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ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOR Human being is a social animal and there is a natural instinct that exists in him to work and

live together with others in social groupings as a family, a clan, community or friendship group or organization. The individuals are bound together in a network of stable social relationships. Hence, our society is organizational with large and complex organizations that exist in every sphere of human activity. Organisations play an important role in the quality of human life. Hence, the study of organizations has become imperative. Organisations are usually studied from two perspectives !icro !acro Micro perspective focuses on human beings in the organization. "t studies human beings as individuals an individual#s psychological make$up, his interaction with other individuals and groups, variables determining his behavior in the organization and the strategies that can be adopted to govern his behavior as a desirable one in the organization. The micro perspective of organizational study is taken care of in %O&'. Macro perspective considers organization as a unit of analysis. "t emphasizes on the study of human behavior as a collectivity of people, how organizations are structured, how technology affects people in the organization and how organization interacts with the environment. The macro aspect of organizational study is taken care of in %Oganisational Theory'. (ny definition of O& should put emphasis on ) features Organisational &ehaviour is the study of human behavior. The study is about behavior in organizations. *nowledge about human behavior would be useful in improving an organisation#s effectiveness. Definitions %Organisational &ehaviour' is the study and application of knowledge about how people as individual and as groups act within organizations. "t is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organisation#s effectiveness. Organisational &ehaviour means the study of behavior of individuals, and groups in organizations and organizations themselves , as they act and interact to attain desired outcomes. O& is a scientific study in which a number of research studies and conceptual developments are taking place. "t is also an applied science wherein information about effective practices in one organization is being extended to many others. OB provides a useful set of tools at many levels of analysis It helps managers to understand the behavior of individuals within an organization; understand the interpersonal relationships, when two people (coworkers or a superior subordinate pair interact; to understand the dynamics or relationships within small groups, both formal teams and informal groups; to understand the intergroup relationships; and finally understand the organizations as whole systems that have interorganisational relationships (!g "ergers and #oint ventures $ Goals of OB To describe The first ob+ective is to describe how people behave under a variety of conditions. To understand as to why people behave as they do.

To predict ,redicting future employee behavior is another goal of O&. !anagers would have the capacity to predict which employees may be dedicated and productive or which ones might be absent or disruptive on a certain day so that the manager could take preventive actions. To control The final goal of O& is to control and develop some human activity at work. !anagers also want to make an impact on employee behavior, skill development, team effort and productivity. !anagers should be able to improve the results through their own and their employee#s actions. Features of Or anisational Be!a"iour The essential characteristics of organisational behaviour are as follows.i/ An Inte ral #art of $ana e%ent. O& is a part of general management and not the whole of management. "t represents behaviour approach to management. "t is significant to note that because of the importance of human behaviour in organisations, O& has assumed the status of a distinct field of study. A Field of Stud&. O& is a field of study backed by a body of theory, research and application associated with a growing concern for people at the workplace. "ts study helps in understanding the human behaviour in work organizations. "t includes creative thinking among the managers to solve human problems in organisations. Inter'disciplinar& Approac!. The field of organisational behaviour is heavily influenced by several other behavioural sciences and social sciences. The prominent among these are psychology, sociology and anthropology. Organisational behaviour draws a rich array of research from these disciplines. 0hat makes it a field in its own right is the attempt to integrate various aspects and levels of behaviour. Le"els of Anal&sis( O& involves three levels of analysis of behaviour individual behaviour, group behaviour and behaviour of the organisation itself$ "t helps in demolishing 1incorrect# assumptions one may hold about behaviour. "t provides a rational thinking about people. Goal'Oriented( O& is an action oriented and goal$directed discipline. The ma+or goals of organisational behaviour are to understand, explain and predict human behaviour in the organisational context so that it may be moulded into result$ yielding situations. "t provides a rational thinking about people and their behaviour. Hu%an Tool( O& is a human tool for human benefit. "t helps in understanding and predicting the behaviour of individuals. "t provides generalisations that managers can use to anticipate the effects of certain actions on human behaviour. Science and Art( O& is both a science as well as an art. The systematic knowledge about human behaviour is a science. The application of behaviour knowledge and skills clearly leans towards being an art. However, organisation behaviour is not an exact science like physics or chemistry. "t cannot provide specific answers to all organisational problems. The exact prediction of behavior of people in organisations is also not possible. "t is possible to predict relationships between variables on a broad scale, but it is difficult to apply predictive models in all situations. Satisfaction of E%plo&ees) Needs . O& seeks to fulfill employees# need and aspirations. 2very employee in the organisation wants to fulfill his needs through organisational activities. "t is the organisation#s responsibility to provide congenial climate in the organisation so that people may get need satisfaction and the organisation may attain its ob%ectives. Thus, both organisation and individuals can be benefited by each other.

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Le"els of Anal&sis of OB Organisational &ehaviour focuses on three levels of analysis, viz., (i) Individual (ii) Group, and (iii) Organisation.

The performance of individuals, groups .say class or section/ and the institute as a whole are all important and outstanding performance of each individual and group is recognized and highlighted. &ehaviour at all three levels is interdependent and interrelated. INTROD*+TION TO ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIO*R The term 1organisational# behaviour actually refer to behavior of people in the organisations &ecause organizations themselves do not behave. success of any organisation primarily 3epends upon the efficiency and effectiveness of the management, and the effectiveness Of the management depends primarily on its human skill and how well it understands the 4eed and desires of the people working in the organisation. Human behaviour in organisation is a relatively new concept and it emerged as a distinct field of study in the late 5678#and 2arly 5698#. +oncept And $eanin Of Or anisational Be!a"iour Organisational behaviour is directly concerned with the understanding, prediction, and control of human behaviour in organization according to &allahan, fleenor and kudson , %organisational behaviour' is a subset of management activities concerned with understanding, predicting and influencing individual behaviour in organisational settings'. Or anisational be!a"ior, or anisational t!eor&, or anisational ps&c!olo & !u%an resource %ana e%ent( +HARA+TERISTI+S OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIO*R 1 !ehavioral "pproach to Management$ Organisational behaviour is that part of whole !anagement which represents the behavioural approach to menegment.has emerged as a 3istinct field of study because of the importance of human behaviour in organizations .( +ause and effect relations!ip

"t provides generalizations that manager can use to anticipate the effect of certain activities on human behaviour. /( Or anisational be!a"iour is a Branc! of Social Sciences "nfluenced by several other :ocial sciences viz. psychology, sociology and anthropology. 0( T!ree le"els of anal&sis 4amely individual behaviour, inter$individual behaviour and the &ehaviour of organisations themselves as being complementary to each other. # " $cience as well as an "rt The systematic knowledge about human behaviour is a science and the application of behavioural knowledge and skill is an art. Organisational behaviour is not an exact science because it cannot exactly predict the behaviour of people in organisations. 1(A bod& of t!eor&, Researc! and application 0hich helps in understanding the human behaviour in organisation and helps the managers to solve human problems in organisations. 2( Beneficial to bot! or anisation and indi"iduals

( reasonable climate is created so that employees may get much needed satisfaction and the organisation may attain its ob+ectives. 3( Rational T!in4in The ma+or ob+ective of organisational behaviour is to explain and predict human behaviour in organisations, so that result yielding situations can be created. O& provides rational thinking about people and their behavior. Nature of or anisational be!a"iour 0henever an individual +oins an organisation he brings with him unique set of personal characteristics, experiences from other organisation and a personal background. (t the first stage organisational behaviour must look at the unique perspective that each individual brings to the work setting. The second stage of organisational behaviour is to study the dynamics of how the incoming individuals interact with the broader organisation.

The individual who +oin a new organisation has to come into contact with the co$worker, manager, formal policies and procedures of the organisation etc. over the time, he is affected by his works experience and the organisation as well as his personal experiences and maturity. On the other hand, the organisational is also affected by the presence or absence of the individual. Thus, it is essential that O& must study the ways in which the individual and organisation interact with each other. The organisational behaviour must be studied from the perspective of the organisation itself because an organisation exists before a particular individual +oin in and continues to exist after he or she has left the organisation. &ecause the organisation influences and influenced by the ,eople working in it. !oreover, both the individuals and the organization influenced by the external environment Or anisational be!a"iour and ot!er fields of stud&

Organisational behaviour is an interdisciplinary approach as it has borrowed concept, theory, !odal and practices of physical sciences as well as social sciences. 5( #s&c!olo & Organisational behaviour studies human behaviour which is concerned mainly with the psychology of the people ,sychology, especially, industrial or organisational psychology is the greatest contributor to the field of organisational behaviour. ,sychologists study behaviour and industrial or organisational psychologists deal specifically with the behaviour of people in organisational setting. "ndividual behaviour is governed by perception, learning and personality. industrial psychology understands people#s behaviour at work, particularly under different working conditions, stress, conflicts and other related behaviour of employees. ;ob satisfaction, performance appraisals and reward system are measured and directed with the use of psychological theories and modals. <roup behaviour in the organizations =ommunication system in the organisation, attitudes of employees, there need etc. as a sub+ect of social influence on behaviour. .( Sociolo & :ociology makes use of scientific method in accumulating knowledge about the social behaviour of the groups. "t specifically studies, social groups, social behaviour, society, customs, institutions, social classes, status, social mobility, prestige etc. it studies the behaviour of the people in the society in the relation to their fellow human beings. :ociology contributes to organisational behivour through its contribution to the study of interpersonal dynamics like leadership, group dynamics, communication etc. /( Ant!ropolo & (nthropology is concerned with the interaction between people and their environment especially there actual environment , culture is a ma+or influence on the structure of organisations as well as on the behaviour of people within organizations. (nthropology contributes in understanding the cultural effects on organisational behaviour 2ffects of value system, norms, sentiments, cohesion and interaction. 0( #olitical science "n resent times, political science has also started influencing organisational behaviour political :cience is usually, thought of as the study of political systems. &ut political scientes are interested in how and why people acquire power, political behaviour,3ecision making, conflict, the behaviour of interest group and condition formation. These are also ma+or areas of interest in organisational behaviour "n organizations, people strive for power end leadership recognition. ,olitical perspectives and government policies are thoroughly analysed for moulding and modifying the behaviour of people, because they greatly influence the organisation. 6( Econo%ics

2conomics study the production, distribution and consumption of good and services. :tudents of organisational behaviour share the economist,s interest in such areas as labour !arket dynamics, productivity, human resource planning and forecasting, and cost benefit (nalysis. if psychological and economic expectations of employees are meet, they are satisfy and become high performers economic system include financial, commercial and industrial (ctivities the consumption pattern in society monitor the behavour of employees. 1( Science

:cience is systemetised knowledge. organisational behaviour is based on the systemetised :tudy of facts, behaviour, there relationship and predictions. The cause and effect relationship. ( researcher, in the field of O& investigates new facts, test theories, hypothesis and modal. ,ersonal bias, superfluous conclusions and whimsical approach are avoided in the study. 2( Tec!nolo & The study of technological development is becoming essential for understanding the organisational behaviour, because people are influenced by the technological innovations. Technology changes consumer behaviour, production activities,3istribution and storage activities. To cope up with the technological development people have to become educated and>or technically skilled.Technological development leades to effective work behaviour, improved organisational =ulture and helpful work environment 3( En ineerin :ome topics are common to engineering as well as organisational behaviour e.g work measurement, productivity measurement, work flow analysis, work design, +ob design and labour relations. "n fact, organisational behaviour is dependent on engineering for these +obs. 7( $edicine :tress is becoming a very common problem in the organisations as well as in people working in the organisations Thus ,it can be concluded that organisational behaviour has an interdisciplinary focus.

