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Notes on Engineering Geology for Civil engg

Compiled by Dr G SUBBARAO
M.Sc. ,M.Phil., Ph.D., C.S.M.

UNIT: II - MINERALOGY
Mineral: The study of the characters of minerals ( eg: quartz, pyroxene, amphibole, mica, chlorite, garnet) is known as Mineralogy. A mineral is a naturally occurring homogeneous substance, inorganically formed with a definite chemical composition, with a certain physical properties and crystalline structures Under favourable conditions, the internal atomic structure of minerals result in the development of a definite external geometrical shape ie crystal form. The stability of minerals depends on temperature, pressure and chemical composition of the environment. At present more than 3000 mineral species have been established. The earths crust is mainly composed of feldspars and quartz and accounts 55% and 10% respectively. Pyroxenes, amphiboles, chlorites, micas, clay carbonates are widely spread too. Following a few rare minerals are also common: Phenacite Be2 (SiO4) Bertrandite Cordierite Be4 (Si2O7) (OH)4 Hg3 S2 Cl2

Baddeleyite Zr O2

Explanation: Homogeneous : all parts of the minerals should possess the same physical and chemical characters. Crystalline: possess atomic structure in a mineral. Crystal: A crystal may be defined as a natural solid body bounded by smooth and plain surfaces, arranged geometrically. Crystals develop under favourable conditions depending on: (1) slow cooling (2) surroundings to facilitate the crystal growth in different directions. (3) noninterference by the adjacent growing minerals during solidification.

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Exceptions for Definition of Mineral: l. Precious gemstones like diamonds, rubies, sapphires and emeralds are synthetically produced under controlled laboratory conditions. 2. Coal, amber, petroleum, considered as minerals. etc., are typical organic substances which can be

3. Amethyst, smoky quartz, citrine, cat's eye, aventurine quartz are some varieties of quartz. Colour or appearance peculiarity in them is because they possess some impurities or inclusions or in homogeneities. 4. Asphalt ( a variety of bitumen, semi-solid in nature, black in color) , mercury and natural gas are semisolids, liquids or gases. Though these are called minerals, they are not solid substances. 5. A good number of minerals are now found to be members of isomorphic groups. Isomorphic minerals do not have a definite chemical composition, but have a definite range of composition. 6. Some minerals like flint, chert, jasper and agate are cryptocrystalline, i.e., they do not have a well-developed crystal structure. A few others like opal, bauxite, Psilomelane, pitchblende etc are typically amorphous, i.e., they do not possess any regular internal atomic structure. The most widespread elements in minerals are: O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Na, Mg, K, Ti while S, Cl, C, Mn, H are moderately spread. B, Be, Pb, Sb, As, Bi, Se, U, etc are either rare earth elements or not spread at all. Minerals are broadly grouped into (a) Rock forming minerals ( constitute a rock ) and (b) Oreforming minerals (composition of an ore which is economically imp ).

The term ore mineral embraces minerals from which valuable metallic elements can be extracted. Eg; Cu, Ag, Fe, Al. Minerals are extremely important economically, aesthetically, industrially and scientifically. Economically, utilization of minerals is necessary to maintain anything for standard of living. Gold, silver, copper, iron, aluminum etc are economically important minerals for human beings. Aesthetically, minerals of diamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald shine as gems and enrich our lives. Gems in jewellery, crown jewel collections attract the attention of millions of people.

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All in all, approximately 10% of all mineral species are used at industrial purposes.

present for

Scientifically, minerals comprise the data bank from which we can learn about our physical earth and its constituent materials. Chemistry has developed on the basis of the study of the chemical composition and the properties of various minerals and ores. Mineralogical methods are widely used in Petrology, Geochemistry, soil study, Paleontology (in the study of fossils), in medicine, in archeology. All the minerals are grouped into 8 classes: 1. Native elements (Eg: Au, Ag, Cu, Arsenic, Bismuth, Platinum, Diamond) 2. Sulphides ( Eg: Galena, Pyrite, Cinnabar, Stibnite, Pyrrhotite) 3. Oxides (Magnetite, Haematite, Rutile, Brookite) and hydroxides (Eg: serpentine; amphiboles) 4. Halides (Eg: Fluorite, Halite) 5. Carbonates ( Eg: calcite, Magnesite), nitrates and borates 6. Sulphates ( Eg: Barytes, Gypsum), chromates (Eg: Uvarovite) 7. Phosphates ( Eg: Apatite, Monazite) 8. Silicates ( eg: Quartz, feldspars, Muscovite, Biotite, Hornblende, Tourmaline, Zerolite, Topaz ) . Since silicates are the most common rock forming minerals, it is desirable to know some relevant aspects about these. In all silicate structures, the silicon atoms are in fourfold coordination with oxygen. The bonds between silicon and oxygen are so strong that the 4 oxygens are always at the corners of a tetrahedron of nearly constant dimensions.
O

O O

Si O

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STRUCTURE OF SILICATES / CLASSIFICATION OF SILICATES Silicate classification for most linkages as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. NESO SILICATES SORO SILICATES INO SILICATES CYCLO SILICATES PHYLLO SILICATES TECTO SILICATES silicate minerals is based on the types of

1. NESOSILICATES: ( independent tetrahedral groups ): in this group SiO4 tetrahedra occur as independent units in mineral structure. Si : O : : 1 : 4 One silicon oxygen tetrahedron Eg: Olivine family; Aluminum silicate family ( kyanite , sillimanite; Andalusite ) Garnet family.

OLIVINE FAMILY

OLIVINES are nesosilicates in atomic structure with the R2 ( SiO4) in which R = Mg or Fe. Olivine family consists of Forsterite Fayalite Olivine ( Mg2SiO4 ) ( Fe2 SiO4 ) (Mg Fe)2 SiO4

general formula

Olivine is one of the first minerals to form alongwith calcic plagioclase feldspars during the solidification of magma. As magma cools down, olivine reacts with silica content of parent magma and changes over to pyroxene.

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PERIDOT is a transparent, pale green gem variety found in Egypt, Burma, Brazil )

Alteration: olivines are highly susceptible to decomposition. Hydrothermal alteration of olivines produces serpentine. 3 Mg2 SiO2 + H2O + SiO2 2 Mg3 Si2O5 (OH)4 Forsterite serpentine Occurrence: Occurs in Ultrabasic igneous rocks such as Dunite, Peridotite, Picrite . Also occurs as accessory mineral in Basalts, Dolerites, Gabbros. Uses: Due to its high melting point, olivine is used in the manufacture of refractory bricks. ALUMINUM SILICATES In nature, totally, three minerals with different physical properties with same composition occurs as Al2 SiO5, which are called as aluminum silicates. ANDALUSITE formed under high temperature & low stress conditions of metamorphism. SILLIMANITE formed metamorphism. under high temperature & high stress conditions of

KYANITE formed under moderate temperature and high stress conditions of metamorphism. Kyanite is a product of high grade metamorphism. It will not form either as a primary mineral or as a product of weathering. GARNET FAMILY This family is also belonging to nesosilicates and consist of the following minerals: Grossular Almandine Pyrope Ca3 Al2 (SiO4)3 Fe3 Al2 (SiO4)3 Mg3 Al2 (SiO4)3

Spessartite Mn3 Al2 (SiO4)3 Andradite Ca3 Fe2 (SiO4)3 Uvarovite Ca3 Cr2 (SiO4)3 Under microscope, garnet can be seen rounded crystals , traversed by branching cracks and having no cleavage.

Uses:

used as abrasive in the polishing of wood and as a gemstone.

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Occurrence: Gneisses, Kyanite Schists; Syenites etc

2. SOROSILICATES: (Double tetrahedral structures): in this group of SiO4 tetrahedra occur in pairs in which one oxygen is shared between silicon atoms. The epidotes are all similar in their atomic structure, type containing both SiO4 and Si2O7 groups forms a different types of eg: Idocrase. (Si : O : : 2 : 7)
O O O

minerals, the two a mixed minerals

Two silicon oxygen tetrahedron

Si

Si
O

Epidote family consists of Zoisite .. Ca2 Al3 (SiO4)3 OH Epidote.. Ca2 (Al, Fe)3 (SiO4)3 OH Allanite.. (Ca, Fe)2 (Al,Fe,Ce)3 (SiO4)3 OH Melilite . Ca2 Mg Si2O7 Hemimorphite Zn4Si2O7 (OH)2 H2O Idocrase .. Ca10 Al4 (Mg,Fe)2 (Si2O7) (SiO4)5 (OH)4

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3. INOSILICATES: Two varieties structures) occur in nature.

of

inosilicates (single chain & double chain

SINGLE CHAIN SILICATES

Si : O : : 1 : 3

In this group of minerals, SiO4 tetrahedra occur as chains resulting in more growth of minerals along one direction. The chains consist of a large number of linked SiO4 tetrahedrons, each sharing two oxygens. Eg: pyroxenes

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

Si

The pyroxenes are a group of minerals which possess the Si2O6 chain structure. Pyroxenes consist of: Pyroxens Enstatite Hypersthene Diopside Hedenbergite Pigeonite Augite Composition Mg Si O3 or Mg2 Si2 O6 (Mg, Fe ) SiO3 Ca Mg Si2 O6 Ca Fe Si2 O6 (Ca Mg) (Mg Fe) Si2 O6 (Ca Mg Fe Al)2 (Al ) Si2 O6 Occurs in Igneous rocks such as Gabbros, Diorites; Peridotites, Serpentinites Norite, Gabbros; Andesite; Charnockites; Schists; Hornfels Pegmatites; Granites At contact of granitic rocks with limestones In volcanic rocks Occurs as short prismatic crystals in volcanic rocks such as Andesite, Basalts. Basic igneous rocks of Gabbros; dolerites, diorites and in Ultrabasic igneous rocks such as Peroxenites; Peridotites.

