression of differences and using them productively to develop creative solutions. Controlling &'cesses! Improve performance &y eliminating wasted effort.

+A

Teams identify specific strategies for moderating their e#cesses and e#tending their work styles to incorporate the productivity factors they tend to overlook. They then create an action plan that utilizes what they have learned to accomplish a specific* work, related goal.

Pre(ie- It 8o- -,o$patibilty Strategies for High Perfor$ing Tea$s


ro$lems in team dynamics usually have their origin in the conflicting vie%s and approaches of different team mem$ers* If team mem$ers donJt !no% ho% to resolve these conflicts5 team%or! $rea!s do%n and productivity can grind to a standstill* But if they can resolve these conflicts5 their differences can $e a source of tremendous creativity and dynamism* 9ompata$ility is usually thought of as a trait: eople either get along or they donJt* But compati$ility is actually a skill* The Compati&ilt" Strategies Com&ine.*.St"le utiliMes the Life Orientations Method to sho% people three important things a$out potentially conflictful relationships:
The possi&le &enefits of the relationship The pro&lems that are most likely to arise +trategies for solving those pro&lems to ensure sustained productivity ,o$$#ni'ation 8ridge the "ommunication (ap with )I3%4 Interpersonal +kills

Ma e ,o$$#ni'ation Pay Off


Stop -asting ti$e be'a#se of $is#n%erstan%ings &(oi% errors %#e to fa#lty or in'o$plete infor$ation Ma e s#re others get yo#r $essage
+D

The $ridge the Communication -ap course ena$les people to get through to others more easily5 o$tain agreement %ith less effort5 and get things moving quic!ly* articipants learn ho% to:
(ecognize other people's most preferred channels of communication. Translate their messages so they answer the key questions uppermost in other people's minds.

,o$$#ni'ation S ills Learne%


In this half7day or full7day %or!shop5 teams and individuals learn ho% to:
(educe resistance and increase acceptance &y using communication strategies tailored to the needs of their audience. Create a non)defensive* open atmosphere in which information flows more freely* leading to more effective planning and decision making. (esolve differences in values* priorities* and interpretations of information for identifying mutually satisfying solutions

To a''o$plish these goals, parti'ipants learn ho- to9


(ecognize+ Identify other people's preferred ways of communicating &y what they do* say* write* and ask. Translate+ 'd9ust their requests* proposals* and presentations to match other people's preferred ways of communicating. %ns,er+ 'ddress the key questions uppermost in other people's minds that must &e answered to win their support.

,o$$#ni'ation ,ore ,on'epts


The Colden 'ule is a timeless moral precept: N"o unto others as you %ould have others do unto you*N Lnfortunately5 this doesnJt %or! very %ell as a guide to effective communication* The

-,

pro$lem is that not e er"&od" %ants to &e treated the same %a" 77 %e all have our o%n special patterns of giving5 receiving5 and processing information* The !ey to effective communication is ad(usting %hat %e say and ho% %e say it to fit other peopleJs communication patterns: communicating the %ay the" prefer5 not the %ay %e do* This is the essence of the 8e% Colden 'ule:

1o unto others as the" %ant to &e done unto3 Communicate %ith people the %a" the+ prefer2 not the %a" "ou prefer3 $ridge the Communication -ap gives individuals and teams the s!ills they need to recogni7e %hatJs important to other people and to translate their requests5 proposals5 and instructions so that they %ill hear5 understand5 and act on them*

Pre(ie- It 8o- -T-o ,o$$#ni'ation Tools


2o% %ould you li!e to***
"aptivate others' attention whenever you want7 (et people e#cited a&out your proposals7 .in support for your initiatives7 :eep others focused on what's important to you7

<eJd li!e to offer you the opportunity to previe% t%o po%erful tools used in our $ridge the Communication -ap %or!shop that can help you to communicate more effectively %ith the !ey people in your life:
Interpersonal Communication $orkbook! 8uilds skills for recognizing others; most preferred ways of communicating and translating one;s message to match. Includes the )I3%4 "ommunications +urvey for identifying another person's communication patterns under &oth favora&le and stressful conditions. 'lso contains communication models and summary ta&les that show how to communicate in groups and with key people. 6#ercises develop skills for communicating more effectively despite stylistic differences.

-?

Communication trategies lide)%) tyle! 'n on,the,9o& -slide, rule- for improved communication. <oving the slide indicates what people with different communication styles want to know and how &est to communicate with employees or &osses of each style.

Pro%#'ti(ity 8reak the =erformance 8arrier with )I3%4 =roductivity +kills

LIFO Pro%#'ti(ity S ills Help 6o#:::


5#il% 'onfi%en'e an% self-estee$ ,onsistently pro%#'e yo#r (ery best -or Manage a -i%er range of sit#ations $ore effe'ti(ely &(oi% -asting ti$e in personal pro%#'ti(ity traps Fill in yo#r blin% spots for better plans an% %e'isions
The $reak the Performance $arrier %ith LIFO Producti it" Skills course empo%ers people at all organiMational levels to consistently produce their very $est %or!* articipants learn practical s!ills for managing their performance that really ma!e a difference* They learn ho% to:
&liminate time),asting work ha&its &y learning how to set priorities* set limits* get focused* and get going. Develop a -./0 perspective while gathering information* for more effective planning and pro&lem,solving. %ccomplish tasks more 1uickly and completely* &y utilizing a wider range of talents and strengths. $ork ,ith greater enthusiasm and mutual regard to accomplish shared goals.