PSYCHOLOGY Individual Level: Personality, Perception Attitudes and Values Individual Decision-making Learning Motivation, Job-satis action !ocial, "ultural and #t$er %actors &ork !tress SOCIOLOGY 'roup Level : 'roups and (eams Leaders$ip "ommunication "on lict, Dynamics o "$ange %ormal and In ormal #rganisation !tatus and )oles GROUP Organisational Behavio r

INDIVIDUAL

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY "$ange in Attitude and *e$aviour 'roup Processes : +orms "ommunication 'roup Decision-making ANTHROPOLOGY #rganisation !ystem Level : #rganisational "ulture !tress Management #rganisational "$ange and Development Morale and Productivity "ross-cultural Analysis POLITICAL SCIENCE #rganisational Po,er Politics "on licts "oalitions

ORGANISATION

Role of or anisational be!a"iour (. ?nderstanding human behavior 5(Individual behaviour "t tries to analyse why and how an individual behaves in a particular way in a given situation. The behaviour of individual is affected by a number of psychological, social and culturel factors. .( interpersonal behaviour "n organizations, two person relationship is inevitable. interpersonal interaction represents man#s most natural attempt at socialisation. The techniques, generally, used for studying interpersonal bahaviour are study of perception,@ole, analysis , transation analysis etc. /(Group be!a"iour8 Hawthorne studies have proven that an individual behaves differently as an individual and as a member of the group. His behaviour is often modified by group norms. 0( Inter roup be!a"iour8 The cooperation, coordination and conflicts within group influence performance. Organisational behaviour help the manager in achieving cooperative group relationship through interaction, rotation of member among groups, avoidance of win$lose situation and focus on total group ob+ectives. Influencin t!e !u%an be!a"iour !anager can influence the behaviour through control and direction. organisational behaviour helps the manager in influencing the behaviour in the following ways5( Leaders!ip Aeadership helps the management in bringing human behaviour in tune with The organisational requireme ( competent leader uses all the human and physical resources at the maximum leavel for for achieving the organisational goal. .( $oti"ation Human beings work not only for money but also for getting +ob satisfaction

organisational behaviour helps the manager in understanding the needs and desires of the subordinates and other factor which affect their motivation. /( +o%%unication To achieve organisational effectives, the communication must be effective &ehavioural sciences help in improving communication in the organisation the communication prosess and how it works in interpersonal dynamics is evaluated by behavioural science. 0( Or anisational +!an e and De"elop%ent =hange can be introduced through group dynamics and proper education of employees though effective communication. The benefits of change should be highlighted and information should be shared with all those likely to be affected by the change. 6( Or anisational +li%ate Organisational climate is the creation of an atmosphere of the effective supervision, the opportunity for the realisation of personal goals, good relations with others at the work and sense of accomplishment. Organisational behavior creates an atmosphere of participative leadership, two way communication, adequate compensation and better equipments for the +ob. FO*NDATIONS OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIO*R THE HA9THORNE ST*DIES "n another ma+or experiment, ( %iecewor& Incentive $ystem was established for a nine man group that assembled terminal banks for telephone exchanges. ,roponents of scientific management would have expected each man to work as hard as he cold to maximums his won personal income. &ut the Hawthorne researchers fond instead that the group as a whole established as acceptable level of output for its members. "t was concluded that to be accepted as a part of the group evidently meant more to the workers them earning extra money H*$AN RELATIONS A##ROA+H TO9ARDS ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOR Organisational behavior began to emerge as a mature field of study in the at 5678s and early 5698s. :ince that time, organisational behaviors as a scientific field of inquiry has made considerable strides, although there have been occasional steps backwards as well.

A##ROA+HES TO THE ST*D: OF ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOR 5. Human @esources (pproach This approach recognizes that human resources in an organization are the central force. Their development will contribute to the success of the organizations. managers, instead of controlling the employees, should provide active support to them as part of the group. Aoose supervision.. &y treating individuals as mature adults, organizations can increase productivity and at that same time meet the needs of individuals for independence and growth. .( +ontin enc& Approc! There is no single way to manage effectively under all circumstance. The methods or behaviors which work effectively in one situations may fail in another. The managerBs task therefore, is to identify which method will in a particular situation, under particular circumstance and at a particular time best contribute to the attainment of organisationBs goals. /( #roducti"it& Approac! ,roductivity means the numerical value of the ratio of output to input. Higher the value of this ratio, greater is the efficiency and effectiveness of the management. These decisions realate to human, social and economic issues. Cor example if better organisational behaviour can reduce workerBs turnover or the number of absentees, a human output or benefit cocurs. 0( S&ste% Approac! The systems approach is of the view that an organisation in a powerful system with several subsystems which are higly and closely interconnected. This approach gives the managers a ways of looking at the organisational as a whole, whole group and the whole social system. ( general system model or organisation as drawn by kast and @osenzwerg .5699/ is in the following figure #RO+ESS OF BEHAVIO*R The :$@ !odel This model assumes that the reasons which cause human behaviour are of two types $ Internal Feelin E;ternal En"iron%ent "nternal felling of a person may relate to his motivational factor whereas the external environment which is also called the stimulus directly influences the activity of a person. The stimulus may be in the from of heat, light, etc. (ccording to this approach, behaviour is determined by the stimulus or in other words the external environment forces determine the behaviour of a person at any given movent. There is a direct relation between stimulus and response, that is why this process is called :$@ process.

The basic drawback of this model is that organism or person is immobile and passive. 0hereas in reality the person concerned plays an important role in behaviour which is influenced by the internal feeling of the person. This model, thus, does not give a complete picture as to what caused the person to act in a particular way in a particular situation. :$O$&$( !odel :$O$&$( model is a comprehensive model of human behaviour which comines the :$@ situation and human being. &ut O in this model is not passive or immobile. T!e S "n this model stands for stimulus or the external environmental situation. "t includes ligh, heat, sound, actions of supervisors or other aspects of environment to which a person is sensitive. "t stimulates the organism or person into action. T!e O "n this model stands for the organism as the person. &ut this O does not stand for only the physiological being but also it includes the processes within the person e.g.D heredity, maturity, knowledge, skills, values, perceptions, attitudes, personality and motivation. The double headed arrow between : and O "ndicates the interaction between the situation and organism. T!e B :tand for behaviour. "t includes both overt and covert behavior such as body movements, talking, facial expressions, emounos, sentiments and thinking. The response of

organism indicted by a single headed arrow is the behaviour. &ehaviour is anything that a person does. it is not something that is done to a person. T!e A :tand for accomplishment and consequences. 0hen behaviour, in turn, acts on the outside world, it leads to accomplishment as shown by single headed arrow. "t is assumed that the accomplishments may further change the stimulating conditions and thereby influence the subsequent behaviour or it may create new stimulus leading to new behaviour.

+HALLENGES AND O##ORT*NITIES FOR OGRANISATIONAL BEHAVIO*R

5. !anagerial challenges. E. 0ork place issues and challenges. ). Organisational challenges. F. <lobal challenges

7. 2nvironmental challenges 5. !anagerial =hallenge 1 'or& force (iversity)* 3ealing with people who are different. This challenge is ternGmed as work force diversity. Organisations are becoming increasingly cosmopolitan. They are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, race and ethnicity. One can find a &rahmin working along with a !uslim or scheduled caste or :ikh worker. There can be employees who are physically handicapped, lesbians, gays, elderly or others who are different in some way or the other. "n earlier times, managers The managers must tearn to respect diversity. They have to shift their philosophy from treating eveyone alike to recognizing differences and responding to those differences in a way that will ensure employee retentin and greater productivity while at the same time not discriminating. (n increasingly diverse workforce presents both opportunities and challenges for the ogranisations. "f diversity is not properly managed it can lead to higher employee turnover, more difficult communication and more interpersonal conflicts. 2mployees thus, need to ad+ust to emerging workforce expectations by replacing command and control leadership with empowerment giving more freedom and power to the employees. E. =hanging demographics of work forcea. 3ual =areer =ouples This is a situation where both partners are actively pursuing professional careers. Organisations had been used to physical relocations of employees. 2mployees moving through organisational ranks to upper level positions need experience in variety of roles in different organisational units. This hinder the organisational flexibility in acquiring and developing talent. b. <rowing number of youngsters (nother form of diversity comes form younger people entering the workforce. <eneration$H employees are on an average about E7 years of age. The young employees are fresh, ambitions, enthusiastic and innovative. There personal needs have to be handled with circumspection. These people do not Li"e to <or4 but <or4 to li"e choosing a life that they want to have as opposed to +ust bringing home a pay check. c. <ender factor 0omen used to have very traditional careers in earlier times like nurses, teacher, secretaries etc. <radually they moved into professional previously dominated by makes e.g. lawyers, doctors and executives, information technology etc. On the other hand more and more men are entering into professions previously dominated by women e.g. catering, nursing, cooking fashion and textile designing etc .( 9or4 #lace Issue and +!allen e i( E%plo&ee #ri"ac&8 2mployers, nowadays, have stared to intrude and encroach too much into the private lives of the employees. !anagers need to be very sensitive to this issue since this trend creates sresentment among employees. The recent practices followed by organisations are To implement random drug tests.

To heck the background of prospective employees. @andon check of phone calls as well as a check on internet surfing. Tapping the phone lines etc. II( E%plo&ee Ri !ts8 ( concern related to employee privacy is employees rights. "ssues have also surfaced regarding uniform dress codes, right to marry within the organisation etc. These issues tend to be controversial as more and more organisations limit or ban certain activates. III( *nionis%- "n the recent years, the general trend regarding union membership has been steadily declining. (s a result, organisations carry the burden of providing the services to the employees which were previously provided by the unions. IV( +!an ed E%plo&ee E;pectations= 2mployee expectation are also changing with change in work force demographics. Traditional motivators like, +ob securities, attractive pay packages, additional perquisites do not attract, retain or allure todayBs workforce 4owadays, employees demand empowerment and expect quality or status with the management. participative managements with employee influence and involvement along with mechanisms for upward communications. Clexi$timings, opportunities to work from home. >i? I%pro"in @ualit& and #roducti"it&8 3ue to the advent of globalization privatization and liberalization, organisations are exposed to competitions. "n such a scenari, managers have to think seriously about improving the quality and productivity. To achieve this target, managers are implementing programmers like +otal ,uality Management and -eengineering programmes TI! is a philosophy of management for attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organisational processes. @eengineering means radically rethinking and redesigning those processes by which we create value for customers and do work. !anagers, nowadays, must understand that any effort to improve the quality and productivity in order to succeed must include the employees. They should participate actively in planning those changes also. O& offers important insights into helping the managers work through these change.

