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Supplement l0 Publication 99-lll95Sl

Recommendalions lor lightning arresters Part l: l,lon-linear resistor-type arresters

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Supplemcnt t0 Publication 99-l[95S1

Recommendations lor lightning arresters Part l: l{on-linear resistor-type arresters

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l. Object.

2. Generalprocedurein applying lightning arresters

procedurefor protection of power transformersand statiortequipment i. Step-by-step

power-frequencyvoltage at the arrester location 3.1 Determine the maximum phase-to-earth

3.2 Estimate the magnitude and wave-shapeof arrester dischargecurrent 3.3 Determinethe withstand strengthof the insulation to be protected 3.4 Tentatively selectarresters 3.5 Determinethe impulse protectivelevel for the tentativelyselected arrester 3.6 Co-ordinatethe arresterprotectivelevel with the irnpulsewithstand strengthof the insulation to be protected .

11 13 15 19


4 . Protection of other equipment 4.I Protection of serieswindings of equipment such A S transformers and so forth 4.2 Protection of dry-type insulated equipment reactors,current transformers,

31 31 3l
a a

5. Switching surgesliable to causeoperation of the arrester 5.1 Classification by causeof switchingsurges 5.2 Classificationby type of dischargethrough arrester



35 37 37 37 37

6. New definitions. 6.I Impulse protective level of an arrester 6.2 Rated impulse protective level of an arrester 6.3 Protective ratio .

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Application guide of nonJinear resistor-type lightning arresters for alternating current systems

FOREWORD I) The formal decisions or agreements of the I E C on technical matters, prepared by Technical Committees on which all the National Committees having a special interest therein are represented, express, as nearly as possible, an international consensus of opinion on the subjects dealt with. They have the form of recommendations for international use and they are accepted by the National Committees in that sense. In order to promote this international unification, the I E C expresses the wish that all National Committees having as yet no national rules, when preparing such rules, should use the I E C recommendations as the fundamental basis for these rules in so far as national conditions will permit. The desirability is recognized of extending international agreement on these matters through an endeavour to harmonize national standardization rules with these recommendations in so far as national conditions will permit. The National Committees pledge their influence towards that end.




PREFACE This Recommendationwas prepared by I E C Technical Committee No. 3T,Lightning Arresters. It forms the first supplementto I E C Publication 99-1, Recommendationsfor Lightning Arresters; Part 1, Non-linear Resistor-typeArresters. It gives the text of Appendix C, Application guide of non-linear resistor-typelightning arrestersfor alternating current systems. at the meetingsheld in Interlaken A draft was preparedby a Committee of Experts and was discussed in 1961and in Bucharest in1962. As a resutt of this latter meeting, a draft was submitted to the National Committeesfor approval under the Six Months' Rule in December 1962. The following countriesvoted explicitly in favour of publication of this Supplement: Australia Belgium Canada Czechoslovakia Denmark Finland France Germany Hungary Japan Netherlands Norway Sweden Switzerland Turkey Union of Soviet SocialistRepublics United Kingdom United Statesof America


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Part 1: Non-linear resistor-type arresters

Application guide of nonJinear resistor-type lightning arresters for alternating current systems



This guide coversthe application of non-linear resistor-typelightning arrestersto safeguardapparatus against the hazards of abnormal voltages of various kinds. Such overvoltagesmay causeflashovers and seriousdamageto equipment and therebyjeopardize the supply of power to users.It is essential to prevent this by the proper co-ordination of protective deviceswith insulation strength.

The subjectis a broad one with many ramificationsand it would require a volume of considerable bulk to explain all possiblecasesin detail. It is not proposedto do this in this guide, but the more basic casesare discussed and step-by-step direction toward proper and economicalsolutions are provided. In predetermined some cases, experience practicesgive sulficient information for some of thesestepsto be or performed without further consideration.The more complex cases of some installations,to which a number of linesor cablesare connected, no doubt merit specialstudy by experienced engineers.

In the present state of the art, complete protection against damagefrom overvoltagemay prove to be extremely costly and it may not be good engineeringpractice to provide it. Proceduresare recommended which are expectedto provide conservativesolutions that can be justified economically.Theseprocedures are basedon theoretical studies,the resultsof tests,and experience.

For supplementary information see IEC Coordination- Application Guide.

Publication 7lA, Recommendationsfor Insulation

2. General procedurein applying lightning arresters This guide presumesthat lightning arrester earth terminals are interconnectedwith earthed parts of equipment, also that both line and earth connectionsof the arresterare as short as is practicable. The procedure for the selectionand location of arrestersin relation to the insulation to be protected can be reducedto a seriesof steps,which are elaboratedin subsequent paragraphs: a) determinethe maximum phase-to-earth power-frequency voltage at the arresterlocation; b) estimatethe magnitude and wave-shape of the most severe arresterdischargecurrent; c) determine the impulse withstand strength of the insulation to be protected, bearing in mind that air insulation decreases with increasinsaltitude;



d) tentatively selectthe arrester voltage rating and class; e) determine the impulse protective level for the tentatively selectedarresters; f) locate the arrester as close as is practical to the apparatus to be protected, bearing in mind that the proximity of earthed objects and the height of the arrester above earth may adverselyaffect particularly at very high voltages; the arrestersparkover characteristics,

determine the voltage at the insulation to be protected as limited by the arrester,taking into consideration the separationdistances and other factors applicableto the point of application; h) in the event that stepsc) and g) indicate that the arresterselectedis inadequate,it may be necessary to chooseanother arresterrating or class,or in the casewhen an entirely new station is being designed, to increase the insulation levelof the equipmentto be protected.