Aegirite Jadeite Spodumene

Na Fe Si2 O6 Na Al Si2 O6 Li Al Si2 O6

Pegmatites.

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AUGITE : It is a silicate of calcium, magnesium, iron and aluminum with a composition of (Ca Mg Fe Al)2 (Al ) Si2 O6. It forms as a crystals, lamellar and sometimes fibrous.. Augite occurs in Black and greenish black in color. Varieties: Diallage is a variety of augite which in hand-specimen appears as lamellar ( lamellar structure is due to a parting parallel to the planes ). Diallage is characteristic of Gabbros. Occurrence: augite occurs as short prismatic crystals in volcanic rocks, Andesite, basalts etc.. and as crystals or plates in dykes and in plutonic rocks such as gabbros, dolerite and in diorite. It also occurs in Ultrabasic rocks such as pyroxenites and Peridoties.

DOUBLE CHAIN SILICATES Si : O : : 4 : 11 The amphibole group possess Si4 O11 double chain type of structure where Tetrahedra are joined together to produce chains of indefinite extent. The general formula for amphibole group is X 7 8 (Si4O11)2 (OH)2 where x = Ca, Na, Mg, Fe+2; Al; Fe+3 . Amphiboles Anthophyllite Cummingtonite Grunerite Tremolite Actinolite Hornblende Glaucophane Riebeckite Composition ( Mg,Fe+2)7 (Si8O22) (OH)2 ( Mg,Fe)7 (Si8O22) (OH)2 ( Fe, Mg )7 (Si8O22) (OH)2 Ca2 Mg5 Si8 O22 (OH)2 Ca2 (Mg,Fe)5 Si8 O22 (OH)2 (Ca Na Mg Fe Al)7-8 Si8 O22 (OH)2 Na2 (Mg Fe)3 (Al Fe+3) Si8 O22 (OH)2 (Na2 Fe+2) (Fe+2)3 (Fe+3)2 Si8 O22 (OH)2 Occurs in Anthophyllite schists, gneisses In metamorphic rocks In Serpentinites, greenstones, Actinolite schists Granites; Syenites; diorites, Hbl gneisses; hbl schists, amphibolites Soda rich ig rocks ie glaucophane schists Nepheline schists, pegmatites.

HORNBLENDE: It is a silicate of aluminium, calcium, magnesium and iron with sodium represented by the formula (Ca Na Mg Fe Al) 7-8 Si8 O22 (OH)2. Hornblende occurs as crystals, prismatic in habit. Varieties: Edenite is a light coloured hornblende poor in iron where as Pargasite is a dark green or bluish green variety and basaltic hornblende is a brown or black variety containing titanium and sodium. Occurrence: It occurs as a primary mineral in acid and intermediate igneous rocks such as granites, Syenites, diorites etc and Ultrabasic rocks viz., hornblendite and common in metamorphic rocks of hornblende gneisses, hornblende schists and amphibolites.

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ASBESTOS: The term asbestos is a commercial name which indicates fibrous varieties of several minerals differing widely in composition. The fibres are flexible and easily separated by the fingers. The color of asbestos varies from white to greenish and brownish. Asbestos is classified in two different groups: (1) the serpentine group which includes the elastic and silky chrysotile variety and the woody fibre varietypicrolite and (2) the amphibole group which comprises the short and brittle fibred type ie anthophyllite, crocidolite, amosite, tremolite and actinolite. The commercial asbestos include the following fibrous minerals: CHRYSOTILE (fibrous serpentine of composition of Mg6 (Si4 O10 ) (OH)8). hydrous magnesium silicate with a

AMOSITE (fibrous anthophyllite of magnesium iron silicate with a composition of ( Mg,Fe+2)7 (Si8O22) (OH)2.Occurs in metamorphic rocks usually derived from anthophyllite schists & gneisses. CROCIDOLITE ( a fibrous soda amphibole which is a variety of Riebeckite, indigo- blue in colour found in A. Africa. Occurs in acid igneous rocks rich in Na ie Riebeckite-granite, Riebeckite granophyres etc.

ASBESTOS DEPOSITS OF INDIA: Most of the Indian asbestos deposits belong to the tremoliteactinolite variety. It occurs in tremolite-act schists, amphibolites etc. Bihar, Rajasthan, Gujarat, AP ( Kurnool and Cuddapah and anantapur districts) and Tamil Nadu producing the commercial asbestos. GENESIS OF ASBESTOS: Three main factors are responsible for the formation of asbestos in schistose rocks, Peridotites, Dunites and Serpentinites. The factors : (1) serpentinisation in the formation of chrysotile asbestos (2) transformation of non-fibrous serpentine into the fibrous mineral and (3) the gradual change of chrysotile into tremolite asbestos. Uses: The usefulness of asbestos depends upon its resistance to heat property. 1. used for gaskets & insulating material and for spark plug gaskets. 2. Asbestos fibres are mixed with Portland cement for the manufacture of corrugated and plain sheets and different types of asbestos pipes. 3. Asphalt asbestos used for roofing purposes. 4. Asbestos cheaper grade is utilized for the manufacture of asbestos paper. 5. Asbestos paper is extensively used for heat and electrical insulation purposes and also for spark plug gaskets. 6. Used as a refractory material by mixing asbestos powdered with Magnesite

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4. CYCLO SILICATES (Ring structures): When each SiO4 tetrahedron shares two of its oxygens with neighbouring tetrahedra, they may be linked into rings. ( closed rings of tetrahedra each sharing two oxygens ) - These are also called ring silicates. In this group of minerals, 3 or 4 or 6 tetrahedra occur in ring form. Eg for 3 tetrahedra : Eg for 4 tetrahedra : Eg for 6 tetrahedra : Bentonite Axinite Beryl Cordierite Tourmaline: ( Ba Ti Si3 O9 ) Ca2 (Fe,Mn) Al2 (BO3) (Si4O12) (OH) ( Be3 Al2 Si6 O18 ) (Mg Fe)2 (Al3 Al Si6 O18) X Y3 B3 ( Al, Fe)6 O27 (OH,F)4 where x = Na, Ca and Y = Mg. Fe, Al, Li Si : O :: 6 : 18

Si : O :: 3 : 9

Si : O :: 4 : 12

Varieties:

Rubellite Indicolite

-----

red or pink in color. Indigo blue color

Brazilian emerald --green in color ( transparent ) Schorl --Black in color ( opaque ) in Granites, Syenites,

Occurrence: these minerals occur as accessory Pegmatites,, Mica schists and Gneisses.

Uses: some of the minerals are used as gemstone. The main producers are Brazil, Russia, Madagascar, United States.

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5. PHYLLOSILICATES (SHEET STRUCTURES): These are also called sheet silicates. They possess the SiO4 sheet structure resulting in more growth along two directions of a mineral. Eg: Mica family, Chlorite family , Talc, Serpentine, Kaolinite. (Si : O : : 2 : 5) or (Si : O : : 4 : 10) Mica Family: MICA is the family name of some silicate minerals. These are silicates of aluminum, potassium together with magnesium. Some varieties contain sodium, lithium or titanium. The hydroxyl radical is always present and is commonly replaced partially by Fluorine. Hence, all mica minerals possess ( Al Si3 ) O10 (OH,F)2 as a common radical. Micas may be divided into : 1) Muscovite group & 2) Biotite group. Muscovite group Muscovite Paragonite Lepidolite Biotite group Biotite Phlogophite Zinnwaldite Glauconite Margarite Composition K Al2 (Al Si3) O10 (OHF)2 Na Al2 (Al Si3) O10 (OHF)2 K (Al Li)3 (Al Si3) O10 (OHF)2 Composition K (Mg,Fe)3 (Al Si3) O10 K (Mg)3 (Al Si3) O10 K (Li Fe Al) (Al Si3)O10 K (Fe Al)2 (Si Al)4 O10 Ca Al2 (Si2 Al2) O10 Usual name Potassium mica Sodium mica Lithium-pot mica

(OHF)2 (OHF)2 (OHF)2 (OH)2 (OH)2

Iron-mag mica / black mica Magnesium mica Lithium mica

Atomic structure: all micas are phyllosilicates ie in their atomic structure SiO4 tetrahedra are arranged in sheet pattern ( growth in two dimensions). Varieties: when thin mica layers are punched by a steel rod, a small six-rayed figure known as a percussion figure appears. Sericite: is a fine grained muscovite found in Gneisses and Schists Illite: is a clay mica found in sedimentary rocks. Mineral Occurrence Muscovite Found as accessory mineral in acid ig rocks such as Granites and Pegmatites. In metamorphic rocks of Gneisses & mica-schists. Biotite Igneous rocks such as Granites, Diorites; Gabbros. Also in Biotite gneisses; biotite schists; biotite hornfels. Phlogophite Found in crystalline limestones and peridotites. Lepidolite In Pegmatites. Uses: Muscovite used to be to cover lanthorns in electrical industry as an insulating material. In the manufacture of rubber tyres; powdered mica is used to give the frost effect on Christmas cards. Lepidolite is mined as an ore of lithium & used in lithium batteries. Phlogophite mica is superior to muscovite mica

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Chlorite Family
Generally chlorite is considered as Hydrous silicates of aluminum, iron and magnesium. Chlorite is a green coloured mineral. Chlorite resembles to some extent biotite (mica ) in physical properties but has no alkalies.. Composition: the formula for chlorite is (Mg Fe)5 (Al Si3) O10 (OH)8 . Atomic structure: This is a phyllosilicate with silicon oxygen ratio of 4 : 10. Chlorite is formed as a product of alteration of mafic minerals such as biotite or hornblende. Occurrence: chlorite occurs in chlorite schists and phyllite. It also occurs as amygdale. Varieties: Clinochlore ; penninite; ripidolite.