>ii? $ana in Tec!nolo & and Inno"ations8 :uccess will come only to those organisations that maintain their flexibility continually improve their quality and out beat their competitors with innovative proud cut and services. The challenge for managers is to stimulate employee creativity and tolerance for change. The field of O& provides a wealth of ideas and techniques to aid in realizing these goals. >iii? +opin <it! Te%porariness8 !anagers today face a state of permanent, temporariness. continuously update their knowledge and skills to perform new +ob requirements. The organisations are also in a state of flux as they have to continuously recognize their various divisions, sell off poor performing businesses, down sixes operations and replacing permanent employees with temporaries. The study of O& can help in providing important insights into helping one in how to overcome resistance to change. >i"? Et!ical Be!a"iour8 "t is the duty of todayBs managers to create an ethically healthy elimate for their employees, where they can do their work productively and with clean conscience. :ocial responsibility is the ogransiational, obligation to protect and contribute to social environment F. <lobal =hallenge $ana in lobal en"iron%ent8 "nternationalization of business has transformed the world into a global village. !anager have to cope with unfamiliar laws, languages, practices, attitudes, management styles, ethics etc. !anager have to be flexible and proactive if they are to face these challenges.

$ana in +ultural Di"ersit&8 To dayBs managers have to learn to cope with people form different cultures. "f they are transferred to another country, they will have to manager a workforce that is likely to be very different in needs, aspirations and attitudes. "f they are in their own country they have to work with people from other countries having different cultures.

>i? Ecolo &8 @esponsibility of business towards society includes concern for ecology. 2cology is concerned with the relationship of living thins with their environment. >ii? Air, <ater, and soil pollution8 The general concept recommended nowadays is that development should be in the long run and every pro+ect should cater to maintain if not mend the direct harm to the environment >iii? #ersonnel policies8 ,ersonnel policies of the organisation should not be dicrimaninatory towards any particular caster, creed, religion, sex or nationality. These should be equal pay for equal work. >i"? +onsu%eris%8 :ocietal marketing concept has emerged to say that long term consumer welfare is also important.

>"? Researc! and De"elop%ent8 To keep pace with the global challenges, the organisations must undertake technical and scientific research. >"i? International #olicies8 The organisation has to keep in mind the legislations and specific policies of various countries while dealing with them. >"ii? National Econo%ic #olicies8 3ue to the rising inflationary trends in the economy, there is always government pressure on the organisations to red 5./ !ehaviour at the Individual .evel $ Organisations are made up of their individual members. The individual is a central feature of organisational behaviour, whether acting in isolation or as part of a group, in response to expectations of the organisation, or as a result of influence of the external environment. The behaviour of individuals is a complex phenomenon and is affected by a large number of factors such as personality, attitudes, perception, learning, motivation, social, cultural and other factors. The study of behaviour of an individual working in the organisation is also known as micro)organisational behaviour. E./ !ehaviour at the Group .evel ) &ehaviour pattern of individuals is also influenced by the groups to which they belong. @esearch studies have shown people behave differently in groups than as individuals . :everal factors influence the behaviour of groups such as group goals, norms, communication, leadership, cohesiveness , etc. ?nderstanding of group dynamics is essential to reduce conflicts and improve morale and productivity. ?nderstanding the effect of group relationships is important for managers in today#s organisations. "nter group relationships may be in the form of cooperations or competition. The co$operative relationships help the organisation in achieving its ob+ectives. )./ !ehaviour at the Organisation .evel $ (n organisation is a system composed of several interdependent individuals and groups. "ndividuals and groups operate within the structure of formal organisation. They particapte in shaping the culture of the organisation and also in organisation development . (t times, they may resist change, while they may fight for change in certain situations. :tress caused by the activities of individuals and groups has to be managed at the organisational , group and individual levels. The study of behaviour from the perspective of the whole organisation is also referred to as macro organisational behaviour. I$#ORTAN+E OF OB 5/ OB helps an individual to understand himself and others better . This will improve interpersonal relations considerably. (ttitudes, perception, leaderships, communication, transactional analysis and conflicts can also be understood better with the study of O&. E/ ( manager in a business establishment is concerned with getting things done through others. He will be successful in his +ob when he can motivate his subordinates to work for better results. O& will help the manager understand the basis of motivation and what he should do to motivate his subordinates.

)/ The field of O& will be successful in maintaining cordial industrial relations$ "f an employee is slow in his work, or if his productivity is readily declining, the basic issue may not be demand for more wages, higher bonus, a better canteen etc. This can be due to any other reasons like the indifferent attitude of the boss towards the worker which in turn can lead to the worker loosing interest in his work gradually. :imilarly, reluctance of the management to talk to union leaders may provoke them to give a strike. Hence the relations between the management and the employees are often strained for reasons which are personal but not technical. F/ OB helps in the field of marketing. "n the dynamic mechanism of the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer, the awareness of the nature of individual and social process has an immediate or long term contribution to the success or the failure of the enterprise. 7/ O& helps in predicting the behaviour of individual and thus help the organization to be effective having good 1people skills# which includes the ability to understand one#s employees and to use this knowledge to make them work efficiently is a vital requirement if a person has to succeed as a manager. 9/ 2ffective management means competent utilization of technical and financial resources. O& is a discipline which enables a manager to motivate his subordinates towards higher productivity and better results.

Forces Affectin

Or aniAational Be!a"iour

The four key forces that affects Organization &ehaviour 5. ,eople E. :tructure ). Technology F. 2nvironment 5. #eople' ,eople make up the internal social system of the organization. That system consists of individuals J group J large groups as well as small ones. There are unofficial informal groups J official formal groups. <roups are dynamic in the sense that they form, change J disband. ,eople work in the organization to achieve their ob+ectives. The workforce of an organization, however is very diverse in terms of their educational backgrounds, talents J perspectives to their +obs. The managements# leadership practices have to be tuned to the diverse workforce. :ome companies have developed a sense of caring, really listening to the employees, developing the competence level of the employees, building pride without devaluing others, empowering some without exploiting others, demonstrating openness, confidence, authentic compassion and vulnerability. E. Structure ' :tructure defines the formal relationship and use of people in organization. "t defines the roles J relationship of people in an organization. 3ifferent +obs are performed by different people in an organization J these people are related to each other in some structural way so as to coordinate their work effectively. The structure defines the authority$ responsibility relationship. One has the authority J the others have a duty to obey him. :ome organization have resorted to a flatter structure .containing fewer levels, a goal attained by cutting middle management position/, other have a complex structure as a result of mergers, acquisitions J new ventures. :ome organizations have hired contingent workforces .tempory, part$time or contract employees/, some firms have developed a team$ based structure. ). Tec!nolo &' Technology provides the resources with which people work J affects e task that they perform. The people are given the assistance of machines, methods J resources. Technology allows people to do more J better work but it adds to the cost for examples$ "ncreasing use of robots J automated control systems in assembly lines, the dramatic shift from a manufacturing to a service economy, advances in computer hardware J software capabilities, use of internet J improved quality of goods J services at acceptable prices. (ll these technical advancements exerts an increased pressure on O& to maintain a delicate balance b>w technical J social systems. F. En"iron%ent' Organisations are influenced by external environment which include socio$ cultural, economic, politico$legal, geographical forces. (ll organisations operate within an internal J external environment. (n organisation is always a part of a larger system with elements like government, the family J other organizations. (ny change in the environment creates demands on organizations. =itizens expect organisations to be socially responsibleD there are new products J competition for customers. (ny organization is influenced by its external environment. "t influences the attitudes of people, affects working conditions J provides competition for resources J power. #eople

En"iron%ent

En"iron%ent

ORGANISATION

Structure

En"iron%ent

Tec!nolo &

Disciplines contributin

to OB

O& is not a discipline in itself but it uses knowledge concepts J principles from the other relevant disciplines. "t draws concepts J principles from behavioural. "t draws concepts J principles from behavioural sciences J the core disciplines of behavioural sciences are$ 5. ,sychology E. :ociology ). (nthropology O& draws concepts from social sciences also$ 5. 2conomics E. History ). ,olitical :cience +ontributions of core disciplines of be!a"ioural sciences to OB 5. #s&c!olo &$ The term %psychology comes from the <reek word %psyche' meaning soul or spirit. ,sychology is a science of behaviour, the term behaviour. ,sychology studies behaviour in various conditions$ normal, abnormal, social, industrial, legal, childhood, adolescence, old age etc. "t also studies process of human behaviour like learning, thinking, memory, sensation, perception, emotion, feeling J personality. "ts contributions to behavioural science are in the field of learning, perception, motivation, individual J group decision making, pattern of influence, and change in organization group process, vocational choice and satisfaction, communication, personnel selection J training. There is also a separate branch of industrial psychology which deals with the application of psychological facts J principles to the problem concerning human relations in organization. E. Sociolo & "t uses the scientific method in accumulating knowledge about man#s social behaviour. "t studies the shared human behaviour, the way in which people act towards one another. "t studies social groups, social behaviour, society, customs, institutions, social class, status, social mobility and prestige. "ts subfields are$ 5. ,olitical sociology E. "ndustrial sociology ). Camily sociology F. :ociology lf Aaw 7. 2ducational sociology 9. :ociology of religion To the managerial practice, its contribution is in the field of bureaucracy, role structures social system theory, grp dynamics effect of industrialsation on the social behaviour etc. ). Ant!ropolo &$ %(nthropology' combines the <reek stem 1anthropo' meaning man J %Aogy' meaning science. Hence, (nthropology is the sciences of man. "t studies civilization, forms of cultures J their impact on individual J grps, biological factures of man and evolutionary pattern, speech and relationship among languages. (nthropology contributes in understanding the cultural effects on organization behaviour, effects of value systems, norms, sentiments, cohesion and interaction. OTHER DIS+I#LINES 5/ E+ONO$I+S- 2conomics contributes in understanding the decision process, and methods of allocating scarce resources in organizations and the impact of economic policy on organizations.

E/ #OLITI+AL S+IEN+E- "t provides the basis for the conflicts in organisation, power and authority structure and overall administrative process.