3. Step-by-stepprocedurefor protection of power transformers and station equipment

(For specialtreatmentof dry-typepower transformersseeSub-clause 4.2.1).

pov'er-frequency 3.1 Determinethe maximum phase-to-earth voltageat the qrresterlocation


By multiplying the highest systemvoltage by the coefficientof earthing at the point of installation of the arrester(Clause l7 in Publication 99-1). The value of the coefficientof earthing can be estimatedfrom the curves in Figure 1. Experienceshows that for arrester application the coefficientof earthing can be classifiedinto a limited number of groups.

a) Cofficient of earthing doesnot exceed80% (effectively-earthed system) not A value exceeding 80% is obtained at the arresterlocation when for all systemconditions the ratio of zero sequencereactance to positive sequencereactance (XolXi is between0 and f 3, and the ratio of zero sequence resistance reactance to positive sequence (RslX) is between0 and + l. At this point the system is consideredto be effectively earthed.

Notes' *:n'ffiilHi.:.',?;J#fJ;'"iiln$H:"'i,il?",T"Til:?:il:'"::H:?Jrff may be lessthan 80%. '75% 3ftHlJ,*-3::"J1ffi;t'#:t';?l;Ji",ilil:il:,"ji,?'Ji,:i;[1'J:e#J";*

-1. The possibility of increases in the coefficient of earthing due to system sectionalizing should be recognized as a factor to be considered.

b) Cofficient of earthing exceeds80% (non-effectively earthed neutral, resonant earthed or isolated neutral systems) This may be the casein systems which are earthedthrough resistorsor reactors,including ground fault neutralizer(arc snppression coils), or which have someor all neutralsisolated from earth. In such systemsthe coefficient of earthing may be 100% or higher at the point of arresterinstallation if the ratio XolXt is negative.
XolXt lies between 0 and -20, resonance conditions may occur. For systems with isolated neutrals, the ratio XolXr is, however, usually lower than -20 so that resonance conditions are not likely.



-- ll -


voltage of : By checking the influenceon the maximum phase-to-earth a) suddenlossof load ; b) the effect of machine overspeeds.


By considering overvoltagescausedby resonanceeffects,induction from parallel circuits and similar factors known to be significant; otherwise they generally are neglected.(See 3.4.2). the discussion of abnormal systemvoltagesin Sub-clause

of arrester dischargecurrent 3.2 Estimate the magnitudeand wave-shape Estimate the magnitude and wave shape of the discharge current, largely by the degree of shielding against direct lightning strokes to lines, stations, substations and distribution transformer installations. may be divided into two classes: Suchinstallations effectivelyshielded,or non-effectively shielded. installations or overhead 3.2.1 Magnitude qnd wave-shape of dischargecurrent for effectively-sltielded line-cable iunctions Effectively-shieldedinstallations have shielding against direct strokes provided for the station and for all connectedlines. The lines may be shieldedeither on the whole length or on a few spansfrom the station (line end protection). Shieldingis regardedas effectiveif the probability of shieldingfailures or back flashesfrom shield wires or earthed supporting structures to the conductors or other live parts is so small that the risk is consideredacceptablefor the specificapplication.

for medium Practicalexperience of somecountriesshowsthat the shieldingis not very effective voltage lines (below 100 kV), and these are treated as non-effectivelyshielded installations. For higher voltages,effectiveshieldingpractice in some countries prescribes that the protective angle of the earth wires should not exceed30" and that the earthing resistanceof each tower should not exceedl0 ohms. The maximum lightning arresterdischargecurrents in such a case Lines vary usually from about 4 000 A at 110 kV up to about l0 000 A at 400 kV substations. with bundled conductors may attain a dischargecurrent between 5 000 and 10 000 A. (These dischargecurrents are for the 8120microsecondwave used for lightning arrester testing).

Shielding for line end protection on medium voltage lines located on woodeu poles with an earth wire which is earthed at each pole, but with no earthing of crossarmsoutside the protected zone, may not prevent back flashes(back flashovers)if the earth resistanceat the poles is high. However, the shielding will tap off the lightning stroke current, and also will limit overvoltagesentering from beyond the shielding. Such overvoltagesmay be very high becauseof the wood insulation. This shielding, while not fulfilling the requirements for an effectively-shielded station, will limit the magnitude of the discharge current below that in Sub-clause stations,the amount dependingon the discussed 3.2.2for non-effectively-shielded particular conditions at the installation.