Talc
Talc is a hydrous magnesium silicate. Its chemical composition Mg3 (SiO3)4 H2O containing 63.5% of SiO2 ; 31.7% of MgO and 4.7% of H2O . is

Properties: having a good lustre and high lubricating power, particularly for oil and grease absorption, high fusibility very low shrinkage value. It has a low electrical and thermal conductivity and a good resistance to heat shock. Atomic structure: Talc is a phyllosilicate with a Si: O ratio of 4 : 10 . It is a metamorphic mineral and formed due to alteration of magnesium - bearing rocks like peridotites; dolomites; gabbros. Varieties: Steatite or soapstone is a massive variety of Talc, mostly white or grey or pale green in color. Potstone is an impure massive talc, green in color or brownish black in color. French chalk is a steatite used by tailors for marking on clothes. TALC DEPOSITS: Bihar; UP; AP ; Tamil Nadu; Rajasthan M.P; Maharashtra; Karnataka are producing talc / steatite deposits. Uses: as a filler for paints, paper, rubber , cosmetics, and textiles ; removing grease from clothes; in leather making; talcum powder ; in switch boards, in lab table tops.

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50% used in paper industry; 15% pesticide industry; 3% talcum powder industry and remaining in textile, ceramics; rubber industry etc..

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6. TECTO SILICATES ( Frame work structures ): In this group, SiO4 tetrahedra occur in a three dimensional framework, resulting equidimensional growth of a mineral. (Si : O : : 1 : 2) or every SiO4 tetrahedron shares all of its corners with other tetrahedron giving a three dimensional network . In this framework structures, Si is generally replaced by Aluminum thus making them aluminum silicates. Minerals which this structure include: eg: quartz, other forms of silica (Flint ; Jasper; Chalcedony etc..); Feldspars family, zeolite family, feldspathoids family; Scapolite family.

FELDSPARS FAMILY
It refers to a group of different minerals which possess similar chemical composition, atomic structure; physical and optical properties. These are aluminous silicates of K. Na; Ca or Ba and may be considered as isomorphous compounds. Feldspars are sub-divided into: PLAGIOCLASE FELDSPARS and ALKALI FELDSPARS The Plagioclase feldspars may be defined as Feldspar group Albite Oligoclase Andesite Labradorite Bytownite Anorthite Range composition Ab 100 - An 0 Ab 90 An 10 Ab 70 - An 30 Ab 50 - An 50 Ab 30 An 70 Ab 10 - An 90 Occurrence Granites; Syenites; Diorites; Rhyolites; Trachytes; Gabbros; Sandstones; Schists & Gneisses;

Na Al Si3 O8 to Ca Al2 Si2 O8

Uses: Feldspars are used in the manufacture of Porcelain; Pottery; glazes on earthware; Sanitary ware; in the manufacture of glass and ceramic industries.

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FORMS OF SILICA ( QUARTZ; FLINT; JASPER )


The forms of silica, including the hydrated forms can be grouped as: Silica occurs in nature as crystalline ( eg: Quartz; Tridymite; Cristobalite ) as cryptocrystalline ( eg: chalcedony; Flint; Chert; Jasper; Agate ) as Hydrous / amorphous forms ( eg: opal ) QUARTZ: Next to feldspars and mafic minerals, quartz is the most common rock forming mineral. It is SiO2 in composition and may be treated as an oxide or as a silicate. Structurally, it is a tectosilicate ie; in its atomic structure, the SiO4 tetrahedra are arranged in a three dimensional network pattern. Quartz, Tridymite and Crystabalite are important crystalline forms of silica with SiO2 composition but possess different physical properties and hence these are called POLYMORPHS. Varieties of Quartz: Rock crystal: Amethyst: Rose quartz: Smoky quartz: Milky quartz Ferruginous quartz:

Transparent form of quartz and purest. Purple / violet colored; transparent form of quartz Pale pink / rose colored variety of quartz smoky yellow / brown color of quartz milky white in color due to a large no. of mica cavities contains iron oxides which impart reddish color

Uses: employed in jewellery ( eg: amethyst ); Making spectacle glasses; Sand papers; toothpaste; Pottery; silica bricks. Depend on its piezo electric properties, a certain type of quartz is used to control the frequency of radio-circuits. FLINT: It is a compact cryptocrystalline silica of a black color or various shades of grey occur as irregular nodules. Flint breaks with a well marked conchoidal fracture and affords sharp cutting edges. Flint was extensively used by chisels.. Flint generates sparks mills; pottery industry; for road occur in limestone formations in prehistoric man for the fabrication of weapons, when struck with steel . Flint is used in tube making and building properties. Flint nodules North Wales.

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JASPER: it is an opaque form of silica, usually of red, brown yellow color and rarely green. Egyptian or Ribbon Jasper are beautifully banded with different shades of brown. Porcelain Jasper is merely clay altered by contact with a hot igneous rocks.

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CALCIUM MINERALS:
Calcium doesnt occur in the free state but its compounds are extremely abundant. Calcium occurs in limestone as CaCO3. Calcium also enters into the composition of many rock forming silicates such as : Anorthite ( feldspar group ) .. Ca Al2 Si2 O8 and in Pyroxenes; amphiboles; garnets; scapolites; epidotes; zeolites and wollastonites. Calcite is a non-silicate mineral and of great economic value. The following are the important non-silicate calcium minerals: Mineral composition Class Calcite Ca CO3 Aragonite Ca CO3 Carbonates Siderite Fe CO3 Dolomite Ca Mg (CO3)2 Anhydrite Ca SO4 Sulphates Gypsum Ca SO4 2 H2O Glauberite Na2 Ca (SO4)2 Apatite Fluorspar Ulexite Colemanite Ca5 (F, Cl) ( PO4)3 Ca F2 Na Ca B5 O9 8 H2O Ca2 B6 O11 5 H2O Phosphates Fluorides

Borates

POLYMORPHISM: Aragonite and calcite are having the same chemical composition but differ in physical properties. Varieties: Nail - head spar crystals showing combination of flat rhombohedron and prism. Ice land spar is a fibrous form of calcite whereas Aphrite & Argentine are unimportant varieties of calcite. Stalactites are pendent columns formed by the dripping of water charged with CaCO3 from the roofs of caverns in limestone rocks whereas Stalagmite, the surplus dripping of water gives rise to a similar deposit which forms one above the other on the floors of the caverns. Chalk, soft, white earth form of Ca CO3 and Limestones, marbles are forms of carbonate of lime. Occurrence: calcite may be either of an organic chemical origin. or of an inorganic and

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Uses: in the manufacture of bleaching powder; calcium carbide; in glass industry; in soap, paper; paint industries; in cement manufacturing ; in printing process; in optical apparatus etc..

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DIFFERENT METHODS OF STUDY OF MINERALS

According to the mineral definition, every mineral has its own chemical composition and atomic structure and it is unique for every mineral. This fact facilitates the study of mineral in different ways. Common methods of study and identification of minerals based on their (i) physical properties (ii) chemical properties (iii) optical properties and (iv) x-ray analysis.

(i) Study of Physical properties: Physical properties like Color, Form,

lustre,

Hardness (resistance to scratching), Density (Specific Gravity), cleavage etc., can be studied with simple observations. These properties are dependent on chemical composition and atomic structure i.e., if the atomic structure and chemical composition remains the same, the resulting properties should also be similar.. This principle is the basis for the study of minerals.

For example, any galena mineral irrespective of its place of occurrence, size, shape, association ,consistently exhibits lead grey colour, metallic shine, opaque character, high Sp gr (density = 7.4 7.6), tendency to break easily along three different directions and is scratched easily by knife. This set of physical properties is never exhibited by any other mineral .Therefore, if such properties are observed an unknown mineral it must be only galena. (ii) Study of Chemical composition: According to the definition, every mineral which is expected to have its own individual chemical composition, which is not to be

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it should be possible to identify the mineral.

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found in any other mineral. Therefore, by chemical analysis if composition is known

For example, if the composition of an unknown mineral is found to be lead sulphide (PbS), then that must be only galena because galena always has the composition lead sulphide and no other mineral has this composition.