*NDERSTANDING H*$AN BEHAVIO*R O& helps to understand human behavior in the organisation interpersonal level, group level and inter group level. i/ at the individual level,

Indi"idual Le"el- O& helps to understand why and how an individual behaves in a particular way. Human behaviour is a complex phenomenon and is affected by a number of factors like psychological, social, cultural etc. O& integrates these factors in order to understand human behaviour. Interpersonal Le"el 8 Human behaviour has to be understood in terms interpersonal interactions because human beings have a natural tendency to socialize. O& helps to understand relationships in terms of superior subordinates relationships, peer relationships, role analysis, transactional analysis etc. Group Le"el- "ndividuals are times modified by group pressures. Hence it becomes important to study groups and group dynamics with special reference to norms, cohesion, goals, communication pattern, leadership and membership. (n understanding of group behaviour is important organizational moral and productivity.

ii/

iii/

iv/ Inter Group Le"el- "nter group relationships may be in the form cooperation or competition. O& helps to understand and achevie cooperative group relationships through interaction, rotation of members among groups, avoidance of win$loose situation and focuses on total group ob+ectives. $ODELS OF OB A*TO+RATI+ $ODEL$ "n an autocratic model, managerial orientation is towards power. !anagers see authority as the only means to get the things done, J employees are expected to follow orders. :o there is a high dependence on boss. This dependence is possible- employees live on the subsistence level. The organizational process is formal. The !anagement decides what is the best action for the people. The model is largely based on the theory x assumptions of !c<regor wherein the human beings are distasteful to work J try to avoid respeonsiblity. ( strict supervision is read to obtain a desirable performance from them. Aikert#s !anagement system can be compared with a model of O&. His system .exploitative authoritative/ in which motivation depends on physical security J some use of desire for status J better performance is ensured through +ear, threats punishment J occasional rewardsD communic' is mostly one. 0ay. i.e downward. There is little interaction s>w mangers J employees. The autocratic model represents traditional thinking which is based on the economic concept of the man. However, with changing times, its acceptability is to a limited extent. &ut t is still a useful way to accomplish performance. ,articularly where the employees can be motivated by physiological needs. This usually happens at lower strata of the organization. +*STODIAL $ODEL $ "n this model, the managerial orientation is towards the use of money to pay for employee benefits. The model depends on the economic resources of the organization J its ability to pay for the benefits. The employees are highly dependent on the organization. (n organizational dependence reduces personal dependence on boss. The employees are able to satisfy their security needs .!aintenance factors in case

of herzberg#s theory/. These maintenance factor provide security but do not provide strong motivation the employees working under custodial model feel happy get adequate rewards J organization security but their performance level is not high as are not given any authority to decide what benefits > rewards they should get. This approach is quite similar to patrimonial approach where the !anagement decides what benefits are best suited for the employees. Hence not a suitable model for matured employees. S*##ORTIVE $ODEL This model depends on managerial leadership rather than on the use of power or money. The aim of managers is to support employees in their achievement of results. The focus is on employee participation in managerial decision making process. The model is based on %,rinciples of :upportive relationships' of Aikert, which is the basic ingredient of his system F.participative/. "t is similar to the assumptions of !c <regor#s Theory K. The supportyive model is based on the assumptions that human beings move to the maturity level and they expect the organizational climate which supports this expectation. The organizational processes like communication, leacdership, decision making, interaction, control and influence help employees to fulfill their higher order needs like self$actualisation and esteem. The supportive model is best suited when employees are self motivated. Hence, the focus is not on the economic resources of the organization but its human aspect. !anager#s role is to help employees achieve their work rather than supervising them closely. This model is specially effective with nations with affluence and complex technology because it caters to higher$order needs and provides intrinsic motivational factors. "t is more suitable for employees at managerial levels rather than on operative levels. +OLLEGIAL $ODEL This model is an extension of supportive model. The term %=ollegial' refers to a body of people having a common purpose. "t is based on the team concept in which employee develops a high degree of understanding towards others and shares common goals. %@esponsibility' is expected out of the employees. 2mployees need a little direction and control from the management. =ontrol is through self disciple from the team members. The collegial model is conducive to self fulfillment J self$actualisation. "t can be more beneficial with unprogrammed work requiring behavioural flexibility and intellectual environment and +ob freedom. S:STE$ $ODEL "t is one of the emerging models of O&. Herein, there is a strong search for a higher meaning at work by the employeesD they want more than a pay check J +ob security from their +obs. They look for a work that is ethical, enfused with integrity J trust and provides an opportunity to experience a growing sense of community among co$ workers. To accomplish this, the managers demonstrate caring and a compassionate attitude and are sensitive to the needs of a diverse workforce. The role of a manager is to facilitate employee accomplishments through a variety of actions. "n turn, the employees realize and recognize the mutuality of company$employee obligations in a system model. There is a sense of psychological ownership for the organization and its products > services. The employees take a responsibility for their own goals and actions, hence are self motivated. Hence, the employees needs are higher$order needs .social, status, esteem, autonomy, self$actualisation/.

The various models .(utocratic, =ustodial, :upportive, =ollegial and :ystem !odel/ of O& are based on the assumption of the human characteristics and how they can work best. They are basically constructed around need hierarchy. (s the need hierarchy differs for different people, the same model cannot be used for all of them. The need hierarchy changes with the level of a person, level of his education, maturity level, personality factors and the type of work environment.

+!allen es and Opportunities for OB Respondin to Globalisation Organisations are no longer limited by national borders. !anagers have to be capable enough to work with people across cultures. &eing a manager, one needs to manage a wor&force which is different in needs, aspirations and attitudes. To work effectively with these people, one needs to understand their culture, how it has shaped them and how can the management style be adapted to suit their differences. $ana in <or4force di"ersit& 0hile globalization focuses on differences between people from different countries, workforce diversity focuses on differences among people with given countries . 0orkforce diversity means that organizations are heterogenous in terms of gender, race and ethnicity. The challenge for organizations, thus, is to make themselves more accommodating to diverse groups of people by focusing on their different lifestyles, family needs and workstyles, while at the same time not discriminating . This involves providing diversity training, and revamping benefit programs to accommodate the different needs of different employees. 3iversity, if properly managed, can increase creativity and innovation in organizations as well as improve decision ma&ing by providing different perspectives on problems. If diversity is not properly managed, it leads to a higher turnover, more difficult communication and more interpersonal conflicts$ I%pro"in @ualit& and #roducti"it& The managers often confront challenges to improve their organization#s productivity and the quality of products and services they offer. Cor this, they often have to implement programs of Iuality management and ,rocess @eengineering. ,uality Management .i/ &onstant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational processes. .ii/ "mprovement in the quality of everything that the organization does how the organization handles deliveries, how rapidly it responds to complaints etc. .iii/ 'ccurate measurement Iuality !anagement uses statistical techniques to measure the performance variables and then compare them with the standards > benchmarks. .iv/ !mpowerment of employees Iuality management involves the people in the improvement process. Teams are used in I! programs as empowerment vehicles for finding and solving problems. %rocess -eengineering helps managers to reconsider how work would be done and the organization restructured if they were starting over from the scratch. Respondin to t!e labour s!orta e 2conomic ups and downs are difficult to predict. "n 5668s, the labour markets were tight as the world economy was robust. "t was difficult to fill vacancies with skilled workers. "n E885, there was an economic recession lot of layoffs took place and hence the skilled workers were in plenty. "t is also predicted that there will be a labour shortage for atleast 58$57 years. "n the latter part of the E8 th century, there was a huge increase in the number of women entering the workforce which was a new supply of talented and skilled workforce. (lso, the older workforce seem to be less interested to work which can be attributed to improved pension plans, expanded social security benefits and a healthy stock market.

3uring labour shortage, good wages and benefits are not the only means to get and keep skilled employees. 4ewer recruitment and retention strategies have to be developed with the help of O&. I%pro"in custo%er ser"ice O& can contribute to improving an organisation#s by showing managers how employee attitudes and behavior are associated with customer satisfaction. The management should focus on creating a customer / responsive culture a culture in which employees are friendly and courteous, accessible, knowledgeable, prompt in responding to customer needs and willing to do what#s necessary to please the customer. I%pro"in people s4ills Techniques should be developed to design motivating +obs, to improve upon the listening skills and to create effective teams$ E%po<erin people There has been a complete change in the relationship between managers and the employees. (ecision making now happens at the operating level. 2mployees have started having a full control of their work. There is also a concept of self)managed teams wherein workers operate largely without bosses. &y empowering employees, managers are learning how to give up control, and employees know how to take responsibility for their work and make appropriate decisions. +opin <it! BTe%porariness= ?nlike yesteryears, %managing' today includes long periods of ongoing change , interrupted occasionally by short periods of stability. The workers need to update their knowledge and skills continually to perform new +ob requirements. 0ork groups are also in a state of flux. 2arlier, employees were assigned to a specific work group which was permanent. :o there was security in working with the same people. &ut now, work groups are temporary wherein members are from different departments and members keep changing and employee rotation is practiced to fill constantly changing work assignments. Organisations also continuously reorganize their divisions, sell$off poor performing businesses, subcontract non$critical services and operations to other organisations and replace permanent employees with temporary workers. The managers and employees should know to cope with temporariness, to live with flexibility, spontaneity and unpredictability. Sti%ulatin Inno"ation and +!an e The organizations should foster innovation, continuously improve their quality in order to beat competition. 2xample, The services of 3ominos has brought an end to a number of pizza parlours in the city. The challenge for managers is to stimulate the employees# creativity. Helpin e%plo&ees balance <or4 C life conflicts D The line between the work and non work time of employees has become blurred, creating personal conflicts and stress. This can be due to the following reasons +reation of lobal or aniAations D 2mployees are required to work EFLM. +o%%unication tec!nolo & D ,eople do their work from any place at any time. Lon er !ours put in by the employees. Dual'career couples as a result married couples have lesser time to fulfill commitments back home. :o, managers should help in making their workplace and +obs such that it helps the employee deal with work > life conflicts. I%pro"in et!ical be!a"ior 2mployees at times, face ethical dilemmas i.e. situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct. Cor example, :hould they follow orders with which they don#t personally agreeN :hould they uncover illegal activities taking place in the companyN $ana ers and or aniAations are tr&in to tac4le t!is proble% b& o 0riting and distributing codes of ethics to guide the employees. o $eminars, wor&shops, similar training programs to try and improve ethical behavior. o ,rovision for an in)house advisor who can be contacted .anonymously/ for assistance in dealing with an ethical issue. (lso, they provide with protection mechanisms for employees who reveal internal unethical practices.

Li%itations of OB Be!a"ioural bias D &ehavioral bias gives a narrow viewpoint to the employees that emphasizes satisfying employee experiences while overlooking the broader system of the organization. "t is more like a tunnel vision in which people have narrow viewpoints as if they were looking through a tunnel. The concern for employees can be so greatly overdone that the original purpose of bringing people together$ productive organizational outputs is lost. "t is wrong to assume that the ob+ective of O& is simply to create a satisfied workforce without worrying about customer service and productivity. 2qually, if a person is continuously concerned with production outputs without regard for employee needs is misapplying O&. &ehavioural bias can harm the employees as well as the organizations.Too much of care can make the employees dependent and unproductive. They may find excuses for failure and avoid taking responsibility for progress. They lack self discipline and self respect. T!e La< of Di%ins!in Returns The Aaw of diminishing @eturns is a limiting factor in O& as in 2conomics which produces negative results. "n O&, this law states that at some point, increases of a desirable practice produce declining returns, eventually zero returns, and then negative returns asmore increases are added. Cor any situation, there is an optimum amount of a desirable practice, such as recognition or participation. 0hen that point is exceeded, there is a decline in returns. Cor example, too much security may lead to less employee initiate and growth. Hence, or aniAational effecti"eness is ac!ie"ed not b& %a;i%iAin one !u%an "ariable but b& <or4in all s&ste% "ariables to et!er in a balanced <a&( *net!ical %anipulation of people D The knowledge and techniques of O& are at times used to manipulate people unethically as well as to help them develop their potential. ,eople who lack respect for the basic dignity of the human being could use O& for selfish ends and use people in unethical ways.