1 3_

The arrester dischargecurrents in effectivelyshielded installations depend on many factors. The most important of them are listed below: a) the size of the installation and systemvoltage; b) the impulse insulation withstand strength of the incoming lines; in steel and concrete tower lines the withstand strength of insulators (or gaps, if used) should be taken into ac c o u n t; In wood pole lines the additional impulse withstand strength of the wood must be taken in to a c c o u n t; c) the number of connectedlines. Owing to reflectionof travelling waves,the dischargecurrent of arrestersis affectedby the parallel-connected surge impedanceof lines and cables; d) the length of the shielded portions of the incoming lines. (Minimum values of lengths involved are under consideration.) The rate-of-riseof discharge current is dependenton the rate-of-riseof voltage.The maximum rate-of-rise of voltage when it enters the station from an effectivelyshielded line is estimated to be 500 kV per microsecond.

3.2.2 Magnitude and wave-shape of dischargecurrent for installations or oyerheadline-cqblejunctions non effectively shielded With installations or overhead line-cablejunctions not effectivelyshielded,both the insulation and the arrestercan be subjected to nearby direct strokesproducing extremelyhigh voltages having very steep rates-of-rise,of the order of 1000 kV per microsecond, as well as high currents. Severeconditions may result also from a back flashover close to the arrester. Experience indicates that for the expected incident voltage a satisfactory degree of protection is obtained by co-ordinating the arresterresidualvoltagesat a discharge current of 5 000to 20000 A (8120microsecondvalue) dependingon:

a) b) c) d)

the importance of the installation; the probability of the occurrenceof the higher currents; the size and voltage of the installation; the line insulation where fully insulatedwood pole lines are used; thus an arresterconnected to a fully insulated line of lower voltage is likely to be subjectedto much higher surgecurrent than one connected to a higher voltage line with earthed crossarms,unless the stroke occurs so close to the arrester that the impedanceand insulation of the line cannot influence the surge. Note.- This problemis related to the numberof daysin the yearin whichthunderstorms occurin the locality,their severity and the design of the shielding of the line and terminal equipment and the natureof theterrain.Where conditions it is advisable aresevere, to calculate or to otherwise determinetherate-of-rise andthemagnitude of thevoltage of thedischarge current.

3.3 Determine the withstand strength of the insulation to be protected Determine the insulation impulse withstand strengthand in somecases the insulation switchingsurgewithstand strength of the equipment being installed. 3.3.1 Impulse withstand strengthfor equipmentinsulation other than air The impulse withstand strength for equipment is defined by its full wave impulse test voltage (see Table of Standardinsulation levelsin IEC Publication 71, Recommendations for Insulation Co-ordination).

1 5-

Most types of insulation withstand short-duration voltage peaks of higher peak value than the withstand strengthfor standard full waves.The smallestdifferenceis exhibited by irradiated Next in order are solid insulation, oil and spark gaps such as are used in lightning arresters. paper insulation,and finally air gapswith non-uniform field distributionsuchas rod gaps.

The effectof duration of the impulse on the insulation withstand strengthis a complicated function with great dispersion,and no accuratenumerical information can be given. However, as a working hypothesisit is generallyassumedthat oil and paper insulation in liquid-filled transformers has a withstand strength of not less than 157, above its full-wave withstand strengthfor voltage peaks shorter than 3 microseconds.


or:1'il:1ll#:;Hpe'fransf ffi:';:i:::H":;?J:,.,i:HTn*i3H-,':T"l#,,::r1::,ffi

Certain types of solid insulation, such as that in rotating machines and in dry-type transformers (or

3.3.2 Impulse v'ithstandstrength.foroir insulatiort for InsulationCo-ordination Refer to Section6 of I EC Publication7l A, Recommendations - Application Guide, for guidanceon equivalentclearances for particular impulse voltages.

3.3.3 Switchingsurge withstandstrength of switching surgeshas been acceptedgenerallyas No standardwave-shape representative yet,,either for the withstand strength of the insulation to such overvoltage or the behaviour of protective devices against such overvoltages.However, impulse sparkover voltage-time should be obtainablefrom the arrestermanucurves up to 2 000 microseconds characteristic facturer. Determine where necessary,by consultation with the manufacturer, the switching surge insulation withstand strength of the equipment to be protected in high-voltagestations(100 kV and higher). This is important when the impulse insulation withstand strengthis more than one Table in I E C Publication7l) sincein this casethe level below the standardinsulationlevels(see need for protection generallyresults from the possibility of switching surgesrather than from e .6 .2 .3 .3 lightn i n g(S u b -c l a u s 3 a n d S ecti on5).