(iii) Study of optical properties: In this method of study, the minerals are made very fine (0.03 mm ) and fixed over glass slide by means canadabalsam such skillfully prepared slides are called thin sections. They are studied under

petrological microscope. Different optical properties such as interference colours, their order, interference figures, optic sign, twinning, alteration etc., are studied under crossed nicols with help of some other accessories, if necessary.

The optical properties of every mineral are also distinctive and hence helpful in the identification of minerals. For example, quartz is characterized by: anhedral

shape, clourless, no cleavage, transparent, low relief, non-pleochroic, grey or yellow, interference colours of first order, positive uniaxial interference figure, positive elongation, no alteration etc,.

(iv) Study of X-ray analysis:

When a beam of x-rays falls on a crystal, it is

diffracted by the layers of the atoms within the crystal. In making an x-ray analysis of atomic structure of the crystal, the diffracted x-rays are allowed to fall on the on photographic plate and resulting photograph shows a series of spots or lines which form more or less symmetrical pattern. From measurements made on the photograph, the arrangement of the atoms in the crystal can be deduced and also the distances between them. The results of x-ray analysis of minerals reveal their atomic structure, which is distinctive, for each mineral. This enables the accurate identification of minerals.

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study of physical properties of minerals


Form: The form of mineral is defined as its shape. The external shape of mineral reflects the internal arrangement of atoms. When a mineral occurs as a well developed crystal, it is called crystallized. If the growth of the crystals is hampered due to interference of other crystal grains then the resulting form is called crystalline. When just traces of crystalline structures are present, it is called cryptocrystalline. Due to random network of ions or the total absence of

crystalline structure, amorphous (or) shape less forms result. Some of important forms are listed below.

S.No 1.

Name of the form Lamellar Form Mineral

Description appears as

Mineral Examples thin Muscovite, Biotite

separable layers 2. Tabular Form Minerals appears as slabs of Feldspars, Gypsum uniform thickness 3. Fibrous Form Mineral appears as threads 4. 5. 6. Pisolitic Form Rhombic Form Bladed Form Mineral appears as sphericals Rhombic shape Bauxite Calcite, garnet fine Asbestos

Minerals appear as independent Kyanite blade or lath-shaped grains

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Granular Form Reni Form Prismatic Form Spongy Form Cubic Form Massive Form

innumerable equidimensional grains of coarse/medium/fine size

Chromite, Magnetite

graphite,

Kidney-shaped Elongated crystals Porous Geometrical Shapes No definite shape

Hematite Olivine, Augite Pyrolusite, Bauxite Garnet, Pyrite, Galena


Graphite, Olivine, Quartz, haematite, Magnesite,

Jasper, Pyrolusite

13.

Nodular Form

Irregularly

shaped

compact Flint

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bodies with curved surfaces

Color: Minerals show great variety of colors and can be identified by their color. Color wise the minerals are of two types (i) Dark colored minerals and (ii) Light colored minerals. Mineral colors are generally related to the spatial arrangement of the constituent atoms or the impurities present in the minerals or all of these. For example: (i)The color related to atomic structure. Diamond is colorless and transparent where as Graphite is black and opaque even though both contain carbon. (ii) The color related to impurities: Generally pure quartz colorless and transparent. But commonly due to impurities it shows colors such as pink, purple etc. Mineral Calcite Feldspar Quartz hornblende ruby Pyrite Emerald graphite barytes galena Microcline Chromite Sapphire Malachite orthoclase Garnet opal Color Mineral Color Colorless / white / red / grey / yellow White / grey / red / green / dirty white Colorless / white / green / violet / grey / yellow / pink Dark green Red Brass yellow Green Shining black White / pale grey Dark lead grey White/pink/green Black Blue Dark green White / red red Milky white Augite biotite Chalcopyrite Chlorite Coal gypsum Haematite kyanite magnetite Muscovite Olivine plagioclase talc Tourmaline Greenish black Black, greenish black Golden yellow Grassy green Black Colorless / white Dark steel grey Blue Black Silver white Olivine green Grey / white White/yellow Jet black

Streak:

The streak of mineral is color of its powder. Many minerals exhibit a

different color in the powder form compared to form of mass. The powder of the mineral is obtained either by scratching the mineral with a pen knife or rubbing it across piece of unglazed porcelain plate called streak plate. Most transparent

minerals show a white streak. colored minerals show a dark color streak of the mineral. Sometimes the streak is altogether different in color from the color of the mineral.

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S.No 1 2 3 4 5

Streak Dark brown, black Bluish black Cherry red Dark grey white

minerals Pyrite, magnetite, chromite, Pyrolusite, biotite, graphite. Pyrolusite., haematite galena Calcite, jasper, olivine, muscovite, asbestos, Kyanite, garnet, talc, calcite, Magnesite,

6 7 8 9 10 11

colorless White to grey Grey to greenish grey Silver white Greenish black Red or reddish brown

quartz Augite, biotite, Hornblende, Muscovite Biotite, pyrite, Haematite,

Lustre: Lustre is the nature of shining on the surface of the mineral under reflected light. It varies considerably depending upon the amount and type of light reflected. Based on the type of shining, lustres are grouped as metallic and non-metallic. Metallic lustre is the type of shining that appears on the surface of the metal. Nonmetallic lustres are named considering the type of shining that appears in some common materials. Some important non-metallic lustres that are observed mainly in rock-forming minerals are:
S.No 1. 2. Non-metallic Lustre Vitreous lustre Subvitreous lustre Description Shining like a glass Subvitreous lustre is similar to vitreous lustre but with less shining 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Pearly lustre Silky lustre Resinous lustre Greasy lustre Adamantine lustre Earthy or Dull lustre Shining like pearl Shining like silk Shining like resin Shining like grease Shining like diamond No shining like earth or chalk Talc, Muscovite(mica) Asbestos Opal, Agate Graphite, Serpentine Garnet, Diamond Magnesite, Bauxite

Minerals
Quartz, Calcite, Feldspar Pyroxenes (augite)

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Cleavage: The definite direction or plane along which a mineral tends to break easily is called the cleavage of that mineral. Crystallized and crystalline minerals can have cleavage. Amorphous minerals do not show cleavage. Cleavage, if present , occurs as innumerable planes along which mineral is equally weak. Hence all such parallel planes of weakness are referred to as a set. Depending upon their atomic structure, crystalline minerals will have 1 set of cleavage (or) 2 sets (or) 3 sets (or) 4 sets (or) 6 sets of cleavages (or) no cleavage. Since atomic structure of a mineral is definite, the cleavage character of the mineral will also be definite. Depending upon the degree of perfection, cleavage may be described as perfect or eminent or excellent (mica) , good (calcite) , imperfect or poor or indistinct (apatite).
S.No 1 2 5 6 7 cleavage None indistinct Present perfect perfect 1 3 2 Sets Minerals Quartz, Flint, Jasper, Olivine, garnet, haematite, Pyrolusite, Graphite, apatite mica, chlorite, talc, Asbestos Calcite, Magnesite, galena Feldspars, hornblende, Kyanite, augite

Fracture: Fracture is the nature of randomly broken surface of mineral. Based on the nature of a broken surface, fractures are described as even fracture, uneven fracture, hackly fracture, and conchoidal fracture. S.No
1. Name of fracture Even Fracture

Description
If the broken surface of a mineral is plain and

Minerals example
Magnesite, Chalk

smooth, it is called even fracture 2. Uneven Fracture If the broken surface is rough and irregular Augite, hornblende, mica, chlorite, talc, pyrite, haematite, magnetite, Pyrolusite, graphite, bauxite. 3. Hackly Fracture If the broken surface is very irregular like the end of a broken stick 4 Conchoidal Fracture 5 6 Even to uneven Conchoidal to subconchoidal If the broken surface is smooth and curved Olivine, Magnesite Agate, Flint, Jasper, galena, bauxite. Asbestos, Kyanite, chlorite,

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Garnet,

Tenacity: The tenacity is a measure of the cohesiveness of minerals as shown by its resistance to breaking, crushing or other deformation methods. The different kinds of tenacity are classified as follows (i) Brittle: The minerals breaks into powder (ii) Malleable: The minerals be beaten into sheets (iii) Ductile: The mineral can be drawn into thin wires (iv) Sectile: The mineral can be cut into thin sheets (v) Elastic: The minerals bend on the application of pressure but regains the original shape when the pressure is released.

Hardness: Hardness may be defined as the resistance offered by the mineral to abrasion or scratching. For example, if mineral specimen is muscovite (mica), when it is tested on the mohs scale of hardness, it should not scratched by gypsum but by calcite. The

composition of the mineral appears to have less influence over hardness.

For example,

graphite and diamond which possess the same composition, but

different atomic structures, represent nearly two extremes of the hardness in the mineral kingdom i.e. graphite is extremely soft and diamond is extremely hard.

Mohs Scale of Hardness:

In 1882 an Australian mineralogist, Mohs proposed a

relative scale for hardness of minerals. The standard set of ten reference minerals used to determine the hardness of any unknown mineral is called Mohs scale of hardness. The actual minerals of the set and their hardness are as follows:
Talc = 1; Gypsum = 2; Calcite = 3; Fluorite = 4; Apatite = 5; Feldspar = 6; Quartz = 7; Topaz = 8; Corundum = 9; Diamond = 10; Page Dr G SUBBARAO, PROFESSOR, NNRES GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS || www.jntuworld.com

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Thus Talc is the least hard mineral and Diamond is the most hard mineral. The relative hardness of an unknown mineral is determined by scratching it with the Mohs scale of hardness starting with Talc and followed by minerals of increasing hardness. Common minerals like finger nail (H = 2.5) , a copper coin (H=3.5), a broken glass piece (H=5.5) and pen knife (H=6.5) may be used to fix the lower limit.