*ersonality ,ersonality is a concept that we use continuously in our day$to$day routine, when dealing with people. 0e talk about people as having a good personality or a bad personality or arrogant and aggressive personality. ,ersonality can be reflected in a person#s temperament and is a key factor influencing individual behaviour in organizations. Often the wrong type of personality of a superior proves disastrous in terms of worker unrest and protests. :alvatore !addi has defined personality as%,ersonality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and differences in the psychological behaviour .thoughts, feelings and actions/ of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment.' There are several aspects of this definition that need to be considered. The first aspect is that or relative stability of characteristics. These characteristics account for %consistent patterns' of behaviour. The second aspect is the %commonalities and differences' in the behaviour of people. 0e are interested in understanding as to what an individual has in common with others as well as what sets that individual apart from others. 2very person is in certain aspects, Aike all other people Aike some other people Aike no other person

,ersonality Types There are two types of individual personality Type ( and Type &. ( person exhibiting Type ( behaviour is generally restless, impatient with a desire for quick achievement and perfectionism. Type & is much more easy going relaxed about time pressure, less competitive and more philosophical in nature. :ome of the characteristics of Type ( personality are given below. "s restless, so that he always moves, walks and eats rapidly. "s impatient with the pace of things, dislikes waiting and is impatient with those who are not impatient. 3oes several things at once. Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time, irrespective of whether everything is done or not. ?sually does not complete one thing before starting on another. ?ses nervous gestures such as clenched fist and banging on table. 3oes not have time to relax and en+oy life.

Type & behaviour is +ust the opposite and is more relaxed, sociable and has a balanced outlook on life. Type ( behaviour profile tends to be obsessive and managers with such behaviour are hard driving, detailed$oriented people with high performance standards. Fi"e personalit& traits related to Eob perfor%ance 2xtraversion "ntroversion (greeableness 2motional stability Openness to experience. Cactors =ontributing to ,ersonality

(ccording to !aier, %knowledge, skill and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications of behaviour. Aearned modifications in behaviour are not passed on to children, they must be acquired by them through their own personal experience.' The probable consensus is that heredity and environment +ointly affect personality development. The full potential of a person may or may not be achieved due to environmental constraints and requirements, but the potential for development, both physically and psychologically is determined by the complex set of genes. The factors affecting personality development are illustrated as follows Heredity =ulture Camily 2nvironment ,ersonality :ocial :ituational ,ersonality 3imensions :ome of the more important dimensions of personality that are closely linked with interpersonal and organizational behaviour are discussed as followsAut!oritarianis%8 (uthoritarianism refers to blind acceptance of authority. (uthoritarian people believe in obedience and respect for authority. &ecause of their beliefs in hierarchical order, they make good followersD work better under directive supervision and more productive within authoritarian organizational structure. ( closely related term to authoritarians is %dogmatism' which refers to the rigidity of a person#s beliefs. Bureaucratic #ersonalit&8 ( bureaucratic persons respect for authority is not total and blind, but is based upon respect for organizational rules and regulations. ( bureaucratic person values subordination, rules, conformity, orderly processes in the organization and impersonal and formal relationships. $ac!ia"ellianis%!achiavellianism is a term associated with 4iccola !achiavelli, a sixteenth century author who identified personality profiles of noble men. This personality merges in manipulating others for purely personal gains and gaining and keeping control of others. ,eople with !achiavellianims have high self$confidence and high self$esteem. They are cool and calculating and have no hesitation in using others or taking advantages of others in order to serve their own goals. #roble% Sol"in St&le8 "ndividuals have their own style of making decisions and this style reflects their personality in certain ways. :ome people are very through, meticulous and detail oriented. Others are impulsive and become easily swayed by what seems to be obvious. The problem solving style has two dimensions. One is the information gathering and the second dimension is evaluation of data and taking of decisions. Curther, there are two styles involved in information gathering. One is known as :ensation and the second style known as intuitive style, The evaluation style also has two dimensions. One style involves more emphasis on feeling while the other involves more emphasis on thinking.

0hen the two dimensions of information gathering and the two dimensions of evaluation are combined, it results in four problem$solving styles. These are5. Sensation'feelin st&le. These people are dependable, friendly, social and approach facts with human concerns. They are pragmatic, methodical and like +obs that involve human contact and public relations. :ome suitable areas of +obs include teaching customer relations, social workers, and sales people. E. Sensation't!in4in st&le. They are practical, logical, decisive, and sensitive to details they also prefer bureaucratic type organizations. They are not highly skilled in interpersonal relations and are more suited to such technical +obs as those of production, accounting, engineering and computer programming. ). Intuition'feelin st&le. These people are enthusiastic, people oriented, charismatic and helpful. :ome of the professions suitable for this style are public relations, advertising, politics and personnel. F. Intuition't!in4in st&le. These people are creative, energetic, ingenious, and like +obs that are challenging in terms of design and analysis such as system design, law, research and development, top management and so on. Aocus of =ontrol Aocus of control is the extent to which the individuals believes that They control their own lives, or 2xternal forces control their lives, which are beyond their control. ( person with a strong %internal locus of control' believes that he controls events concerning his own life and that his internal traits determine what happens in given situation. ( person with a strong %external locus of control' feels that outside forces are affecting the events in his life and he is at the mercy of destiny, chance or other people. He believes that %whatever will be, will be' and everything happens by the will of <od. "ntrovert and 2xtrovert ,ersonalities "ntrovert persons are basically shy, they prefer to be alone and have difficulty in communicating. 2xtroverts are outgoing, ob+ective, and aggressive they also relate well with people. :elf$esteem :elf$esteem is the degree of respect a person has for himself. :elf$esteem is a measure of self$confidence and respect for one#s abilities and motivation. "t is also a higher level need in !aslow#s model of hierarchical needs. :elf$esteem is positively related to assertiveness, independence and creativity. T!e socialiAation process a/ Organizational socialization values, norms, behavior pattern. b? +!aracteristics of or aniAational socialiAation of e%plo&ees =hange of attitude, values and behaviour. =ontinuity of socialization over time. (d+ustment to new +obs, work groups and organizational practices. !utual influence between new recruits and managers. =riticality of early socialization period. :ocializing new employees ?se of mentor or role model Orientation and training program. @eward system. =areer planning. :uccessful organizational socialization includes

,rovide a challenging first +ob ,rovide relevant training. ,rovide timely and consistent feedback. :elect a good first supervisor to be in change of socialization. 3esign a relaxed orientation program. ,lace new recruits in work groups with high morals

E%p!asis on different c!aracteristics( (dministrative skills 0ork motivation "nterpersonal skill =reativity :ocial dominance !aturity "ndependence ,ropositions =hris (rgyris ". There is lack of congruency between the needs of healthy individuals and the demands of the formal organization. "". The resultant of this disturbance are frustration, failre, short time perspective and conflict. """. ?nder certain conditions the degree of frustration, failure, short time perspective and conflict will tend to increase. "O. The nature of the formal principles of the organization cause the subordinate, at any given level, to experience competition, rivalry, inter subordinate hostility and to develop a focus toward the parts rather than the whole. O. The employee adaptive behaviour maintains self integration and impedes integration with the formal organization. O". The adaptive behaviour of the employees has a cumulative effect, feedback into the organization and reinforces itself. O"". =ertain management reactions tend to increase the antagonisms underlying the adaptive behaviour. O""". Other management actions can decrease the degree of incongruence between the individual and formal organization. "H. ;ob or role enlargement and employee centred leadership will not tend to work to the extent that the adaptive behaviour .propositions """, "O, O and O"/ has embedded in organisational culture and the self concept of the individual. H. The difficulties involved in proposition "H may be minimized by the use of reality oriented leadership. ,ersonality Theories There are several theories but the more prominent among them are- .i/ type, .ii/ trait, .iii/ psychoanalytic, .iv/ social learning and .v/ humanistic. Type Theories Type theories place personalities into clearly identifiable categories. *retschmer and :heldon are credited with this classification. "n type theories relationship was sought to be established between features of face or body and personality. Thus, a short, plumb person .endomorph/ was said to be sociable, relaxed, and even temperedD a tall, thin person .ectomorph/ was characterized as restrained, self conscious, and fond of solitudeD a heavy set muscular individual .mesomorph/ was described as noisy, callous, and found of physical activity. (lthough a person#s physique may have some influence on personality, the relationship is much more subtle than this sort of classification implies. Thus classification of personalities on body basis is sub+ective. The second basis to type personalities is psychological factors. =arl ;ung, divided all personalities into intro"erts and e;tro"erts. These terms are normally associated with an individual#s sociability and interpersonal orientation. 2xtroverts are gregarious, sociable individuals, while introverts are shy, quiet and retiring.

+rait +heories Trait theorists assume that a personality can be described by its position on a number of continuous dimensions or scales, each of which represents a trait. Thus, we could rate an individual on a scale of intelligence, emotional stability, aggressiveness, creativeness, or any of a number of other dimensions. ,sychologists working in a area of trait theory are concerned with .a/ determining the basic traits that provide a meaningful description of personality, and .b/ finding some way to measure them. ,sychoanalytic theory is based on the in$depth study of individual personalities. ,ocial -earning +heory There are two ways of learning - Aearning through reinforce%ent direct experience and learning by observing others, also called vicarious learning. Cor social learning theorists reinforcement is not always necessary for learning. They believe that since an individual can make use of complex symbolic processes to code and store his observations in memory, he can learn by observing the actions of others and by noting the consequences of those actions. :ome of the person variables that determine what an individual will do in a particular situation include the following =ompetencies =ognitive strategies Outcome expectations :ub+ective value outcome :elf regulatory systems and plans The Humanistic (pproach The humanistic approach to the study of personality includes number of theories, although different in some respects, share a common emphasis on man#s potential for self direction and freedom of choice. =arl @ogers and (braham !aslow are credited with the humanistic theory of personality. @ogers# :elf Theory @oger#s approach to personality is described as phenomenological. Cor @ogers, behaviour is utterly dependent upon how one perceives the world that is, behaviour is the result of immediate events as they are actually perceived and interpreted by the individual. :uch an approach to personality emphasizes the self and its characteristics. "ndeed, this theory is often, referred to as self theory of personality because the best vantage point for understanding behaviour is from the internal frame of reference of the individual himself. !aslow#s :elf$(ctualisation Theory (braham !aslow is regarded as the spiritual father of humanism in (merican psychology. Humanistic psychology of !aslow radically differs from psychoanalytic and learning or behaviouristic theories. Humanistic psychology of !aslow, on the other hand, postulates man as self actualiser. &y self$actualisation !aslow meant the development of full individually, with all parts of the personality in harmony. 2xistential philosophy is concerned with man as an individual and each person alone is responsible for his own existence. This drive of man which is inherent in him, is called self' actualisation. F Also refer to B#ersonalit& T!eories D Gie ler= for Freud)s #ersonalit& t!eor&

(ssertiveness

!eaning of (ssertiveness 0ebster defines %assert' as %to state positively with great confidence'. "t is the extent of forcefulness a person .or leader/ uses with a view to express himself. (ssertiveness is a term meant to describe the extent of controlD the leader tries to exercise over both the followers as well as the situation. "t means expressing what you think or feel without endangering the ego of others. "t is saying what you mean and having self$respect and respect for others. (ssertiveness is a skill you can acquire not a personality trait. "t is an essential skill for a leader. The (ssertive ,ersonality (ccording to 0ebster#s Third "nternational 3ictionary, the verb %assert' means %to state or affirm positively, assuredly, plainly or strongly.' The assertive person possesses four characteristics5. He feels free to re"eal !i%self( Through words and actions he makes the statement %This is me. This is what " feel, think and want.' E. He can co%%unicate <it! people on all le"els with strangers, friends and family. This communication is open, direct, honest and appropriate. ). He !as an acti"e orientation to life . He pursues what he desires. "n contrast to the passive person who waits for things to happen, he attempts to make things happen. F. He acts in a <a& t!at !e respects !i%self( (ware that he cannot always win, he accepts his limitations. However, he always strives to make the good try so that win, lose or draw, he maintains his self$respect.