3.4 Tentativelvselectarresters arresters 3.4.1 Choose the variousclasses of non-linearresistor-type betv,een (Arrestersare classified by the standard nominal dischargecurrents in Clause4l of Publicat ion 9 9 -l ). Choosethe proper classof arresterbasedon: a) the needfor a medium or low protective level for the insulation to be protected.The l0 000 provide the best protectivelevels.The 5 000ampere ampere non-linear resistortype arresters seriesA arrestersare next, and in Canada and the U.S.A. the 5 000 ampere SeriesB, or in Europe the 2500 amperearrestersare last (seeTables I I I and IV of Publication 99-l) ;


-17b) the need for the best protection. As a generalrule, l0 000 ampere arresters(referred to in some countriesas station arresters)are applied to high-voltagesystems(100 kV and above) and to important stations of lower voltage systemswhich are consideredimportant enough to require the best protection; 10 000 ampere or 5 000 ampere SeriesA arrestersare used on medium voltage transmission systems, 5 000 ampere SeriesB arresters or 2 500 ampere on distribution systems for the protection of small transformers; arresters

c) specialrequirementswhich indicate that a higher classof arresteris advisablebecause:

1) the lightning severityis unusuallyhigh; 2) the switching surge conditions indicate the use of arresterswith increasedcurrent dischargecapacity for discharginglong lines, cablesand capacitor banks in casethe circuit breakers restrikeor other switchingsurges causesparkoverof the arrester(Clause5);

3) of installations with a single incoming line which are consideredimportant enough to require the best protection and particularly those which are not effectively shielded. (SeeSub-clauses A study of expecteddischarge currentsis advisablein such cases. 3.2 and 3.6). 3.4.2 Choosethe tentativearrester voltagerating Choose the tentative voltage rating based on the highest phase-to-earthpower-frequency voltage determinedas indicated in Sub-clause 3.1. This voltage rating should be chosen at least equal to the highest phase-to-earthvoltage in order to assure extinction of the power follow current under any circumstances, that is, proper arresteroperation. As the highestphaseto-earth voltage for a systemoften is known only very approximately, it is recommendedthat arrester voltage ratings equal to or very closely above this highest phase-to-earthvoltage be usedonly when this is necessary in order to get a suitableprotectiveratio betweenthe equipment insulation withstand level and the arrester impulse protective level. Use of arresterswith the voltage ratings too low may result in an excessive failure rate of the arrestersin service.When this risk is deliberatelytaken in order to protect weak insulation, considerationmust be given to the use of arrestersarranged so as not to endangerpersonneland neighbouring equipment should the arrester fail.

Specialconditions which should be consideredin choosingthe arrestervoltage rating are:

a) Abnormal system voltages The selection of the arrester voltage ratings corresponding to the highest system voltages(U-) multiplied by the coefficient of earthing, is based on the assumption that in servicethe highest systemvoltage (t/-) is only exceeded under abnormal operating conditions, and that the probability of an arresteroperation coinciding with a voltage exceeding the highest system voltage is very small. If abnormal system voltages are likely to be a frequent occurrence,thereby increasingthe probability of arrester operations during such conditions, it may be necessary to use an arresterwith a voltage rating higher than recommended above, dependingupon the particular circumstances.

-19b) Abnormal systemfrequency Alternating current of frequencylessthan 48 or more than 62 Hz(c/s)mayrequirespecial considerationin the manufactureor application of lightning arrestersand should be subject to discussionbetweenthe user and the manufacturer. As noted in Sub-clause3.6.3, this tentative choice of arrester classand voltage rating may require modification. arrester 3.5 Determine the impulseprotective levelfor the tentotivelyselected
Note. The proximity of earthed apparatus and the height of the arrester above earth may adversely affect the arrester sparkover characteristics, particularly at high voltages.

lines and installations (see Sub-clause3.2.1) 3.5.1 For effectively-shielded Determine the residualvoltage at a dischargecurrent estimatedin accordancewith the considerations in Sub-clause3.2.1 for the tentatively selectedarrester from information furnished microsecondwaves),co-ordiby the manufacturer. When l0 000 amperearrestersare used(8120 nation at the nominal dischargecurrent normally provides a factor of safety. 3.2.2) shielded(see Sub-clause 3.5.2 For lines andinstallationswhich are not effectively Determine the residual voltage for a dischargecurrent estimated in accordancewith the considerations in Sub-clause3.2.2. This may exceed the nominal discharge current of the arrester.
Notes ,1. The front-of-wave impulse sparkover voltage for an arrester (at rates-of-rise specified in Publication 99-1) divided by 1.15 may be lower than the residual voltage at the standard nominal discharge current of the arrester. If so, they need not be further considered. Arresters having both internal and external gaps may be an exception. The procedures in Sub-clauses 3.5.1 and 3.5.2 are sufficient for arresters located close to the insulation to be protected, and with the overhead lines brought directly into the station. The influence of location of the arrester with respect to this insulation (separation distance) will be discussed in The introduction of a cable between the overhead lines and the installation will be discussed in Sub-clause 3.6.4. Consideration should be given to the need for obtaining the switching surge protective level of the arrester from the manufacturer. as covered in Sub-clauses3.3.3 and

2. -

-?. -

3.6 Co-ordinate the arrester protective level with the impulse withstand strength of the insulation to be protected 3.6.1 General The recommendedtreatment is different for different categoriesof installations depending on whether they are effectivelyshietdedor not, on the number of lines normally connected,and on the physical extensionof the installation. The following generalprinciple is applied: There shall be a certain protective ratio provided between the impulse withstand strength of the equipment installation to be protected (a guaranteedminimum value) and the impulse protective level which is achievedat the piece of equipment in question under the assumptions given in Sub-clauses 3.3 and 3.5. This protective ratio is intended to cover exceptional cirof infrequent occurrence. such as abnormally higher magnitude or steepness cumstances