Specific Gravity ( density ) : Specific gravity of mineral depends on their chemical composition. and atomic structure. The specific gravity of a mineral is the weight of it to the weight of an equal volume of water. In the laboratory, specific gravity of minerals is determined using either Walkers steel yard or Jollys spring balance. In determining specific gravity care should be taken to select only fresh (ie un weathered ) minerals free from inclusions, impurities etc,.

For routine identification of minerals based on physical properties, determination of actual specific gravity is tedious and unnecessary because most of the rockforming minerals have specific gravity range of 2.5 to 3.5, while common ore minerals like magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, galena, pyrite, Pyrolusite and Psilomelane, have specific gravity over 3.5. Only few minerals have a specific gravity less than 2.5. Thus based on this range of specific gravity of minerals, the density character of minerals may be described as high, medium or low.

The medium density refers to the common rock-forming minerals and higher density refers to the common ore minerals.

Sp. Gravity Low Density Medium Density < 2.5 2.5 to 3.5 Talc, graphite,

Minerals

Feldspars, quartz, flint, jasper, olivine, augite, hornblende, mica, chlorite,

asbestos, calcite, Magnesite, bauxite High Density > 3.5 Kyanite, garnet, pyrite, haematite,

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magnetite, chromite, galena, Pyrolusite,

Transparency translucency: A mineral is transparent when the outlines of objects seen through it appear sharp and distinct. Eg: quartz transparent Selenite transparent Fluorite ; Topaz sub-transparent A mineral which, though capable of transmitting light, cannot be seen through is translucent. When no light is transmitted the mineral is opaque.

Phosphorescence Fluorescence: Phosphorescence is the property possessed by some substances of emitting light after having been subjected to certain conditions such as heating, rubbing or exposure to electric or UV light. Eg: pieces of quartz when rubbed together in a dark room emit a phosphorescent light. Diamond, ruby etc when exposure to x-rays show phosphorescent property. Some minerals such as fluorspar emit light when exposed to certain electrical radiations ( means giving off a certain kind of light ) is called as Fluorescence.

Depending upon certain senses taste; odour, feel etc TASTE: When the minerals are soluble in water, generally possess a characteristic taste which may be designated as follows: Taste Saline Alkaline Acidic / sour Cool Sweetish astringent Bitter Result The taste of common salt , eg: halite That of potash & soda The sour taste of H2SO4 The taste of potassium chlorite That of alum That of Epsom salt

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ODOUR: Some minerals have characteristic odours when struck, rubbed, breathed, heated etc terms used are:: Odour Result on smell Alliaceous Garlic odour when arsenic compounds are heated . eg: arsenopyrite, orpiment, realgar Horse-radish odour The odour of decaying horse radish when selenium compounds are heated Sulphurous The odour of burning sulphur when sulphides heated Foetid The odour of rotten eggs given by heating Clayey The odour of clay. Eg: kaolin

FEEL: Rough feeling of touch. Eg chalk

Depending upon the state of aggregation.

Gases & liquids Form Hardness Tenacity Fracture Cleavage

Gases & liquids O2; N2; CO2 are examples for natural gases H2O ; Hg ; HYDRO-CARBONS are examples for natural liquids.

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MODE OF FORMATION OF MINERALS Minerals are the products of natural physic chemical processes and the conditions in which they originate are various. The conditions include the temperature, pressure and the interaction of minerals with country rocks. Since, minerals are hard crystalline substances, their origin is restricted From its liquid into its solid form eg: rock salt From its gaseous into its solid form eg: sassoline, cinnabar, NH 4Cl From one hard form into another. The crystallization of HALITE (Rock salt / common salt ) during the evaporation of sea water serve as a good example for the formation of minerals from solutions The formation of Ammonium Chloride ( NH4Cl ); sassoline (H3BO3 ) or Native boric acid; Cinnabar (HgS) ie mercury sulphide etc clearly indicates the emergence of minerals from a gaseous phase. The formation of minerals during the transition from one solid state into another solid state is typical of the process of RECRYSTALLIZATION; METAMORPHISM & METASOMATISM. Eg: Limestone is transformed into marble Quartz in sandstone becomes into quartzite Clay changes into Phyllites & mica schists.

The majority of the minerals in the earths crust have been formed by crystallization of molten melt ie magma. It is estimated that 95% of the earths crust is composed of igneous rocks which were resulted from solidification of magma. The chief modes of formation of minerals are . From Fusion ( solidification from fused rock material ie magma ) From solution ( crystallization from a solution ) From Vapour ( crystallization from a gas ) Formation of minerals from Fusion: An igneous magma ( complex solution ) in which the various elements present are free to circulate under the proper conditions to form mineral molecules. The composition of the magma determine the character of the minerals. The elements O, Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, Na, K etc occur in varying proportions in igneous magmas.

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Eg:

quartz, feldspars, olivine, Enstatite, hypersthenes, Augite Hornblende, biotite, muscovite Apatite, monazite .. Magnetite, ilmenite, chromite Pyrite, pyrrhotite .. Platinum, diamond .

silicates Phosphates oxides sulphides Elements

Formation of minerals from vapours: The formation of minerals from vapours is confined such volcanic regions where mineral gases are discharged from fumeroles. Minerals deposited in this way include sulphur, Tellurium, Arsenic sulphides, boric acid, chlorides etc Eg: quartz, opal, zeolites . Gypsum Haematite, magnetite Halite Pyrite, cinnabar, stibnite Sulphur ,, Silicates sulphates oxides halides sulphides elements water

Formation of minerals from solutions : By the evaporation of saline (sea water / salt lakes) causing certain mineral deposits. Eg: carbonates of lime ( CaCO3 ) and magnesia ( MgCO3) Calcium sulphate ( CaSO4) and Sodium Chloride ( NaCl) Sodium Sulphate ( NaSO4) and Potassium Chloride ( KCl)

The factors of concentration, temperature, proportion of various constituents in the solution control the character of the minerals formed. Eg: Quartz, feldspars, muscovite, chlorite, hornblende, Tourmaline, zeolites, topaz Barytes .. Calcite, Magnesite . Magnetite, haematite, rutile, Brookite Fluorite .. Galena, pyrite, Cinnabar .. Gold, silver, arsenic, bismuth .

silicates sulphates Carbonates oxides halides sulphides Elements

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Physical properties of minerals


Form: The form of mineral is defined as its shape. The external shape of mineral reflects the internal arrangement of atoms. When a mineral occurs as a well developed crystal, it is called crystallized. If the growth of the crystals is hampered due to interference of other crystal grains then the resulting form is called crystalline. When just traces of crystalline structures are present, it is called cryptocrystalline. Due to random network of ions or the total absence of crystalline structure, amorphous (or) shape less forms result. Some of important forms are listed below.

S.No 1.

Name of the form Lamellar Form Mineral

Description appears as

Mineral Examples thin Muscovite, Biotite

separable layers 2. Tabular Form Minerals appears as slabs of Feldspars, Gypsum uniform thickness 3. Fibrous Form Mineral appears as threads 4. 5. 6. Pisolitic Form Rhombic Form Bladed Form Mineral appears as sphericals Rhombic shape Bauxite Calcite, garnet fine Asbestos

Minerals appear as independent Kyanite blade or lath-shaped grains

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Granular Form Reni Form Prismatic Form Spongy Form Cubic Form Massive Form

innumerable equidimensional grains of coarse/medium/fine size

Chromite, Magnetite

graphite,

Kidney-shaped Elongated crystals Porous Geometrical Shapes No definite shape

Hematite Olivine, Augite Pyrolusite, Bauxite Garnet, Pyrite, Galena


Graphite, Olivine, Quartz, haematite, Magnesite,

Jasper, Pyrolusite

13.

Nodular Form

Irregularly

shaped

compact Flint

bodies with curved surfaces

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Color: Minerals show great variety of colors and can be identified by their color. Color wise the minerals are of two types (i) Dark colored minerals and (ii) Light colored minerals. Mineral colors are generally related to the spatial arrangement of the constituent atoms or the impurities present in the minerals or all of these.
For example: (i)The color related to atomic structure. Diamond is colorless and transparent where as Graphite is black and opaque even though both contain carbon. (ii) The color related to impurities: Generally pure quartz colorless and transparent. But commonly due to impurities it shows colors such as pink, purple etc. Streak: The streak of mineral is color of its powder. Many minerals exhibit a different color in the powder form compared to form of mass. The powder of the mineral is obtained either by scratching the mineral with a pen knife or rubbing it across piece of unglazed porcelain plate called streak plate. Most transparent minerals show a white streak. colored minerals show a dark color streak of the mineral. Sometimes the streak is altogether different in color from the color of the mineral. S.No 1 2 3 4 5 Streak Dark brown, black Bluish black Cherry red Dark grey white minerals Pyrite, magnetite, chromite, Pyrolusite, biotite, graphite. Pyrolusite., haematite galena Calcite, jasper, olivine, muscovite, asbestos, Kyanite, garnet, talc, calcite, Magnesite, 6 7 8 9 10 11 colorless White to grey Grey to greenish grey Silver white Greenish black Red or reddish brown quartz Augite, biotite, Hornblende, Muscovite Biotite, pyrite, Haematite,

Lustre: Lustre is the nature of shining on the surface of the mineral under reflected light. It varies considerably depending upon the amount and type of light reflected. Based on the type of shining, lustres are grouped as metallic and non-metallic. Metallic lustre is the type of shining that appears on the surface of the metal. Nonmetallic lustres are named considering the type of shining that appears in some common materials. Some important non-metallic lustres that are observed mainly in rock-forming minerals are:
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S.No 1.