+!aracteristics of Asserti"e Be!a"iour 0hen we are assertive, we tell people what we want, need, or would prefer. 0e state our preference clearly and confidently, without belittling others, or ourselves without being threatening or putting other people down. (ssertive people can initiate conversation, can compliment others and receive compliments gracefully, can cope with +ustified criticism and can give it too. "t is a positive way of behaving, that doesn#t involve violating the rights of other people. (bove all, assertive behaviour is appropriate behaviour. This can mean that it is appropriate on occasions to be angry, or it can mean choosing not to be assertive in a particular situation or with a particular person. 5( #ro%otes eHualit& in !u%an relations!ip "t keeps both parties in all situations on an equal footing. "t confers personal power and restores balance of power. "t promotes win $ win situations in dyadic relationships.

.( Enablin us to act in our o<n best interests "t assists us to !ake decisions about career, relationships, lifestyles, time schedule. Take initiative in starting conversations, activities, groups Trust our own +udgment :et own goals and work to achieve them (sk help from others ,articipate socially /( To stand up for oursel"es <it!out undue an;iet&

0(

:aying %4o' :etting limits on time and energy @esponding to criticism, put$downs, anger 2xpressing, supporting or defending an opinion To e;press !onest feelin s To disagree To show anger, affection, friendship To admit fear or anxiety To express agreement or support

6( To e;ercise personal ri !ts( =ompetency as citizen, consumer, member of an organisation, company, school, workgroup. (s participant in public events to express opinions To work for change To respond appropriately to violations of own or others# rights. 1( 9it!out den&in ot!ers) ri !ts( To accomplish the above without unfair criticism of others without hurtful behaviour towards others, without name$calling, intimidation, manipulation and controlling. (ssertiveness- ,rinciples 0hatever your problem, there are certain basic principles for being assertive @eveal as much of your personal self as is appropriate to the situation and the relationship. :trive to express all feelings, whether angry or tender. (ct in ways that increase your liking and respect for yourself. 2xamine your own behaviour and determine areas where you would like to become more assertive. ,ay attention to what you can do differently rather than how the world can be different. 3o not confuse aggression with assertion. (ggressiveness is an act against others. (ssertion is appropriate standing up for yourself. @ealize you may be unassertive in one area, like business, and assertive in another area, like marriage. (pply the techniques you use successfully in one area to the other. ,ractice speaking up with trivia. "f you can say %<o to the end of the line' to a woman at the supermarket, you can eventually announce %4o " don#t want to do that' to your spouse. 3o not confuse glib, manipulatory behaviour with true assertion. ?nderstand assertion is not a permanent state. (s you change, life situations change, and you face new challenges and need new skills. Asserti"e Be!a"iours (ssertiveness is a set of congruent behaviours one can learn through persistence and practice. 5( T!in4 and tal4 about &ourself in a positi"e <a& "t may help you take time to compile a list of your qualities, gifts, and strengths. .( Feel co%fortable e;pressin !onest co%pli%ents Kou surely appreciate certain things about other people $ something they do, they wear, the way they work, what that say. /( Accept co%pli%ents <it!out e%barrass%ent

Others too appreciate certain things about you, and it is good that they express their appreciation through honest compliments. 0( E;press &ourself directl& and spontaneousl& The feelings you actually experience, and the thoughts you think worth expressing both positive, as well as negative, with due respect for the other person. 6( As4 for <!at &ou <ant =larify yourself about what you want and express it appropriately either as a suggestion or a request or a command, depending on the situation 1( State !onest disa ree%ent <it! ease 0hen you disagree with what someone says, stick to the issue without attacking the person. "f you are deficient in this behaviour, you may begin with small issues and gradually move on to bigger ones. 2( Be able to sa& BNo= :pecially so if you honestly think others take advantage of you. "n saying 14o# there is no need to be rude, neither is it necessary to give many explanations. !ake it clear that you are saying 14o# to the request, not to the person, and be ready to be misunderstood. 3( Insist on fair treat%ent This will often involve you and a person 1in charge#. 2xplore your alternatives- voicing your dissatisfaction in polite, firm terms may be enoughD if it is not, then increase the forcefulness of your expression. 0hatever the outcome you#ll feel better for having stood up for your rights. (nd recognise the limitations of the situation, that is, when you have done all you can, learn to live peacefully with the results. 7( Ieep in touc! <it! friends Oaluable friendships often decline because neither party acts to keep it going. 0aiting for the other to take the initiative does not always have the desired effect. 5J( Ta4e t!e first step in for%in ne< friends!ips Criendships are important. :o a reasonable thing to do is to take the first step when you meet someone you would like to know better. "f you wait for them to act, you assume they are capable of taking risks. @isks are risks no matter who takes them. (sk no more of others than you ask of yourself. =omponents of (ssertive &ehaviour Kou will recognize the following components of assertiveness <iving information :eeking information 2xpressing feelings (ccepting feelings =hange desired .in self or other/ (ssertiveness is a balance between being passive and aggressive. However, there are different types of assertionD different ways of expressing your own rights assertivelyState :our ri !ts- ( straightforward statement that stands up for your rights by clearly and reasonably stating your needs, wants, beliefs, opinions or feelings. As4 D T!e ot!er person - ( question or questions designed to clarify where the other person standsD what are his > her needs, wants, opinions and feelings. E%pat!iAe D Bot! parties- This is a behaviour that contains an element of understanding for the other person as well as a statement of your own needs and thoughts.

Le"el D Bot! parties- ( statement that openly explains the adverse effect a person#s behaviour is having on you. This is the strongest form of assertion and should only be used when the other types have been tried. Asserti"e Be!a"iour at 9or4 (ssertive behaviour in the workplace gives everyone a better chance of influencing the system and participating in changes. @elationships are more open and working climates are more genuine. Overtly aggressive or manipulative behaviour can bring immediate results, but credibility and integrity are put at risk. 0hen people feel defensive and have to use their energy for political maneuvering, everyone in the organisation suffers. ,eople behaving assertively make good line mangers. They will say clearly what they want, but equally be supportive of staff and take the needs of others into account. They can compromise and negotiate. The introduction of assertive behaviour into the workplace, whether it is a school, an office or shop floor, will probably involve an intense transition period. 2xpressing negative feelings or standing up for your rights can be interpreted as 1out of order# or 1insubordinate#. Often, unassertive people are 1institutionalized# and need a great deal of support before they can 1come out from under# and begin to value their role and appreciate that their participation is sought. (ssertive behaviour is so important to self$ esteem and proactive behaviour that it needs to be particularly supported and endorsed in young workers or school children and students. (dvantages of (ssertive &ehaviour +lose <or4in relations!ips- (ssertion tends to breed assertion, so people work more happily with us than against us. 0e are then, with their help, more likely to achieve our ob+ectives in a conflict situation. Greater confidence in &ourself - 0e develop a strong regard for ourselves and a high level of self esteem, reducing the chance of boastfulness .aggression/ and hopelessness .passive/. Greater confidence in ot!ers - 0e have a healthy recognition of the capabilities and limitations of others as opposed to seeing them as inferior .aggression/ or superior .passive/. Increased self responsibilit&- 0e take responsibility for ourselves, our wants, opinions, needs etc. rather than blaming others .aggression/ or excusing ourselves .passive/ Increased self'control- 0e can channel our thoughts and feelings to produce the behaviour we want, rather than being controlled by outside events or people, or inner emotions. Sa"in s in ti%e and ener &- 0e can take decisions more swiftly based on their individual merit and save time when handling disputes. ( lot of time and energy is wasted on worrying and scheming. "f we are not worried about upsetting people .passive/ or scheming how not to miss out .aggression/ then we can save ourselves a lot of stress. An increased c!an e of e"er&one <innin - (ssertiveness increases the likelihood that all parties will see their needs met, their ideas and opinions heard and considered and their abilities put to good use.

&locks Of (ssertive &ehaviour Follo<in are so%e of t!e bloc4s in t!e personalit& t!at are faced b& t!e indi"idual in bein asserti"e8 T!e ti%id soul( Kou allow yourself to be pushed around, cannot speak up, and remain passive in all situations. "f someone steps on your foot, you say, %"#m sorry.' 4o matter how great your timidity and irresolution, there is always a point from which you can start to change.

T!e person <it! co%%unication difficulties( (ssertion processes four behavioral characteristics. Openness and directness, honesty and appropriateness. Kou may be deficient in any or all three of these areas, but often you lack assertion in +ust one- Indirect +o%%unication( Kou tend to be wordy, a characteristic often accompanied by shallowness of feeling, lack of clear$cut desires, and difficulty with close relationships. - Dis!onest or pseudo asserti"e co%%unication( Kou seem to be open and honest, generally appropriate, often extroverted, but this seeming assertiveness hides a basic lack of honesty. - Inappropriate co%%unication( ?naware about the realities of social relations, you say what you think is the right thing at the wrong time. T!e split asserti"e. ,eople may fail at one area of assertiveness and succeed at another. Kou can be able to openly express your tender feelings and yet not be able to show your angry feelings and vice versa. ( man can be the epitome of passivity at the office, and behave like a tyrant at home. The range for split assertive behaviour can be very narrow. Kou may be assertive in a one$to$one relationship, but not in groups. "n general, the narrower the area, the easier it is to change with (ssertiveness Training. T!e person <it! be!a"ioral deficits( Kou can#t make eye contact or small talk, handle a confrontation, or start a conversation. These assertive skills can be learned. T!e person <it! specific bloc4s( Kou know what you should do, and have the skill to accomplish it, but your fears of re+ection, anger, scrutiny, criticism, closeness, tenderness, inhibit you from carrying out the action. :ou possess incorrect ideas( Kou don#t comprehend the difference between aggression and assertion. Kou know what and how of what has to be done, but question your right to do it. :ou !a"e a <ron concept of social realit&( Kou don#t understand that different kinds of relationships exist with different people. Kou think you#re supposed to treat a stranger as a friend. "t never occurs to you to treat the stranger as a stranger and the friend as a friend. :ou !a"e an erroneous idea of ps&c!olo ical realit&( Kou worry about worrying, become anxious about being anxious, not realizing that the life situation provides problems where anxiety is the appropriate reaction. :ou don)t rant independence to ot!er people( Kou think as long as you#re being reasonable, the other person should go along with you. &ut very often, the other person, because of his own needs, feelings, and hang$ups, +ust won#t. Kou feel that as long as you do the right things, you should win them all. "f you don#t there#s something wrong with you. @eality doesn#t work that way. Kou can demand a raise and deserve it, but the economic state of your firm may prohibit a salary increase.