_21 _ The recommended minimum protective ratio between insulation withstand strength and impulse protectivelevel is l.2.It is pre-supposed that the earths of all arresters and equipment are directly connectedtogether. The reduction in the electric strength of air insulation with increasing altitude should be considered,using the recommendationsfor the specificapparatus. 3.6.2 Co-ordination based on the type of instollations For non-effectivelyshieldedinstallations tt,itha single incoming overheadline A typical installation of this type consistsof a singletransformerwith or without simple switching equipment, generallywithout measuringequipment, which is connectedto a single incoming line without shielding by earth wires. Install the arrester right at the transformer. Compare the full-wave impulse withstand strength of the transformer (determined in Sub-clause3.3) with the impulse protective level of the arresters(determinedin Sub-clause 3.5.2)and check that there is a satisfactoryprotective ratio. For non-effectivelyshieldedinstallotions v'ith severalincoming lines Installationsof this type differ from Sub-claus e sincein normal operationmore than one line is connected.Typically, this is a medium-voltagestation, and even if there is more than one transformer the extensionof the station area is rather small. Some switchine and measuringequipmentis usually installed. Install a set of arresters at or close to the transformer or transformers and check the protective ratio as in the previouscaseof Sub-clause,taking into account that the incomirrg overvoltage waves are reduced by sharing of energy when several lines meet in the station. However, consideration should be given to the casewhen one or more of the lines are disconnectedby switching. When, in such a station, one or more circuit-breakersor disconnectingswitchesare open, the correspondingline entrancesor certain parts of the station may be left without protection from the arrestersat the transformers. If such casesare recognizedto require additional protection, non-linear resistorarresters, gaps, or transmission-class expulsionarrestersare installed at the respectiveline entrances.

For effectively shieldedinstallations The incoming overvoltages are limited in amplitude and steepness, which generallypermits a certain separationbetweenthe arrestersand the insulation to be protected (seeSub-clause 3.5.1),as will be discussed later. Depending on whether it is a small or large installation, proceedas follows:

For small installationswith one incomins overheadline I Install one set of arrestersat a point which provides protection to all equipment but givespreferenceto the transformer. Separationbetweenthe arresterand the insulation to be protected is permissiblein effectively-shielded installations.

* I

-23ii) Determine the maximum permissibleseparationdistancesbetweenthe arresterand the protected equipment which will not permit excessive voltagesat this equipment instalThis lation. can be calculatedbecause the characteristics of the surgeenteringthe installation are reasonablywell known. A precisedetermination can be made using methods detailed in the trade literature. A graphical method is being consideredwhich may be added as Appendix D at a later date.

For large installations with several incoming overhead lines, tronsformers. switchgear and measuring equipment Determine as well as possible the most strategic arrester locations and the number of arresterswhich will give the wanted degreeof protection to different piecesof equipment. This can be rather difficult. A graphical method is being consideredwhich may be added as Appendix D at a later date. Examples of cases treated by model studies and digital computer programming methods are given in the trade literature. Consideration must be given to the possibility that the station may become sectionalizedor that lines are disconnectedduring service, with or without disturbances.It must be possible to maintain the protection of at least the transformers under all circumstances. Sometimesthis involves increasinsthe number of arresters.

For installations with transformers having reduced insulation more than one step below standord insulation levels (see Tables in Publication 7I ) Install the arrester at the transformers and proceed as directed in Sub-clauses or such installations, in many casesthe arrester must limit switching overvoltages as well as lightning overvoltages.

For switching overvoltages, the insulation withstand level as well as the switching surge impulse protective level of the arresters have values different from those for lightning overvoltages and, therefore, the insulation coordination for switching surges must be studied separately(seeSub'clause3.3.3).The results of such a study may lead to modification of the arrester arrangement.As no standard values are establishedfor the insulation co-ordination at switching overvoltages, it may sometimes be necessary to obtain guidance from equipment manufacturers. For cable-connected installationsof Sub-clause 3.6.2 For cable-connected installations the arrester or arrestersshould be applied as covered in Sub-clause 3.6.4. 3.6.3 Other considerations When co-ordinationis not achieved 3.6.1 and 3.6.2 with the If co-ordination is not achievedby the procedure of Sub-clauses necessary to consider alternative 3.4, it becomes arrester tentatively selectedin Sub-clause such as: measures a) selectingan arrester of better class or lower rating to obtain a lower impulse protective level. Selectingan arrester with a lower voltage rating than that indicated by consideration of