Non-metallic Lustre Vitreous lustre

Description Shining like a glass Quartz,

Minerals Calcite,

Feldspar 2. Subvitreous lustre Subvitreous lustre is similar Pyroxenes (augite) to vitreous lustre but with less shining 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Pearly lustre Silky lustre Resinous lustre Greasy lustre Adamantine lustre Earthy or Dull lustre Shining like pearl Shining like silk Shining like resin Shining like grease Shining like diamond No shining like earth or chalk Talc, Muscovite(mica) Asbestos Opal, Agate Graphite, Serpentine Garnet, Diamond Magnesite, Bauxite

Cleavage: The definite direction or plane along which a mineral tends to break easily is called the cleavage of that mineral. Crystallized and crystalline minerals can have cleavage. Amorphous minerals do not show cleavage. Cleavage, if present , occurs as innumerable planes along which mineral is equally weak. Hence all such parallel planes of weakness are referred to as a set. Depending upon their atomic structure, crystalline minerals will have 1 set of cleavage (or) 2 sets (or) 3 sets (or) 4 sets (or) 6 sets of cleavages (or) no cleavage. Since atomic structure of a mineral is definite, the cleavage character of the mineral will also be definite. Depending upon the degree of perfection, cleavage may be described as perfect or eminent or excellent (mica) , good (calcite) , imperfect or poor or indistinct (apatite).
S.No 1 2 5 6 7 cleavage None indistinct Present perfect perfect 1 3 2 Sets Minerals Quartz, Flint, Jasper, Olivine, garnet, haematite, Pyrolusite, Graphite, apatite mica, chlorite, talc, Asbestos Calcite, Magnesite, galena Feldspars, hornblende, Kyanite, augite

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Fracture: Fracture is the nature of randomly broken surface of mineral. Based on the nature of a broken surface, fractures are described as even fracture, uneven fracture, hackly fracture, and conchoidal fracture. S.No Name of fracture Description 1. Even Fracture Minerals example

If the broken surface Magnesite, Chalk of a mineral is plain and smooth, it is

called even fracture 2. Uneven Fracture If the broken surface Augite, is rough hornblende, mica,

and chlorite, talc, pyrite, haematite, magnetite, Pyrolusite, graphite, bauxite.

irregular

3.

Hackly Fracture

If the broken surface Asbestos, Kyanite, chlorite, is very irregular like the end of a broken stick

Conchoidal Fracture

If the broken surface Agate, is smooth and bauxite.

Flint,

Jasper,

galena,

curved 5 6 Even to uneven Conchoidal to Olivine, Magnesite Garnet,

sub-conchoidal

Tenacity: The tenacity is a measure of the cohesiveness of minerals as shown by its resistance to breaking, crushing or other deformation methods. The different kinds of tenacity are classified as follows (vi) Brittle: The minerals breaks into powder (vii) (viii) Malleable: The minerals be beaten into sheets Ductile: The mineral can be drawn into thin wires

(x) Elastic: The minerals bend on the application of pressure but regains the original shape when the pressure is released.

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(ix) Sectile: The mineral can be cut into thin sheets

Hardness: Hardness may be defined as the resistance offered by the mineral to abrasion or scratching. For example, if mineral specimen is muscovite (mica), when it is tested on the mohs scale of hardness, it should not scratched by gypsum but by calcite. The composition of the mineral appears to have less influence over hardness.

For example, graphite and diamond which possess the same composition, but different atomic structures, represent nearly two extremes of the hardness in the mineral kingdom i.e. graphite is extremely soft and diamond is extremely hard.

Mohs Scale of Hardness:

In 1882 an Australian mineralogist, Mohs proposed a relative

scale for hardness of minerals. The standard set of ten reference minerals used to determine the hardness of any unknown mineral is called Mohs scale of hardness. The actual minerals of the set and their hardness are as follows: Talc = 1; Gypsum = 2; Calcite = 3; Fluorite = 4; Apatite = 5; Feldspar = 6; Quartz = 7; Topaz = 8; Corundum = 9; Diamond = 10;

Thus Talc is the least hard mineral and Diamond is the most hard mineral. The relative hardness of an unknown mineral is determined by scratching it with the Mohs scale of hardness starting with Talc and followed by minerals of increasing hardness. Common minerals like finger nail (H = 2.5) , a copper coin (H=3.5), a broken glass piece (H=5.5) and pen knife (H=6.5) may be used to fix the lower limit.

Specific Gravity ( density ) : Specific gravity of mineral depends on their chemical composition. and atomic structure. The specific gravity of a mineral is the weight of it to the weight of an equal volume of water. In the laboratory, specific gravity of minerals is determined using either Walkers steel yard or Jollys spring balance. In determining specific gravity care should be taken to select only fresh (ie un weathered ) minerals free from inclusions, impurities etc,.

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For routine identification of minerals based on physical properties, determination of actual specific gravity is tedious and unnecessary because most of the rockforming minerals have specific gravity range of 2.5 to 3.5, while common ore minerals like magnetite, hematite, ilmenite, galena, pyrite, Pyrolusite and Psilomelane, have specific gravity over 3.5. Only few minerals have a specific gravity less than 2.5. Thus based on this range of specific gravity of minerals, the density character of minerals may be described as high, medium or low.

The medium density refers to the common rock-forming minerals and higher density refers to the common ore minerals.
Sp. Gravity Low Density Medium Density < 2.5 2.5 to 3.5 Talc, graphite, Feldspars, quartz, flint, jasper, olivine, Minerals

augite, hornblende, mica, chlorite, asbestos, calcite, Magnesite, bauxite High Density > 3.5 Kyanite, garnet, pyrite, haematite,

magnetite, chromite, galena, Pyrolusite, MINERALS S no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Mineral Feldspar Quartz Flint Jasper Olivine Augite Hornblende Muscovite Biotite Asbestos Chlorite Kyanite Garnet Talc Calcite 1.5 2. 5
4- 5 length & 67breadth

hardness 6 6.5 7 7 6.5 7 6.5 56 56 2.5 3 2.5 3

Density (sp gr) 2.6 2.73 2.6 2.7 2.65 6.5 7 3.34 56 56 2.8 2.9 2.7 3.3 2.9 3.2 2.7 3.0 3.6 - 3.7 3.5 4.3 2.7 2.7

Cleavage 2 sets Absent Absent Absent Absent 2 sets 2 sets 1 set 1 set Perfect 1 set 2 sets Absent 1 set 3 sets

6.5 7.5 1 3

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ECONOMIC MINERALS S no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Mineral Pyrite Haematite Magnetite Chromite Galena Pyrolusite Graphite Magnesite Bauxite 12 45 2-4 hardness 67 56 56 5.5 6 2.5 3.0 Density ( sp gr) 5 5. 2 5. 2 4.1 5.1 7.5 4.5 5 2 2.3 3.0 3.2 2 3.5 Cleavage 2 -3 sets Absent Absent Absent Perfect Indistinct indistinct 3 sets Absent

Degree of Transparency: This is also known as diaphaneity. Depending up on the resistance offered by the minerals to the passage of light through them, they may be classified as transparent, translucent and opaque. This character of a mineral depends on chemical composition, impurities, inclusions, weathering and also thickness. Rock-forming minerals usually appear to be opaque when they are thick, but lose this opaque character if they are made thinner. But metallic ore minerals remain mostly opaque, even when they are made thinner. Therefore, the distinction between a really opaque mineral and other not opaque minerals will help to distinguish ore minerals from rock-forming minerals.

Relative advantages and disadvantages of different methods of study: Among different methods of study made in the identification of a mineral, definitely x-ray analysis is best, because it is accurate and there is no scope for wrong identification. But disadvantage is that for such study many facilities, a lot of

infrastructure, costly equipment and accessories are necessary.

The constraints, in the study by optical properties method, are (i) opaque minerals are not amenable for study under ordinary petrological microscopes, special

virtue of their irregular arrangement, cannot be identified by optical methods. (iii) cost involved in procuring the required equipment

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reflective ore microscopes are needed for their study (ii) amorphous minerals, by

The method of chemical analysis, this is fairly good in giving correct identification of minerals, but the constraints are (i) impossible to identify the mineral exclusively based on chemical analysis (ii) cost of equipment, reagents, and facilities required Lastly coming to the method of study of minerals by physical properties, it is most suitable for the following reasons (i) The unique advantage is that it makes possible the study of rocks or minerals in the field itself. (ii) It does not require any equipment worth mentioning. (iii) It does not involve the use of chemicals and it does not need additional facilities. (iv) It involves no loss or wastage (v) It is the quickest, simplest and least tedious method for identification of minerals i.e., money, energy, and time are spent to the minimum extent.