-+

Pro%#'ti(ity S ills Learne%


In this half,day or full,day workshop* teams and individuals learn how to apply five strategies for greater individual and team productivity5 1. Confirming! 8uild confidence and self,esteem &y understanding and appreciating your unique values* goals* and strengths. 2. Capitalizing! +eek situations that &ring out the &est in you ,, that allow you to use your own special strengths to the fullest. !. Moderating! 'void overusing your most preferred strengths so you don't waste time and energy or have a negative impact on others. $. upplementing! (et help from people with different strengths and viewpoints to fill in your &lind spots and provide a wider perspective when planning and solving pro&lems. >. &'tending! /eveloping greater versatility in your approach to people and pro&lems &y using your least preferred strengths more frequently.

Pro%#'ti(ity ,ore ,on'epts


Quality5 quantity5 economy5 and accepta$ility 77 these are the four fundamental factors in individual and team productivity* The five strategies taught in $reak the Performance $arrier %ith LIFO Producti it" Skills give individuals and teams the s!ills they need to !eep the four productivity factors in $alance for sustained high performance* ?* ;<&LIT6 -- Ho- 2oo%
The degree to which the individual;s or team;s output meets or e#ceeds esta&lished standards. The amount produced in a given period of time. !,O8OM6 -- Ho- Pra'ti'al The costs* &enefits* and return on the effort.

+* ;<&8TIT6 -- Ho- M#'h = Ho- Fast -*

4* &,,!PT&5ILIT6 -- Ho- Well-"e'ei(e%

The degree to which the output satisfies the e#pectations of others.

'esearch sho%s that there is great varia$ility in ho% people rate the relati e importance of the four productivity factors* The reason for this varia$ility is that each of us $rings to %or! --

our o%n unique mix of values5 goals5 and priorities* In the %or!shop $reak the Performance $arrier %ith LIFO Producti it" Skills5 participants articulate the values5 goals5 and priorities that shape their approach to %or!* They learn ho% to manage their $ehavior to !eep the four productivity factors in $alance*

Pre(ie- It 8o- -The Pro%#'ti(ity Wor boo


The Producti it" Work&ook ena$les participants to apply LIFO productivity strategies to develop their o%n unique strengths and create individualiMed performance improvement plans* It includes the LIFO &urvey5 illustrative charts and summary ta$les5 and step7$y7step exercises for s!ill practice* It confirms personal strengths5 areas of potential excess5 and techniques for developing greater versatility and overcoming $lind7 spots in planning5 pro$lem solving5 and decision ma!ing*
Perfor$an'e ,oa'hing 3acilitate 8reakthrough =erformance with )I3%4 =erformance <anagement +kills

,oa'h 5rea thro#gh Perfor$an'e


;#i' ly Diagnose De(elop$ental 8ee%s ,#t Thro#gh "esistan'e to ,hange De(elop !asy-toI$ple$ent I$pro(e$ent Plans Deli(er in Person or by 2#i%e% Self-St#%y

The LIFO Method provides a set of po%erful learning strategies and tools you can use to The skills and understanding you will develop in our enhance coaching sessions %ith executives5 =erformance "oaching Training =rogram managers5 team leaders5 and individuals %ho will ena&le you to identify core performance issues* set goals for change* and %ant to improve their interpersonal effectively monitor progress. ?ou will &e a&le to provide effectiveness* valua&le advice a&out how to handle challenging
situations as well as difficult relationships.

,oa'hing S ills Learne%


Our Performance Coaching Training Program quic!ly $uilds coaching s!ills you can use to help clients manage their $ehavior more effectively* )s a result of completing this program5 you %ill $e a$le to: -4

Identify the values* goals* and strengths that drive your clients to produce their &est work. Diagnose the time),asting ,ork habits that limit their productivity. Pinpoint ho, they may alienate others* making it more difficult for them to gain agreement and support for their plans and pro9ects. Uncover the blind spots that are likely to cause them to make faulty decisions. Monitor their progress and give them constructive feed&ack to ensure sustained success.

,oa'hing ,ore ,on'epts


Many people vie% $ehavior in terms of $asic categories 77 right or %rong5 good or $ad5 strong or %ea!5 my %ay vs* your %ay* This %ay of seeing things can ma!e it more difficult to change our patterns of $ehavior $ecause %e assume %e have to stop doing the N%rongN things and start doing the NrightN things* In fact5 our $ehavior exists along a continuum5 %ith Ntoo littleN on one end and Ntoo muchN on the other* #ither extreme undermines our productivity and can $e seen $y others as irritating %ea!ness* &ome%here $et%een these t%o extremes lies a place of $alance %here %e display (ust enough of the appropriate strengths to accomplish %hat %e %ant most efficiently*

In our erformance 9oaching Training rogram5 you %ill learn ho% to help clients formulate and implement realistic performance improvement plans $ased on t%o fundamental strategies:
Doing more of the &ehaviors that they tend to overlook or neglect* so they can achieve their goals more easily. Doing less of the &ehaviors that they tend to overuse* so they stop wasting time and alienating others.

LtiliMing a quantitative approach to managing strengths %ill increase your clientsJ acceptance of your recommendations and increase their confidence that they can succeed*

Pre(ie- It 8o- -- & Po-erf#l ,oa'hing


-/

Tool
Once you complete our erformance 9oaching Training rogram5 you %ill $e a$le to generate &trength Management 'eports for your clients* This comprehensive developmental report:
"reates a more open coaching climate 'nchors learning in your clients' personal e#perience @ighlights key performance issues =rovides recommendations for improving performance 6#tends learning &eyond your coaching sessions

<e %ould li!e to offer you the opportunity to receive your o%n &trength Management 'eport* The report is $ased on the LIFO Sur e"5 %hich you can complete online in less than t%enty minutes* Lsed $y more than eight million people in +A countries5 it clarifies the goals5 values5 and strengths that shape your $ehavior 77 $oth %hen things are going %ell and %hen you are encountering stress or conflict*

-0