-25Sub-clause3.4.2willinvolve some risk of arrester failure resulting from the inability of the arrestergaps to resealagainsta voltage exceeding its rating; b) changing the location of the arrester to reduce the separation distance and/or the arrester lead length; c) increasingthe insulation level of the equipment to be protected; d) improving the shielding. Special conditionsrequiring reconsiderationof the choice of the arrester Specialconditions affectingthe need for reconsiderationof the arrestertentativelv selected in Sub-clause 3.4 mav be: High earth resistanceor excessive separation (The considerationof this is dependenton the completion of Appendix D.) The earths of all arresters and equipment (if possible) should be connected together electrically; however, if a direct connection betweenthe arrester and the protected apparatus has not been made and the arrester earth resistanceis high or the connections between the arrester and the protected apparatus are of excessive length, the impulse voltages which appear at the protected apparatusmay be substantiallyhigher than those acrossthe terminals of the arrester.In order to obtain the desireddegreeof protection for the apparatus, it may be necessary either to improve theseconditions, or to selecta classof arrester with lower protective characteristics. The use of an arrester with a lower voltage rating than that indicated by consideration of Sub-clause2.3.4.2 will result in a risk of failure of the arrester if it is required to operate when the power-frequencyvoltage across its terminals exceeds the voltage rating. Apporatus of low insulation strength The protection of apparatushaving low insulation strength may require specialconsideration in the selectionor designof the arresterand should be referred to the manufacturer. Equipments which can be included in this classificationare old equipment built prior to the time impulse tests were made, and equipment not built for exposedlocations. The problem of protecting such equipmentis similar to the problem discussed in Sub-clause 4.2.

3.6.4 Cable-connected equipment for single-line installations Cable-connected equipment involves a station, substationor individual apparatusconnected to a cable (with earthedmetallic sheath)which in turn is connectedto an overhead exposedline that may or may not be effectivelyshieldedat the line-cablejunction. Location of arresters 3. 6. 4. 1. 1 G en e ra l Install arrestersat the equipment, or at the overhead line-cablejunction or at both the equipment and the junction, if necessary. Arrester installations must be made at the overhead line-cablejunction if it is impossible to apply the arrestersat the equipment. Limi-

-27tations of spacefor the arresters at the equipmentmay also make application at the junction desirable. In the caseof unshieldedlines, it may be advantageous to mount additional protective devicesa few spansbefore the overhead line-cablejunction. The arrestersinstalled at the equipment should be connectedto the station earth with the shortestpossiblelead. Arrestersinstalledat the cablejunction should be earthedand interconnectedat the junction with the cable sheath if a metallic sheath is used. For the prevention of circulating currentsin the cable sheathsit may not be desirableto earth these at the equipment end also. If the cable hasa non-metallic sheath,the arresterat the junction should be earthedat the junction and interconnectedwith the station earth by a conductor installedadiacentto the cable. Arrester locatedonly at equipment If the arrestersare located only at the equipment, consideration should be given as to whether the insulation at the overheadline-cable junction will be protected. Arrester locatedonly at overhead junction line-cable lf arrestersare installed only at the overhead line-cablejunction, consideration should be given as to whether the insulation of the equipment will be protected. The protection dependson factors such as the impulse withstand strength of the insulation to be protected, the class and voltage rating of the arrester at the junction, the length of the cable and whether or not the overhead line is shielded.For precisedetermination of the maximum permissiblecable length up to which protection will be provided to the equipment insulation, refer to the existing literature and/or have a study made by those well versed in the art. Good resultscan be achieved by analoguenetwork studies.

A graphical method for calculation of permissiblecablelengthsis being consideredwhich may be added as Appendix D at a later date. 3.6.5 Protection of trantsformer unearthed neutral(s) 3.6.5. I General This appliesto star (Y)-connectedtransformer banks, the neutral(s)of which is (are)isolated or earthed through a high impedance. Surge voltage may appear on the neutral as a result of overvoltage at the line terminals propagating through the transformer windings. With wood pole lines of unearthed construction this voltage can be very high. All neutral points brought out through a bushing should be protected by lightning arresters.In the case of transformers with insulation graded toward the neutral point, it is even more important to provide protection.

Although the currents through the arresterdue to lightning and switching overvoltages are small (up to I 000 A), accountmust be taken of their lonser duration. Selectand install the arresters Install the arrester between the neutral terminal and earth (i.e. the transformer earth terminal) selectingit as directed in Sub-clause 3.4. The arrester rating should be at least 0.7

-29times the highest phase-to-phase voltage of the system(0.7 (In), provided the transformer is fully insulated. For transformers with graded insulation, refer to Tables C I and C Il for classification of thesetransformers.Information on protection should be obtained from the manufacturer.

Tnslp C I Categorieso.fgraded insulatiott

Category Recognized conditions of earthing Neutral end of winding, solidly connected to earth through a connection where no impedance has been added intentionally.
Note. The connection condition. to earth via a current transformer is deemed to meet this

Neutral end of winding connected to a regulating transformer whose neutral is or is not connected to earth and is provided with an appropriate voltage-limiting device. Neutral point of winding not connected, or connected to earth via an impedance or a resistance, with an appropriate voltage-limiting device connected between the neutral point of the winding and earth.

Neutral point of the winding connected to earth via an arc-suppression coil with a suitable voltage-limiting device between the neutral point of a winding and earth.

Tenrs C Il Insulotion levels of transformers havinggradedinsulation for the neutralendsof h,indings

(For system highest voltageso.f 72.5 kV and above)
Separate-source power-frequency voltage kV r.m.s.