However, the disadvantages in this method are (i) In some cases even slight variation in chemical composition results in considerable change in colour. (ii) Weathering alters many physical properties significantly and makes identification difficult.

(iii) Further, some minerals formed under different conditions show light variations in physical properties.

Polymorphism:

polymorphism is a phenomenon where by different minerals

possessing different physical properties occur despite having the same chemical composition. For example: Al2SiO5 is the composition of different minerals like Andalusite, sillimanite and kyanite.

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Study of physical properties of

rock forming minerals:

It is necessary to

know about the common minerals which actually make up different rocks and determine their properties. Name of the Mineral: 1. Feldspars

S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Form Color Streak Lustre

Properties Tabular

Observations

Pale pink, whitish blue, grayish

Vitreous Uneven 2 sets 6 6.5 2.6 2.73 Plagioclase feldspars include: ALBITE; LABRADORITE OLIGOCLASE BYTOWNITE ANDESINE ANORTHITE.

Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties

Potash feldspars include: Hyalophane (KAlSi3O8) Orthoclase (KAlSi3O8) Microcline (KAlSi3O8) Anorthoclase (Na KAl Si3 O8) 10 Occurrence In granites, Syenites, diorite, rhyolite, Trachyte, sandstones, schists, gabbros, gneisses. 11 Uses In the manufacture of porcelain & pottery,

earthernware, sanitary ware, bricks manufacture, glasses, electronic products etc. 12 Chemical composition NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8

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Name of the Mineral:

2. Quartz

S No 1 2 Form Color

Properties Massive, crystals

Observations

Quartz occurs in different colors. Common colors are white, grey, purple, brown, pink etc

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties

Colorless ( harder than streak plate ) Vitreous Conchoidal Absent 7 2.6 2.7 Flint, Jasper, Amethyst (purple or violet color), Opal, rose quartz ( pale pink color). Milky quartz ( milky white in color ) .

10

Occurrence

Occurs

in almost igneous( granites, rhyolites),

sedimentary (sandstones) and metamorphic rocks ( quartzites ). 11 Uses Glass making, optical materials, polishing / grinding compounds, components in electronic products, 12 Chemical composition SiO2

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Name of the Mineral: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Properties

3. Flint Observations

Irregular nodules, massive Grey, brownish, black Colorless ( harder than streak plate ) Resinous Conchoidal Absent 7 2.65 Hornstone, Chert In sedimentary rocks such as Limestones Used in tube mills, pottery industry, as road and building material.

12

Chemical composition

SiO2

Name of the Mineral: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Chemical composition Properties Massive Red, Grey, brown

4. Jasper Observations

Colorless ( harder than streak plate ) Dull, vitreous, greasy Conchoidal Absent 6.5 - 7 2.57 2.65

In Igneous, sedimentary & metamorphic rocks Ornaments, gemstones SiO2

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Name of the Mineral: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Properties

5. Olivine Observations

MASSIVE or no definite shape OLIVE GREEN. Mg rich types are PALE whereas iron rich types are DARK COLOURED WHITE VITREOUS but OFTEN DULL EVEN TO UNEVEN ABSENT 67 3.2 4.3 FORSTERITE IS MAGNESIUM OLIVINE FAYALITE IS FERROUS IRON TYPE PERIDOT is a gem variety of olivine. IGNEOUS ROCKS such as Peridotites, Dunites, Gabbro, Basalt, Dolerites. PERIDOT IS a GEM VARIETY manufacture of REFRACTORY BRICKS (Mg,Fe)2 SiO4

10 11 12

Occurrence Uses Chemical composition

Name of the Mineral: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Chemical composition Properties

6. Augite Observations

granular, prismatic crystals Greenish black TO Brownish black WHITE TO GREY VITREOUS TO SUB VITREOUS UNEVEN 2-SETS 56 3.2 3.5 Diallage Basalts, Andesites, Tuffs, Gabbros, Pyroxenites, Andesites (Ca, Na) (Mg,Fe+2, Fe+3, Al) [(Si Al)2 O6]

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Name of the Mineral: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Properties

7. Hornblende Observations

GRANULAR OR PRISMATIC or AGGREGATE DARK GREENISH BLACK GREY TO GREENISH GREY VITREOUS TO SUB VITREOUS UNEVEN 2 sets 56 3 3.47 Edenite, Paragasite In IGNEOUS ROCKS such as Granites, Syenites, Diorites, Hornblendite and in METAMORPHIC ROCKS such as Gneisses, Schists, Amphibolites. 1.DECORATION 2.USED AS INSULATING MATERIAL 3.USED AS ELECTRIC COMMUTATORS (Ca, Mg, Fe, Na, Al)7-8 (Al Si)8 O22 (OH)2

11

Uses

12

Chemical composition

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Name of the Mineral: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Properties

8. Muscovite Observations

LAMELLAR (layers are separable and occurs in book form ); some occur as flaky minerals. Brownish black, silver white, brownish yellow white Vitreous, pearly EVEN / HACKLY 1 set 2 - 2.5 2.76 - 3.0 PARAGONITESODIUM MICA LEPIDOLITE- LITHIUM MICA SERICITE is a fine grained muscovite type found in gneisses and schists. Gilbertite Illite, a variety of mica is found in sedimentary rocks found in igneous rocks such as Granites, Pegmatites and Phlogophites..

10

Occurrence

11

Uses

Electrical industry,, wall finishes, thin transparent sheets are used as an insulator and used in circuit boards.

12

Chemical composition

KAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH,F)2

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Name of the Mineral: S No 1 Form Properties

9. Biotite Observations

LAMELLAR (layers are separable and occurs in book form ); some occur as flaky minerals.

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties

dark brown, black, dark greenish black white to gray Vitreous, pearly EVEN / HACKLY 1 set 2.5 - 3 2.7 - 3.1 LEPIDOMELANE PHLOGOPITE: Mg .MICA ZINNWALDITE: LITHIUM MICA (pale white) found in igneous ROCKS such as Granites, Diorites, Gabbros, and in metamorphic rocks viz., Biotite gneisses, Schists, Hornfels.

10

Occurrence

11 12

Uses Chemical composition

1.USED AS INSULATING MATERIAL 2.USED AS ELECTRIC COMMUTATORS K(Mg,Fe)3(Si3Al)O10(OH,F)2

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Name of the Mineral: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Properties Fibres / FIBROUS

10. Asbestos Observations

Pale green / whitish green white SILKY UNEVEN TO HACKLY Perfect 56 2.9 3.2 Nephrite, Uralite Occurs in actinolite schistose rocks Fire proof fabrics, brake linings, manufacture of

asbestos sheets, boards, roofing tiles, fire proof paints. 12 Chemical composition Ca2 (Mg Fe)5 Si8 O22 (OH)2 11. chlorite Observations FOLIATED GREEN usually dark grass green

Name of the Mineral: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties 2.5 2.6 - 3.3 Vitreous to earthy Properties

Chamosite ( iron-rich chlorite), Ripidolite, Penninite, Clinochlore.

10

Occurrence

In igneous rocks due to alteration of biotite and in metamorphic rocks chlorite schists. such as chlorite Phyllites,

11 12

Uses

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Chemical composition

Mg,Fe, Al (Al, Si3) O10 (OH)8

Name of the Mineral: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Properties

12. Kyanite Observations

Long blades, fibres Light blue White Vitreous to pearly Uneven 2 sets 4-5 along length and 6 7 along breadth 3.6 3. 7 Andalusite In Gneisses, Schists, Eclogites In refractories. As industry. heating element, in ceramic

12

Chemical composition

Al2 Si O5

Name of the Mineral: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Properties

13. Garnet Observations

Rhombohedron / Rhombododecahedron Red, brownish red, pink Colorless Vitreous Uneven or sub-conchoidal Absent 6.5 7.5 3.5 4.3 Grossularite; Pyrope, Almandine, Spessartite,

Andradite, Uvarovite 10 11 12 Occurrence Uses Chemical composition In Syenites and in Gneisses, schists, An abrasive and as a gemstone (R2+3, R3+ 2 (SiO4)3 where R2+ = Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn) and R3+ = Fe, Al, Cr, Ti

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Name of the Mineral: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Properties FOLIATED White, green, grayish White Pearly Even 1 set 1 2.7 Steatite, soapstone

14. Talc Observations

Peridotites, Gabbros, Dolomites, Schists, Talcum powder industry, paper industry, as a filler in pains, rubber industry, in electrical industry.

12

Chemical composition

Mg3 ( Si4 O10) (OH)2

Name of the Mineral: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Properties Rhombic / tabular White White Vitreous Even 3 sets 3 2.71 Iceland spar

15. Calcite Observations

In limestones and marbles In cement industry, manufacture of bleaching

powder,, as a calcium carbide , 12 Chemical composition CaCO3

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STUDY OF COMMON ECONOMIC MINERALS


BAUXITE is
an amorphous mineral which consists of the metallic element of aluminum. Bauxite is formed under tropical weathering from different rocks. Such weathering results in leaching of all soluble matter and leaving behind enriched residues of oxides and hydroxides of aluminum , ferrous, ferric , manganese, titanium and silica. Aluminum is not found in a free state, but it is the most abundant metal in earths crust. Chemical composition: Bauxite, a mixture of aluminum hydroxides such as diaspore ( H Al O2 ), boehmite (AlO (OH) ) and gibbsite (Al ( OH)3 ) together with impurities of iron oxide, phosphorus compounds and titania. The following is the range of oxide percentage of bauxite: Al2O3 55 65% Fe2O3 2 - 20% SiO2 2 - 10 % TiO2 1 3% H2O 10 30% Physical Properties: mentioned separately Occurrence: Bauxite results from the decay and weathering of aluminum bearing rocks. Uses: For the manufacture of aluminum. Aluminum is used as abrasives; as refractory bricks.; in making cables ; household vessels, wrapping aluminum foil, cans, etc.. Owing to its low specific gravity 2.58, it is of great value in the manufacture of many articles .