(ssertiveness Techniques The Three techniques for (ssertiveness are !ental (i$*i$3o "nformation &uilding 2choing $ental Ai'Ii'Do This technique can help you to accept criticism comfortably without becoming defensive. (i$ *i 3o is a martial art. Oisualize a man holding up his hand in front of you. He asks that you to hit his upheld hand with your fist. 0ith all your force, you hit his hand. :ince he did not move his hand when you hit it, he stops the forward motion of your swing. (gain you are asked to hit his hand with your fist. This time, in a split second before you#re about to punch him, his fingers wrap around your fist. He then backs his hand away, while still holding on to yours controlling the force you +ust threw. He accomplishes two things. Cirst, by offering no resistance to your +ob, he feels no pain. :econd, by directing the momentum of your punch, he is in control of what#s happening.

?se mental (i$*i$3o .control/ when any negative feedback .mental fist/ comes your way. 3o not fight the feedback. "nstead, accept the feedback by allowing it to come to you. :tay in control by deciding whether you agree to what is said. Then you use your focused listening skills. Try your best to stay even tempered. Once you explode or hide, you start to lose control by giving in to the force. Infor%ation Buildin This technique will help you initiate and build relationships by sharing information about yourself. One of the ways trust is built between associates is by the amount of knowledge that is shared by and about each other. ,roviding information about yourself first will encourage others to share their thoughts and feelings with you. Kou do not have to discuss something of mutual interest. 4or should you restrict sharing information +ust because the other person has not disclosed much during your conversation. @emember, building relationships takes time. &efore meeting with someone, plan what kind of information would be appropriate to share. (fter sharing your thoughts and feelings, use humor and open$ended, non$leading questions to elicit feedback and to keep the conversation relaxed and flowing. 3epending upon how well you know the person and your own comfort level, start out with general information and work up to sensitive, need$to$know information. Ec!oin This technique will strengthen your ability to say %no' respectfully without regrets. ?se this technique only after exhausting these strategies- "nform whoever is requesting your services that you are unable to do the +ob as it is not into your priorities. - :uggest a more suitable person to take on the assignment. - "f appropriate, offer some assistance or time to help with part of the pro+ect or task. !ention other possible ways to complete the work. "f these strategies do not work, and you are still being ordered or intimidated to handle a request, then use the echoing technique. The technique is similar to an echo because you repeat what you desire. :tay composed and state over and over again what you wantD in the process, you will teach others that you are serious and determined. :ome people feel this technique is a rude one because it requires you to be domineering. The technique certainly is used to get your way, but it should not be used exclusively. 0hen it is inappropriate for you to budge on a certain point, the echoing technique will help you hold your ground with an associate, peer, supervisor, vendor, and even an irate and unreasonable customer. 2xpressing One#s Ceelings T!e follo<in are so%e of t!e points t!at are ta4en into consideration <!ile e;pressin asserti"e feelin s 5. Ino< 9!at :ou 9ant To Sa&8 Kou won#t appear confident if you are unsure of what you want. Kou could appear foolish by asking of something that you eventually realize is not what you want. E. Sa& It8 3on#t hesitate or beat about the bush, come right out with itP ,ractise before you say it and check for appropriateness. ). Be Specific8 :ay exactly what you want or do not want, so that there can be no confusion. &egin with the word %"'. 4o long explanations are necessary. F. Sa& It as Soon as #ossible8 3o not let too much time pass, as this builds up apprehension. On the other hand, do not say it at the peak of your anger. 0ait for that to pass. 7. Loo4 t!e #erson in t!e E&e8 ,eople feel more comfortable if you look directly at them. "f you simply look shifty and cannot look them in the eye, you certainly will not come across as someone who knows what they want.

9. Loo4 Rela;ed8 Kou#ll convey anxiety by shifting from one foot to another, waving your arms around, or conversely being too rigid. ,ractise looking relaxed in a mirror it#s not as contradictory as it soundsP M. A"oid Lau !in Ner"ousl&8 :mile if it#s appropriate, but if you giggle or laugh you won#t look as if you mean what you say. This will confuse the person you are speaking to. Q. Don)t 9!ine or be Sarcastic8 &e direct and honest. 0hining and pleading can either annoy the person or make them feel guilty. "t is being manipulative. &eing sarcastic, on the other hand, communicates hostility as you put the other person down.

,erception BIf e"er&one percei"ed e"er&t!in t!e sa%e <a&, t!in s <ould be a lot si%pler= '$oor!ead Griffin

"n its simple sense perception is understood as the act of seeing what is there to be seen. &ut the perceiver, the ob+ect, and the environment influence what is seen. The meaning of perception will be complete when all the three aspects are stressed. ( few definitions of perception are given below%,erception can be defined as a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environments.' %,erception includes all those processes by which an individual receives information about his environment seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting, and smelling. The study of these perceptional processes shows that their functioning is affected by three classes of variables the ob+ects or events being perceived, the environment in which perception occurs, and the individuals doing the perceiving.' ,erceptual ,rocess ,erception, as revealed by the definitions, is composed of six processes, viz., receiving, selecting, organizing, interpreting, checking, and reacting to stimuli. These processes are influenced by the perceived and the situation. ,rocess of @eceiving :timuli The human organism is structured with five sensory organs, viz., vision, hearing, smell, touch and tasting. There is the sixth sense about which much is speculated and nothing is known. 0e receive stimuli through the organs. :econdary organs receive not only physical ob+ectsD they receive events or ob+ects that have been repressed. 0e may not be able to report the existence of certain stimuli but our behaviour reveals that we are often sub+ect to their influence. :imilarly, stimuli need not be external to us. They may be inside also. ,rocess of :electing :timuli !yriads of stimuli seemingly clamour for our attention at any given time. 0e need to filter or screen out most of them so that we may deal with the important or relevant ones. Two sets of factors govern the selection of stimuli- external and internal. 2xternal Cactors "nfluencing :election The external factors influencing selection areNature- &y nature we mean, whether the ob+ect is visual or auditory, and whether it involves pictures, people or animals. Location- The best location of a visual stimulus for attracting attention is directly in the front of the eyes in the center of a page. 0hen this location is not possible in a newspaper or a magazine, a position in the upper portion of a page in more favourable than one in the lower portions, and the left hand side receives more attention than the right hand side. Intensit&- :timuli of higher intensity are perceived more than the ob+ects with low intensity. ( loud noise, strong odour, or bright light will be noticed more than a soft sound, weak odour, or dim light. SiAe- <enerally ob+ects of larger size attract more attention than the smaller ones. The maintenance engineering staff may pay more attention to a big machine than to a small one, even though the smaller one costs as much and as important to the operation. +ontrast- The contrast principle states that external stimuli which stand out against the background, or which are not what people are expecting, will receive their attention.

$o"e%ent- The principle of motion states that a moving ob+ect receives more attention than an ob+ect that is standing still. Repetition- The repetition principle states that a repeated external stimulus is more attention drawing than a single one. No"elt& and Fa%iliarit&- The novelty and familiarity principle states that either a novel or a familiar external situation can serve as an attention getter. 4ew ob+ects in familiar settings or familiar ob+ects in new setting will draw the attention of the perceiver. "nternal Cactors "nfluencing :election "nternal factors influencing selection of stimuli include learning, psychological needs, age differences, interests, ambivalence, and paranoid perception. These factors relate to oneself. Learnin - Aearning, a cognitive factor, has considerable influence on perception. "t creates expectancy in people. ,eople tend to perceive what they want to perceive. #s&c!olo ical Needs- 4eeds play a significant role in perceptual selectivity. ?nreal things often look real because of deprived needs. A e Difference- Older senior executives complain about the inability of the new young to take tough decisions concerning terminating or resigning people and paying attention to details and paper work. The young managers in turn complain about the %old guards' resisting change and using paper and rules as ends in themselves. 3ifferent perceptions of old and young executives are due to their age differences perceptions. Interest- The interests of the perceiver unconsciously influence perception. (n architect will notice many details of buildings that he passes only once. "t has been argued that, in their influence on perception, interests cannot be distinguished from needs. That is, the person with a particular interest has a need to involve himself in activities pertaining to it. Ket there is some value in conceiving the two as distinct. Once they have been satisfied, most needs no longer influence perception. &ut if the person has a special interest, his perception is likely to be selective at any time. A%bi"alence- (nother factor in perceptual selection is ambivalence or mixed feelings about a situation. #aranoid #erception- 0hen the person#s perception is so selective that he can find little common ground for communication with others, he is likely to be paranoid. The Organizing ,rocess The perceptual selection related to the discussion of external and "nternal factors which helped gain the perceiver#s attention. This aspect of forming bits of information into meaningful wholes is called the perceptual organization. There are three dimensions to the perceptual organization, viz., figure ground, perceptual grouping, and perceptual constancy. Cigure <round- Fi ure round is considered to be t!e %ost basic for% of perceptual or aniAation( T!e fi ure round principle states t!at t!e relations!ip of a tar et to its bac4 round influences perception( In ot!er <ords, accordin to t!e principle, percei"ed obEects stand out as separable fro% t!eir eneral bac4 round( #erceptual Groupin - The principles of grouping first defined by gestalt psychologists include similarity, proximity, closure, and continuity. #erceptual +onstanc&- ( more subtle part of perceptual organization is constancy, our ability to perceive certain characteristics of an ob+ect as remaining constant, despite variations in the stimuli that provide us with our information. :uch constancy amidst

changing stimuli is indispensable if we are to ad+ust to our world. There are several aspects of constancy such as shape, size, colour. The ,rocess of "nterpreting (fter the data have been received and organized, the perceiver interprets or assigns meaning to the information. "n fact, perception is said to have taken place only after the data have been interpreted. :everal factors contribute towards what has been interpreted. !ore important amongst them are ,erceptual :et ,reviously held beliefs about ob+ects influence an individual#s perceptions of similar ob+ects. This is called perceptual set. (ttribution (ttribution refers to the process by which the individual assigns causes to the behaviour he conceives. There are critics who argue that perceptual distortion occurs because of attribution. (s too much credit or blame for behaviour is placed on persons rather than on environment. Cactors such as status, intentions, and consequences influence the attribution process. Stereot&pin :tereotyping is the tendency for a person#s perceptions of another to be influenced by the social group to which the others belong. "n perceiving another, a person is likely to categories the other according to some silent characteristic such as sex, race, religion, nationality, occupation, or organizational affiliation. The individual#s experiences with others in the category in which he has placed them lead him to believe that they have certain traits in common. Thus, he is ready to perceive the other as possessing the same trait. Halo Effect The halo effect refers to the tendency of perceiving people in terms of good and bad, and ascribing all good qualities to one who is liked and all bad qualities to another who is disliked. #erceptual +onte;t The context in which an ob+ect is placed influences perception. The visual stimuli by themselves are meaningless. Only when the doodles are placed in a verbal context do they take on meaning and value to the perceiver. ,erceptual 3efence (ccording to the principle of perceptual defence, an individual is likely to put a defence when confronted with conflicting, unacceptable or threatening stimuli. The defence mechanisms put up by the perceiver may assume any of the four forms- outright denial, modification of the data received, change in perception but refusal to change, and change in perception itself. "mplicit ,ersonality Theory "n +udging and making inferences about others, an individual#s perceptions are influenced by his belief that certain human traits are associated, with one another. ,ro+ection ?nder certain conditions, people tend to see in another person traits that they themselves posses. That is, they pro+ect their own feelings, tendencies, or motives into their +udgement of others. This may be particularly true regarding undesirable traits, which the perceiver possesses but fails to recognize himself. The ,rocess of =hecking (fter data have been received and interpreted, the perceiver tends to check whether his interpretations are right or wrong. One way of checking is for the person himself to indulge in introspection. He will put a series of questions to himself and the answers will confirm whether his perception about an individual or ob+ect is correct or not. (nother way is to check the veracity about the interpretation with others.