Insulation to earth

Category 1 Category 2

38 additional voltage due to regulating transformer


rated voltage of the transformer winding with a minimum of 38 kV test voltage of neutral point of regulating transformer test voltage of the line end of the transformer windins

Category 3

35 to 65 I of the test voltage of the line end, determined according to the characteristics of the apparatus and the system 58 to 65 )( of the test voltage of the line end

Category 4

Notes 1. ?. -

When choosing the category of neutral insulation, the possibility that the neutral earthing may be altered at a later stage or that transformers may be interchanged, should be considered. Obtain the equivalent impulse strength for these power-frequency voltages from the manufacturer.

-31 Comparethe impulseprotective level with insulationw,ithstand strength Compare the impulse protective level of the arrester,namely the impulse sparkovervoltage in this case,with the equipment insulation withstand strength. The impulse protective level should be not more than 0.833 times the full-wave impulse withstand strength of the insulation at the neutral.

4, Protection of other equipment 4.1 Protection of series windings of equipment such as booster transfornters, reactors, current tronsformers, and soforth Sometimesit is expedientto provide surge protection acrossthe serieswindings of equipment.

4.1.1 Selectionof arrester (See Sub-clause 3.4.1for choiceof arresters class.) Select the arrester having a standard voltage rating which is equal to or greater than the maximum power-frequency voltage that will appear across the series winding under fault conditions. 4.1.2 Location of arrester Install the arresterclose to the terminalsof the equipment. 4.2 Protection of dry-type insulated equipment The dry-type insulated equipment covered by this paragraph includes such apparatus as drytype transformers and rotating machines which have full-wave impulse withstand insulation strengths lower than those of liquid-immersed equipments. Generally the impulse withstand strengthswith waves of short duration are consideredto be the same,or nearly the same,as the full-wave impulse withstand strength. 4.2.1 Protection of dry-type transformers Apply the procedure of Clause 3 including selectionof the arresteras directed in Subc laus e3 .4 . Compare the front-of-wave impulse sparkover protective level of the arrester with the full-wave impulse withstand insulation strength of the transformer, or the impulse withstand strength for any shorter durations for which higher values are given by the manufacturer. The minimum protective ratio between insulation withstand strength and protective level r ec o mme n d e d i n 3 .6 .1i s 1 .2 .
Note. No tests for the impulse insulation strength of dry-type transformers have been standardized by I E C.

4.2.2 Protection of rotating machines(when required) For machines connected to overhead lines either directly or through a short length of cable: a) install, at the machine terminals between line and earth, both capacitors to slope off the wave-front to approximately 10 microseconds or more and arresters to provide additional protection. Also connect arresterson the overheadlines ahead of the machine location or at an overheadline-cablejunction point;

-33b) selectthe voltage rating and classof arresteras directed in Sub-clause 3.4; c) compare the full-wave impulse insulation strengthof the insulation or the value as recommended by the manufacturer, with the impulse protective level of the arrester for a suitable protective ratio. (SeeSub-clause 3.6.1.) For machines connected to overhead lines through transformers, in some casesinstallations may not require protection, or the capacitorscan be omitted at the machineterminals. In some cases,for instance,with star (Y)-delta (D) transformers, better protection can be obtained by a second set of arrestersconnected between phases.It is suggestedthat the literature on this subject can be consulted or an investigation can be made with recurrentsurge oscillograph. When arrestersare installed at the machine terminals, follow the procedure in Sub-clause Note.- Theimpulse insulation strength of rotatingmachines hasnot been standardized andno standardizaproblem tion is contemplated in theimmediate future.For treatment of theco-ordination referto the manufacturer It is usualto takethepeakvalueof thea.c.testvoltage of themachine. astheimpulse insulation strength of therotatingmachine, in theabsence information. of moreprecise

5. Switching surges liable to cause operation of the arrester 5.1 Classfficationof causeof switching surges Overvoltageswhich are a problem in insulation co-ordination (seeSub-clause3. and may overstress the arrester when it sparks over, can be produced by' switching in severalways. They may be causedprimarily by a behaviour inherent in the switch or by the conditions inherent in the systemand circuit during and after switching.

5.1.1 Switching surges from inherent switch action a) chopping of inductive currents by circuit-breakers; the interruption of an inductive current such as the interruption of magnetizing current of the transformer can cause overvoltages when the current is forced to zero by the action within the switch before normal current zero: b) restriking by the circuit-breaker during the interruption of capacitive currents when disconnectinglong lines,cablesor capacitor banks; c) restriking by disconnectswitcheswhen disconnectingbusbars; d) prestriking on energizingcapacitive circuits by disconnectswitches. 5.1.2 Switching surgesand voltages front circuit and system conditions a) energizationof line or unit-connected line and transformer (no initial charge on the line); b) reclosing on line with trapped charge; c) energization, de-energization or load rejection of unit-connected line and transformer (harmonic overvoltages); d) voltage magnification upon closing or restriking. Higher transient voltages are produced at a point remote from the point of switching; e) 3-phaseclearing of faulted lines at one end only, or lack of simultaneousopening at both ends, particularly with line-to-earth faults ;

_ f)

{\ _

clearing, following loss of load with regulation and over-speedingof alternating current machines; g) closingwhen out of phase; h) linear resonant effectsinvolving an interaction of linear inductive and capacitive components of the system as a consequence of energizationor de-energizationof the part of the s y s te m; i) ferro-resonantnon-linear oscillations,causedby energizationor de-energization interaction between system capacitanceand non-linear magnetizingimpedanceof transformers which may result from single phase switching, open conductors, neutral instability, or overexcitationof certain 3-phase circuit configurations.

