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Purpose of Education

Miha Lee 1. Dewey, Hutchins and Adler are Philosophers. What is their method of knowing What do they add to the discussion of the purpose of education Philosophers Dewey !Progressi"ism # !Pragmatism# Hutchins !Li%eral education# !)ssentialism# method of knowing acti"e learning through concrete social e$perience such as pro%lem&sol"ing, disco"ery learning or in'uiry approach ac'uisition of knowledge of the most important su%*ects such as philosophy, history, literature, and art learning %y ha"ing e$periences to fully understand the su%*ect matter that re'uire e$periences the purpose of education (ocial, emotional, and mental de"elopment full e$periential growth of the indi"idual to meet immediate needs and desires of students Li%eral education De"elopment of intellectual powers to reali+e human potential ,mpro"ement of human %y help students understand, esta%lish, and li"e %y a hierarchy of "alues Pro"ision of the ha%its, ideas, and techni'ues that students need to continue to educate themsel"es throughout their li"es Promotion of political freedom or social reform %y de"elopment of understanding and *udgment .eneral and li%eral education Pro"iding ample opportunity for personal de"elopment Preparing students for the political duties and responsi%ilities of citi+enship with all the trained intelligence Preparing students for earning a li"ing, not %y specific training for specific *o%.

Adler !Perennialism#

Acti"e learning with the whole mind Didactic instruction, lecturing, and te$t%ooks -oaching, e$ercises, super"ised practice Maieutic or (ocratic 'uestioning and acti"e participation

/. Are the ideas of these three ali"e in schools today Where What concepts Dewey0s idea of social e$perience is still ali"e in science education where in'uiry or pro*ect %ased learning are emphasi+ed as learning method. 1he detracking of curriculum is another way to implement his idea. Hutchins0 idea of li%eral education is carried out %y imposing such su%*ects on elementary education and re'uisites on college education. Adler0 idea of curriculum %ased on standards e$ists in the 2ational )ducational (tandards. 3. Where do Dewey and Hutchins differ the most 4n what do they agree 5oth Dewey and Hutchins "iew organi+ed education as a tool of adaptation and

preparation of the indi"idual for future life. What they agree on is the primary purpose of the organi+ed education that is to prepare the young for future responsi%ilities and for success in life, %y means of ac'uisition of the organi+ed %odies of information and prepared forms of skill which comprehend the material of instruction. 1hey "alue the maintenance and reform of society %y pro"iding pu%lic education. 1hus, %oth of them acknowledge the importance of su%*ect matter, organi+ation of educational system, and guidance %y the mature !teacher#. Where Dewey and Hutchins differ the most is their "iew point of realm of school education. Dewey saw the goal of education as social&emotional&metal growth. 5y contrast, Hutchins only focused on intellectual training. 1hey also differ in their standpoint of the nature of human and society. Dewey thought of human to ha"e natural endowment to learn from his6her e$periences. (o, he stressed the student&centered learning. He critici+ed the traditional education as imposition from a%o"e and outside of adult standards and methods on those who are only growing slowly toward maturity. ,nstead, he suggested that students acti"ely participate in the de"elopment of what is taught. 7rom his perspecti"e, education is a de"elopment within, %y, and for e$perience. ,n addition, he saw the nature of society as change from a perspecti"e of relati"ism. 1hus, e"ery society has its own needs that re'uire different roles of its mem%ers as aciti+en. 1hus, he insisted that e$periences pro"ided %y schools should %e meaningful e$tensions of the normal social acti"ities of learners. He contended that we may re*ect knowledge of the past as the 8end9 of education and there%y only emphasi+e its importance as a 8means.9 He was concerned a%out the selection of kinds of present e$periences that li"e fruitfully and creati"ely in su%se'uent e$periences. )ducati"e e$periences should %e connected and organi+ed 4n the other hand, Hutchins sees that human nature is constant and functions as a free man the same in e"ery society. He focused on impro"ement of human as a free indi"idual, not a citi+en in a current society. .ood moral and intellectual ha%its are re'uired for the fullest de"elopment of the nature of man. Howe"er, he thought of the role of schools as dealing with only intellectual powers of men. 1he moral and spiritual powers are the spheres of the family and the church. He insisted that the intellectual power can %e impro"ed %y ac'uiring knowledge of the most important su%*ects including philosophy, history, literature, and art. Moreo"er, he %elie"ed that there is a hierarchy of "alues as a man in e"ery society. 4ur democratic society re'uires its mem%er to maintain his6her political freedom %y ac'uiring knowledge to impro"e his6her understanding and *udgment in social affairs. :. What does Adler recommend How does it differ from Dewey and Hutchins Adler contended that %asic schooling should promote the principle of e'ual educational opportunity %y pro"iding a completely on&track system of schooling. He also cared a%out the 'uality of education, critici+ing deplora%le deterioration of schooling. He pointed out the necessity of impro"ing the 'uality of %asic schooling for all and the 'uality of ad"anced schooling for some. (o, he suggested the idea of uniform standard which re'uires certain su%*ect matters as media for teaching uni"ersal 'ualities that promote metal and characterological de"elopment. He recommended a single, re'uired, 1/&year course of study for all, with mo electi"es e$cept foreign language. He also suggested that teacher education should pro"ide the same general, li%eral learning at ad"anced le"els for preser"ice teacher students. His idea of three different kinds of learning and teaching depending on the goals of education is totally uni'ue from the ideas of Dewey and Hutchins who insisted mainly one method. Adler is different from Dewey in that Adler denied incidental learning and student choice. Howe"er, Adler0s idea of acti"e, aided disco"ery learning is "ery similar to Dewey0s idea

of acti"e learning.