The ,rocess of @eacting The last phase in perception is the reaction. The perceiver shall indulge in some action in relation to his perception. The action depends on whether the perception is favorable or unfavorable. The action is positive when the perception is favourable. "t is negative when the perception is unfavourable. Cactors "nfluencing ,erception The perceiver, the perceived and situation are some of the factors that influence perception. =haracteristics of the ,erceiver ( perceiver needs to have, past experience, habits, personality, values, and attitudes, which may influence the perception process. He should be someone with a strong need for ego satisfaction. =haracteristics of the ,erceived The physical attributes, appearance, and behaviour of persons in the situation also influence how a situation is perceived. 0e tend to notice the physical attributes of a person in terms of age, sex, height, and weight. =haracteristics of the :ituation The physical, social and organizational settings of the situation or event in question can influence perceptions. *erception and Organisational Behaviour "n an interview for the selection of a candidate, the interviewers# +udgement about the suitability or otherwise of a candidate depends on how his behaviour is perceived by them. ( re+ected applicant might feel that he was wronged by the interview though he deserved selection. &ut the fact is that interviewers generally form an early impression that becomes quickly entrenched. "f the inadequacies of the candidate are exposed early, they weigh against him in the final selection Specific applications in or aniAation 2mployment interview ,erformance expectations ,erformance evaluation 2mployee effort 2mployee loyalty !anaging the ,erception ,rocess Have a high level of self$awareness. :eek information from various sources to confirm or disconfirm personal impressions of a decision situation. &e empathetic that is, be able to see a situation, as others perceive it. "nfluence of perceptions of other people when they are drawing incorrect or incomplete impressions of events in the work setting. (void common perceptual distortions that biased in our view of people and situations. (void inappropriate attributions.

Fi"e reasons <!& a person %ispercei"es D Gal4ind and +ostello Kou are influenced by cues below your own threshold i.e., the cues you don#t know you perceived Kou respond to irrelevant cues to arrive at a +udgment. Kou are influenced by emotional factors, i.e., what is liked is perceived as correct. Kou weigh perceptual evidence heavily if it comes from respectable sources. Kou are not able to identify all factors, i.e., not realizing how much weight is given to a single item.

Learnin B :ou cannot teac! a %an an&t!in ( :ou can onl& !elp !i% disco"er it <it!in !i%self(= ' Galileo Aearning can be defined as a %relatively permanent change in behaviour or potential behaviour as a result of direct or indirect experience'. There are two primary elements in this definition that must both be present in order to identify the process of learning. Cirst is the element that the change must be relatively permanent. This means that after %learning' our behaviour must be different, either better or worse as compared to our behaviour prior to this experience of learning. The second aspect of the definition is that this change must occur due to some kind of experience or practice. This learning is not caused by biological maturation. Theories of Aearning There are four general approaches to learning cognitive learning and social learning. classical conditioning, operant conditioning,

=lassical =onditioning The most well known experiments on classical conditioning were undoubtedly conducted by ".,. ,avlov with dogs, and he established a :timulus$@esponse .:$@/ connection. This means that certain responses can be predicted which continuously result from certain induced stimuli. =lassical conditioning introduces a simple cause$and$effect relationship between one stimulus and one response. "t also makes the response reflexive or involuntary after the stimulus$response relationship has been established. This leaves no ground for making choices, which differentiates human beings from dogs. ?nder certain situations classical conditioning does explain human behaviour. Operant =onditioning Operant conditioning induces a voluntary change in behaviour and learning occurs as a %consequence' of such change. "t is also known as reinforcement theory and it suggests that behaviour is a function of its consequences. "t is based upon the premise that behaviour or +ob performance is not a function of inner thoughts, feelings, emotions or perceptions but is keyed to the nature of the outcome of such behaviour. This relationship is built around two principles. Cirst, that behaviour which results in positive rewards tends to be repeated and behaviour with negative consequences tends not to be repeated. :econd, based upon such consequences, the behviour can be predicted and controlled. Hence, certain types of consequences can be used to increase the occurrence of a desired behaviour and other types of consequences can be used to decrease the occurrence of undesired behaviour. Crom an organizational point of view, any stimulus from the work environment will elicit a response. =ognitive Aearning Aearning is considered as the outcome of deliberate thinking about the problem or situation both intuitively and based upon known facts and responding in an ob+ective and goal oriented manner. =ognition, in fact, is the act of knowing an item of information and this knowledge affects the behaviour of the person so that the information provides cognitive cues towards the expected goal. :ocial Aearning

"t is recognized that learning does not take place only because of environmental stimuli .classical and operant conditioning/ or of individual determinism .cognitive approach/ but is a blend of both views. "t also emphasizes that people acquire new behaviour by observing or imitating others in a social setting. "n addition learning can also be gained by discipline and self$control and an inner desire to acquire knowledge or skills irrespective of the external rewards or consequences. This process of self$control is also partially a reflection of societal and cultural influences on the development and growth of human beings. Transfer of Aearning &erelson and :teiner suggested that learning can be transferred from one situation to another and the extent of such transfer is a function of the extent of similarity in the stimulus or response. "f a person experiences a similar situation that he dealt with before, then some of his previous experience would be transferred to the new situation and his learning time in the new situation would be considerably decreased. There are two concepts that help in explaining the transfer of learning. These are as follows<eneralization 4o two situations are exactly alike. However, responses to certain situations can be applied to similar but different situations. &ecause of the principle of generalization, the individual can ad+ust to new learning situations more smoothly because of the previous learning experiences. 3iscrimination 0hile generalization is a reaction to %similarities' of stimuli or responses, discrimination is the ability to differentiate between relatively similar stimuli where generalization would yield negative consequences. ,rinciple of @einforcement @einforcement is the process by which certain types of behaviours are strengthened. Thus a %reinforcer' is any stimulus that causes certain behaviour to be repeated or inhibited. :ome reinforcers work by their application to a situation, while other reinforcers work by their removal from the situation. Thus these reinforcers work as behaviour modifiers. ,ositive @einforcement ( positive reinforcement is a reward for a desired behaviour. The reward should be sufficiently powerful and durable so that it increases the probability of occurrence of desirable behaviour. !oney is probably the most powerful reinforcement for positive behaviour, since money can be used for a number of other resources too. 4egative @einforcement (lso known as %escape conditioning' or %avoidance learning', it is also a method of strengthening desired behaviour. However, unlike the positive reinforcement where an employee works hard to gain financial and other rewards, under avoidance conditioning, the employee works hard to avoid repercussion, reprimand and other negative aspects of the organizational environment. 2xtinction This type of reinforcement is applied to reduce undesirable 1behaviour, especially when such behaviours were previously rewarded. This means that if rewards were removed from behaviours that were previously reinforced, then such behaviours would become less frequent and eventually die out. The method involved is a suitable form of punishment in the form of withholding the positive enforcement or simply ignoring the undesirable behaviour.

,unishment ,unishment is the most controversial method of behaviour modification and involves delivering an unpleasant consequence contingent upon the occurrence of an undesirable behaviour. The punishment process is similar to the extinction process in that both have the effect of decreasing and eliminating the undesirable behaviour, but technically there is a difference. "n the extinction process, we withhold rewards for behaviour that has previously been rewarded because the behaviour was not undesirable previously. The punishment process, on the other hand consists of %application' of an undesirable consequence or %withdrawal' of a desirable consequence for an undesirable behaviour, which has never been associated with the reward before. :chedule of @einforcement 0hile it is necessary to know as to which type of reinforcement would be most effective in a given situation, it is equally important to examine the various ways or %schedules' of administering these techniques of reinforcement. The various ways by which the reinforcement can be administered can be categorized into two groups. These are continuous and partial reinforcement schedules. =ontinuous :chedule ( continuous schedule is the one in which the desirable behaviour is reinforced every time it occurs and the reinforcement is immediate. This results in fast acquisition of the desired response and the learning is rapid. However the behaviour learned by continuous reinforcement strategy tends not to persist for which such reinforcement is applied less frequently. ,artial @einforcement :chedule ( partial reinforcement schedule rewards desirable behaviour at specific intervals. "t is believed that %behaviour tends to be persistent when it is learned under conditions of partial and delayed reinforcement. There are four kinds of partial reinforcement schedules. There are5( Fi;ed Inter"al Sc!edule "n this type of schedule, a response is reinforced at fixed intervals of time. .( Variable Inter"al Sc!edule "n this type of schedule, the reinforcement is administered at random times that cannot be predicted by the employee. /( Fi;ed'ratio Sc!edules "n a fixed$ratio schedule, the reinforcement is administered only upon the completion of a given number of desirable responses. 0( Variable'ratio Sc!edule "t is similar to fixed$ratio schedule except that the number of responses required before reinforcement is determined, are not fixed but vary from situation to situation. Aimitations of &ehaviour !odification 0hile in general, some of the behavioural modification techniques, as discussed previously are effective in eliciting desirable behaviours from employees in work situations, there are some limitations that make these techniques ineffective in certain situations. 5/ &ehaviour modification is an overall structure and ignores individual differences.,

E/ &ehaviour modification programs assume that extrinsic rewards are the key factors in behaviour modification and they ignore the fact that employees can be intrinsically motivated. )/ &ehaviour modification is that it ignores prevailing work$group norms. "t is important for the management to recognize the power of work$group norms. T!e si%ple rules of leanin are8

5. The capacities of learners are important in determining what can be learned and how long will it take to learn it. E. Te order of presentation of materials to be learned is very important. ). :howing errors is how to do something can lead to increase in learning. F. The rate of forgetting tends to be very rapid immediately after learning. 7. @epetition of identical materials is often as effective in getting things remembered as repeating the same story but with variations. 9. *nowledge of results leads to increase in learning. M. Aearning is aided by active practice rather than passive reception Q. ( passage is more easily learned and accepted if it does not interfere with earlier habits. 6. The mere repetition of a situation does not necessarily lead to learning. Two things are necessary %belongingness' and %satisfaction'. 58. Aearning something new can interfere with the remembering of something learned earlier.