5.2 Classificationby type of dischargethrough arrester 5.2.1 Switchingsurgesv,ith high surge energy T he s es u rg e s a re c o v e re d b y S u b - cl auses 5.1.1b),5.1.2 b) and 5.1.2d). When the arrestersparks over with this type of switching surge,the charge on the line, cable or capacitor bank discharges through the arresterimpedance.If the arresteris connectedon the line side of the circuit-breaker,the arrester is subjectedto the full dischargecurrent from the line. This is a relativelylow-current long-durationdischarge. For long lines the magnitude of dischargecurrent is dependenton the charge on the line and the surge impedance of the line and the arrester. The duration is dependent on the length of the line.

Two solutionshave been employedto meet this problem: a) selectcircuit-breakers or switches which do not generate switchingsurges abovethe arrester sparkoverpotential; b) select arresters with sufficient discharge capacity to withstand the discharge currents to which the arresterswill be subjected.tnformation on the dischargecapacity of arresters should be obtained from the manufacturer. 5.2.2 Switching surges with medium surge energ)) T h e s es u r g e s arecovered by Sub-clause 5s . 1 . a ) , 5 . 1 . 2a ) , 5 . 1 . 2c ) , 5 . 1 . 2e ) , 5 . L 2 . f ) a n d 5.1.2g).They can be affectedby the length of the line or the amount of capacitance involved. They may be a problem only with arresters having low discharge capacity,such as 5 000 A, SeriesA arresters. When the arrester sparks over with this type of surge,the dischargecurrent and/or duration causes only mediurnduty on the arresters. This can overstress the lower surgecapacityarresters. T he c h o i c eo f s o l u ti o n si s th e s a m eas i n S ub-cl ause 5.2.1. 5.2.3 Switching surges witlt low surge energy Thesesurges are coveredby Sub-clauses 5.1.1a). When the arrestersparks over with this type of surge,experience indicatesthat the discharge currents are limited and handled without difficulty by lightning arrestersapplied as directed in this guide.

-37 5.2.4 Switching surges with prolongedfollow current These s u r g ea s r ec o v e r e d b y S u b - c l a u s5 e.s 1.1 a ) , 5 . 1 . 1c ) , 5 . 1 . 2d ) , 5 . 1 . 2 f ) , 5 . 1 . 2 h) and

s.r.2 i).
With this type of surge the arrester is subjected to prolonged overvoltage which prevents resealingof the gaps. This can causethe arrester to fail. One of two solutions has been employed to meet this problem: a) make changesin the systemto eliminate such surges,or; b) choose an arrester either with sufficient discharge capability for the indicated duration, or with sufficiently high sparkover to prevent its operation, taking account of the possible decrease in protection provided by the arrester.

6. New definitions 6.1 Impulseprotective level of an arrester The highest peak value of impulse voltage that may occur across the terminals of an arrester under the prescribedconditions. The impulse protective level is given numerically by the maximum of the following quantities: - Front-of-waveimpulse sparkovervoltage,divided by l.l5t; - 1.2150 sparkovervoltage 2) - Residual (discharge)voltage at a given dischargecurrent.

6.2 Rated impulseprotective level of an arrester The impulse protective level with the residualvoltage referred to the nominal dischargecurrent.

6.3 Protectiveratio The ratio of the insulation withstand characteristicsof the protected equipment to the arrester protective level, expressed as a multiple of the latter figure.

1) See3.2 Note A) of Appendix C. z; IEC Publication60 givesthis as 1.2150 instead of 1/50as in IEC Publication99-1.

I *
* 4,




t 7

\ 7

a) Yoltage conditions neglecting positive and negative-sequence resistance Rr : Rz : 0

6 XolXt

c/ Voltageconditionsfor Rr : Rz : 0.2 Xt

Note. - Numbers on curves indicate maximum line-to-earth voltage of any phase for any type of fault in percent of the lineto-line voltage for area bounded by curve and axes ofthe curves. All impedance values must be on the same base in ohms on same voltage base.

For all curves: Ro Rr Rz : Xo : Xr : Xz : Xr: zero-sequenceresistance positive-sequenceresistance negative-sequence resistance zero-sequence inductive reactance positive-sequencesubtransient reactance negative-sequence reactance Xz

6 XaiX'

b) Yoltage conditions for Rr : Rz : 0.1 Xr

The effect of fault resistance was taken into account. The resistance which gives the maximum voltage to earth was the value used. The discontinuity of the curves is caused by the effect of fault resistance.

Flc. l. -

Maximum line-to-earth voltage at fault for grounded-neutralsystem under any fault conditions.