PYRITE :Though

there are no native sulphur deposits in India, Pyrite serve the purpose of producing sulphur by eliminating sulphur from iron pyrites ( FeS2), which contains 53 % of sulphur and 47% Fe. It has a brass yellow color. Pyrrhotite, which also contains iron and sulphur, has a formula of Fe11S12. Pyrite occurs as massive or lumps or as fines.

Chemical composition:

Fe S2.

Physical Properties: mentioned separately Occurrence: The principal sources of pyrites and pyrrhotite in India are the sedimentary pyrite deposits of Bihar and Rajasthan. Karnataka, also producing pyrite deposits and the deposits are restricted to ultra basic igneous rocks.
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Uses: The main use of pyrite is to manufacture sulphuric acid, in the manufacture of phosphatic fertilizers.. Motion picture films consume a good amount sulphuric acid.
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GRAPHITE:

Graphite is one of the principal allotropic modifications of

carbon, the other two are coal and diamond. Carbon is known in three different conditions Transparent and crystallized as diamond, Scaly and crystalline as Graphite and Amorphous as charcoal, coal. These different forms, though chemically identical, vary in hardness, specific gravity and other physical properties.

Native carbon occurs as two important minerals viz., diamond and graphite while amorphous carbon is coal. Again, carbon forms with oxygen and hydrogen many series of compounds known as the Hydrocarbons. The sp gravity of graphite is 2.1 and hardness varies between 1 and 2. It is absolutely opaque in character and resistant to heat and a very good conductor of heat and electricity.

Chemical composition: It is a pure carbon and sometimes contaminated with a small amount of silica, iron-oxides , clay etc. Physical Properties: mentioned separately Occurrence: Graphite is the stable form of carbon at a high temperature. The majority of graphite deposits are formed by the metamorphism of carbonaceous matters particularly anthracite coal. . Graphite occurs in Bihar, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Rajasthan; WB; Sikkim; J & K; Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. In A.P., East Godavari district ( kothala village ) is identified with veins in khondalites. In Bhadrachalam graphite deposits occur as veins in khondalites ( pulikonda area, Rachakonda area ). Uses: Low grade graphite is used in the paint and varnish industries whereas the high grade variety is used in batteries, lubricants, and brushes. Graphites are used for the manufacture of crucibles for melting of metals. It is required for lead pencil manufacturing industry. Graphite is also used for dry lubrication where oil or grease is harmful. Graphite brushes. is very much in demand for the manufacture of ( eg: mixy motor or generators etc..) electric motor

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MAGNESITE :

Magnesite,

which

is

a carbonate

of

magnesium

( MgCO3), contains about 47% of MgO and 53% of CO2. Magnesite is considered as an ore for the extraction of metallic magnesium. When Magnesite is Calcined at a temperature of 1500 o C, the magnesia is converted to a crystalline form known as Periclase which has a sp gravity of 3.68. Chemical composition: It is a magnesium carbonate ( Mg CO3). Magnesite is commonly massive and fibrous, sometimes very compact. Physical Properties: ( mentioned separately ) Occurrence: Economically important deposits of Magnesite occur as irregular veins in serpentinite rocks and it is found as alteration of serpentinite rocks. In India Magnesite occurs extensively in Salem district of Tamil Nadu where the Magnesite deposits were formed in the ultra basic rocks of chalk hills. In addition, Magnesite occurs in Karnataka as a decomposition product of ultra basic rocks. Uses: Magnesite required as fertilizer. It is also used as filler in paint and glass industries. Calcined magnesia is useful in manufacturing paper pulp from wood and bamboo. Magnesia powder is used in furnace - linings and crucibles; also employed in the manufacture of special cements and sugar industries.
Name of the ECONOMIC MINERAL: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Chemical composition Properties Cube, Granular Bronze yellow greenish black / brownish black metallic Conchoidal / Uneven 3 sets 6 6.5 4.8 5.1 Marcasite, Pyrrhotite, Pyrrhotite Accessory mineral in IGNEOUS ROCKS Observations 1. PYRITE

FeS2,

( refer RUTLEYS elements of Mineralogy by HH Read, pp 523 524)

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PRODUCTION OF sulphur and sulphuric acid

Name of the ECONOMIC MINERAL: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Chemical composition Properties

2. HAEMATITE Observations

Massive / Rhombohedron Steel grey Cherry red / red to reddish brown Metallic to Sub-metallic Uneven Absent / poor 5.5 - 6.5 4.9 5.35.2 Specular iron, kidney ore, Reddle, Martite IGNEOUS,SEDIMENTARY, METAMORPHIC 1. Iron ore 2.PIGMENT Fe2O3,

( refer RUTLEYS elements of Mineralogy by HH Read, pp 518 519) Name of the ECONOMIC MINERAL: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Chemical composition In igneous / sedimentary rocks Valuable ore of iron Fe3O4 Properties 3. MAGNETITE Observations Granular / octahedral Iron black Black Metallic to Sub-metallic Sub-conchoidal Absent / poor 5.5 6.5 5.18

( refer RUTLEYS elements of Mineralogy by HH Read, pp 517 518)

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Name of the ECONOMIC MINERAL: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Chemical composition Properties Granular Black / BROWNISH BLACK Brown Sub-metallic Uneven Absent 5.5 4.5 4.8 Picotite, lead chromite m

4. CHROMITE Observations

In Peridotites, Serpentinites, gabbros The only source of chromium FeCr2O4

( refer RUTLEYS elements of Mineralogy by HH Read, pp 486 487) Name of the ECONOMIC MINERAL: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Chemical composition
ore of pb, cable covers, foils, lead sheets, piping, soldering,

5. GALENA Observations

Properties

Cube or Rectangular Blocks or octahedral Lead Grey Lead Grey Metallic but often dull Even, sub-conchoidal 3 sets 2.5 7.4 7.6
Minium, Cerussite, Phosgenite, Leadhillite, anglesite

PbS

( refer RUTLEYS elements of Mineralogy by HH Read, pp 456 463)

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Name of the ECONOMIC MINERAL: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Chemical composition Properties

6. PYROLUSITE Observations

Massive, reniform, fibrous Iron grey or dark steel-grey Black / bluish black Metallic Uneven Indistinct 2 - 2.5 4.8
Polianite, Psilomelane, Rhodochrosite, Rhodonite

In Sedimentary Important manganese ore MnO2

( refer RUTLEYS elements of Mineralogy by HH Read, pp 503 510) Name of the ECONOMIC MINERAL: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Chemical composition In igneous rocks. Facings in foundry moulds, paints, crucibles, stove polish, lead pencils, electrodes Pure C Perfect 12 2 2.3 Properties 7. GRAPHITE Observations Crystalline , scaly, masses, granular Iron grey to dark steel grey Black Metallic

( refer RUTLEYS elements of Mineralogy by HH Read, pp 340-341)

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Name of the ECONOMIC MINERAL: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Occurrence Uses Chemical composition Properties

8. MAGNESITE Observations

Massive, compact, crystals White, grayish white, yellowish, brown Blacken Vitreous / dull/ earthy Conchoidal Present but not distinct 3.5 4.5 2.8 3.0 Broocite, Epsomite, Periclase Kieserite As irregular veins in serpentine masses To produce CO2 , magnesium salts, refractory bricks, furnace linings, crucibles MgCO3

( refer RUTLEYS elements of Mineralogy by HH Read, pp 296 297) Name of the ECONOMIC MINERAL: S No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Form Color Streak Lustre Fracture Cleavage Hardness Density (Sp gravity) Varieties Dull, Earthy , uneven Absent 3- 4 2.35 2.58 Corundum, spinel, diaspore, boehmite, Gibbsite, Cryolite, alunite, leucite 10 11 12 Occurrence Uses Chemical composition Weathering of igneous rocks In manufacture of aluminum, refractory bricks, in furnace linings Al2O32H2O Properties Observations Pisolitic Spongy, amorphous Dirty white , grayish, brown, yellow, reddish brown 9. BAUXITE

( refer RUTLEYS elements of Mineralogy by HH Read, pp 322 325)

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References: Rutleys Elements of Mineralogy by H H Read ( CBS publishers & distributors) Industrial Minerals and Rocks of India by S. Deb ( Allied Publishers Pvt ltd ) Mineralogy by Berry Mason Dietrich ( CBS publishers & Distributors ) Ore deposits of India by KVGK Gokhale & TC Rao ( East West Press Private Ltd ) Text book of Engineering Geology by N chenna Kesavulu ( MacMillan )

Principles of Engineering Geology by KVGK Gokhale

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